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1.
J Int Med Res ; 50(1): 3000605211070766, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994240

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between temperament and character traits in Cloninger's psychobiological theory and mental disorders.Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted of five international databases for all articles published in English between January 1990 and April 2019 (PROSPERO-CRD42019133214). Owing to heterogeneity, pooled estimates of correlations for personality disorders and standardized mean differences for case-control studies related to other mental disorders were calculated using the random-effects method. RESULTS: The pooled effect sizes obtained from 149 studies showed that high harm avoidance (related to 22/24 diagnostic categories), low self-directedness (21/23), low cooperativeness (17/23), high self-transcendence (14/23), low reward dependence (11/24), high novelty-seeking (10/24), low novelty-seeking (7/24), high persistence (2/23), low persistence (2/23) and high reward dependence (2/24) were related to psychopathology. CONCLUSIONS: All traits provided unique psychobiological tools for differential diagnosis of mental disorders. However, high harm avoidance and low self-directedness played a canonical role in psychopathology. Despite the study limitations, additional studies are warranted to evaluate the differential diagnoses suggested by the present model.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Temperamento , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Caráter , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade
2.
Zool Res ; 43(1): 14-25, 2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766477

RESUMO

Cattle temperament is an interesting trait due to its correlation with production efficiency, labor safety, and animal welfare. To date, however, its genetic basis is not clearly understood. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study for a series of temperament traits in cattle, assessed with via open field and novel object tests, using autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) derived from the whole-genome sequence. We identified 37 and 29 genome-wide significant loci in the open field and novel object tests, respectively. Gene set analysis revealed the most significant pathway was the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway, which may be essential for emotional control in cattle. Analysis of the expression levels of 18 tissue-specific genes based on transcriptomic data showed enrichment in the brain, with some candidate genes involved in psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases in humans. Based on principal component analysis, the first principal component explained the largest variance in the open field and novel object test data, and the most significant loci were assigned to SORCS3 and SESTD1, respectively. Our findings should help facilitate cattle breeding for sound temperament by pyramiding favorable alleles to further improve cattle production.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/psicologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Temperamento , Animais , Feminino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
3.
Appetite ; 168: 105686, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500015

RESUMO

Parental feeding practices shape infant eating behaviors and may impact obesity risk. For example, feeding on a schedule and using food to soothe have been associated with greater infant weight gain and future obesity risk. Most studies focus on parental determinants of feeding practices, but infant temperament might influence feeding practices parents select. Studies examining associations of infant temperament with parental feeding practices in early infancy are needed. Thus, the purpose of this cross-sectional, observational study was to test the hypothesis that infant temperament would be associated with use of food to soothe and feeding on a schedule. Mother-infant dyads (N = 98) from 3 parent birth cohort studies presented for clinic visits at infant age of 3-5 months. Mothers completed a demographic questionnaire. Feeding practices (use of food to soothe and feeding on a schedule) and maternal perceptions of 3 dimensions of infant temperament (surgency, orienting/regulating, and negative affect) were collected by survey. Spearman partial correlations were used to examine if any of the 3 infant temperament dimensions were associated with use of food to soothe or feeding on a schedule, adjusting for maternal marital status, race/ethnicity, BMI, infant age at the visit, and infant weight-for-length z-score. Greater perceived infant surgency/extraversion was associated with greater use of food to calm (Spearman partial r = 0.25, p < 0.05), but not feeding on a schedule (Spearman partial r = -0.11, p = 0.31). Greater perceived infant negative affect was associated with greater use of food to calm (Spearman partial r = 0.21, p < 0.05). Perceived infant orienting/regulating was not associated with either of the feeding practices examined. These results provide evidence that as early as 3-5 months of age, perceived infant temperament is associated with maternal feeding practices which influence infant growth outcomes.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Temperamento , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento Materno , Mães , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 430, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823586

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our aim in this study was to identify affective temperament differences utilizing the TEMPS-A in a large sample size of Lebanese patients with schizophrenia and compare them to healthy controls. Gender differences, demographic factors and degree of psychotic symptoms were also considered. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Psychiatric Hospital of the Cross (PHC) from March to June 2019. Two-hundred fifty chronic patients with schizophrenia were compared to 250 healthy controls randomly chosen from the general population. RESULTS: Patients with schizophrenia significantly had higher mean depressive, cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperament scores compared to healthy controls. Healthy controls significantly had a higher mean hyperthymic temperament score compared to patients with schizophrenia. In the group of patients with schizophrenia exclusively, females scored higher in terms of depressive, cyclothymic and anxious temperaments compared to males. In the group of healthy controls, males scored higher in terms of hyperthymic and irritable temperaments compared to females, whereas a higher mean depressive and anxious temperament scores were significantly found in females compared to males. In addition, higher PANSS total scores, as well as higher positive, negative and general subscales scores were significantly associated with higher depressive, cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperament scores.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Temperamento
5.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 533, 2021 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657124

RESUMO

Prenatal experience and transgenerational influences are increasingly recognized as critical for defining the socio-emotional system, through the development of social competences and of their underlying neural circuitries. Here, we used an established rat model of social stress resulting from male partner aggression induced by peripubertal (P28-42) exposure to unpredictable fearful experiences. Using this model, we aimed to first, characterize adult emotionality in terms of the breadth of the socio-emotional symptoms and second, to determine the relative impact of prenatal vs postnatal influences. For this purpose, male offspring of pairs comprising a control or a peripubertally stressed male were cross-fostered at birth and tested at adulthood on a series of socio-emotional tests. In the offspring of peripubertally stressed males, the expected antisocial phenotype was observed, as manifested by increased aggression towards a female partner and a threatening intruder, accompanied by lower sociability. This negative outcome was yet accompanied by better social memory as well as enhanced active coping, based on more swimming and longer latency to immobility in the forced swim test, and less immobility in the shock probe test. Furthermore, the cross-fostering manipulation revealed that these adult behaviors were largely influenced by the post- but not the prenatal environment, an observation contrasting with both pre- and postnatal effects on attacks during juvenile play behavior. Adult aggression, other active coping behaviors, and social memory were determined by the predominance at this developmental stage of postnatal over prenatal influences. Together, our data highlight the relative persistence of early life influences.


Assuntos
Agressão , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adaptação Psicológica , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Ratos , Estresse Psicológico , Natação , Temperamento
6.
J Affect Disord ; 295: 914-919, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Affective temperaments are regarded as subclinical manifestations of major mood disorders and cumulating evidence suggest their role in cardiovascular (CV) pathology. We wished to analyze associations between affective temperaments and severe coronary artery disease (CAD), as assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). METHODS: 225 consecutive patients referred to CCTA due to suspected CAD were included. Medical history and demographic parameters were recorded and all patients completed the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A). The severity and extent of CAD was evaluated by CCTA. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of severe CAD (≥70% luminal stenosis in ≥1 major coronary artery). RESULTS: According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, elevated hyperthymic affective temperament scores significantly decreased the odds of severe CAD (OR=0.92 CI: 0.84-1.00, p = 0.04), while independent positive associations were observed in case of dyslipidemia (OR=4.23 CI: 1.81-9.88, p = 0.001) and cyclothymic affective temperament scores (OR=1.12 CI: 1.02-1.23, p = 0.02). Furthermore, receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was used to define ideal cutoff values. Hyperthymic temperament scores >11 (OR=0.41 CI: 0.19-0.90, p = 0.03), cyclothymic scores >7 (OR=3.23 CI: 1.35-7.76, p = 0.01) and irritable scores >6 (OR=2.79 CI: 1.17-6.69, p = 0.02) were also independently associated with severe CAD. LIMITATIONS: Our study was limited by the cross-sectional design and the self-report nature of the questionnaires. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of affective temperaments might help to identify patients with elevated risk for severe CAD and subsequent need for coronary intervention.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Temperamento , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Humor Irritável , Inventário de Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
J Affect Disord ; 295: 967-973, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: affective temperaments have been so far understudied in the field of obesity. Therefore, we aimed to assess affective temperaments in outpatients with obesity reporting symptoms of binge eating (BE) and multiple weight cycling (MWC) and to investigate the likelihood of an association between affective temperaments and risk of both conditions. METHODS: A total of 300 individuals with obesity seeking treatment at the Obesity Unit of an academic hospital were asked to complete self-report measures of affective temperaments, BE, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and quality of life. RESULTS: Even in the absence of full-blown mental disorders, symptoms of anxiety and depression emerged in the sample; 197 individuals (65.6%) reported BE and 162 (54%) MWC. The most frequent affective temperament was the depressive one. Depression symptoms and cyclothymic scores (directly), and age and hyperthymic score (inversely) were significantly associated with BE risk, while being an active smoker (directly) and hyperthymic score (inversely) were significantly associated with MWC risk, after controlling for confounders in a multiple logistic regression. LIMITATIONS: sample size was small, the study was limited to a single center, no formal definition of weight cycling exists and MWC was self-reported. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial number of outpatients with obesity reported BE and MWC notwithstanding the absence of a formal psychiatric diagnosis. Cyclothymic scores were positively associated with BE while the hyperthymic temperament showed a protective effect on both BE and MWC. These findings suggest the need for multidisciplinary treatments for people with obesity enhancing research on temperament-based psychological interventions.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Temperamento , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Qualidade de Vida
8.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 79(9): 799-807, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Investigating predictive factors of reduced quality of life (QOL) of patients and their association with focal epilepsy can improve management and treatment strategies. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between affective temperaments, depression, anxiety, disease characteristics, and QOL and to explore the predictors of QOL in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and extratemporal lobe epilepsy (ETLE). METHODS: A total of 50 patients with TLE, 51 patients with ETLE, and 70 controls were enrolled. Affective temperaments were evaluated using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A). QOL was assessed by the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory were used to explore depression and anxiety severity, respectively. RESULTS: Compared with the controls, patients with TLE and ETLE had significantly higher scores on all TEMPS-A scales, except on hyperthymic temperament. All the SF-36 subscale scores were lower in the TLE and ETLE groups. Linear regression analysis revealed that depressive symptoms, anxiety, depressive and irritable temperament, and seizure frequency were significant predictors of QOL in TLE. Patients with ETLE with temperamental disturbances, depressive symptoms, and polytherapy had a poorer QOL. CONCLUSIONS: Affective temperaments, psychiatric disorders, and clinical factors may predict impaired QOL in patients with TLE and ETLE. Further studies are needed to identify predictors of QOL in various epilepsy subtypes.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Parciais , Epilepsia , Humanos , Inventário de Personalidade , Qualidade de Vida , Convulsões , Inquéritos e Questionários , Temperamento
9.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 136, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adults all over the world face serious issues from problematic smartphone use (PSU). It influences them negatively on a cognitive, behavioral, and emotional level, as well as on their tendencies and well-being. In Lebanon, the prevalence of PSU was shown to be 20.2% within the adult population, specifically with young adults (18-34 years old). This study investigates the validity and reliability of the Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS) Arabic version. In addition, this study evaluates the association between PSU and affective temperaments and the mediating role of self-esteem in this association. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried out between August and September 2020, using a sample of community-dwelling participants aged 18 to 29 years. The Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version was used to evaluate smartphone addiction among adolescents and adults. The five different temperaments of the patients were assessed by using the Affective temperament Scale (TEMPS-A). The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to evaluate self-esteem. RESULTS: 461 participants were included in this study. All items of the SAS were extracted and yielded a one-factor solution with Eigenvalues > 1 (variance explained = 49.96%; αCronbach = 0.886). The confirmatory analysis results consolidated those obtained from the factor analysis. Higher depressive temperament (B = 0.46) was significantly associated with more smartphone addiction, whereas higher self-esteem (B = - 0.28) was significantly associated with less smartphone addiction. Self-esteem was found to mediate the association between depressive and hyperthymic temperaments with smartphone addiction. CONCLUSION: This study added a better understanding of the high smartphone addiction rate among adults in Lebanon. It confirms the association between affective temperaments and PSU through the mediating effect of self-esteem on Lebanese adults.


Assuntos
Smartphone , Temperamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autoimagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 78(11): 1200-1207, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495285

RESUMO

Importance: Postpartum depression (PPD) affects as many as 20% of mothers, yet just 1 in 10 of these women receives evidence-based treatment. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased PPD risk, reduced treatment access, and shifted preferences toward virtual care. Objective: To determine whether an online 1-day cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-based workshop added to treatment as usual improves PPD, anxiety, social support, mother-infant relationship quality, and infant temperament more than treatment as usual alone. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial included 403 women with PPD who were recruited across Ontario, Canada, during the COVID-19 pandemic (April 20 to October 4, 2020). Women with Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) scores of at least 10 who were 18 years or older and had an infant younger than 12 months were eligible. Interventions: Women were randomly assigned to receive a live, interactive online 1-day CBT-based workshop delivered by a registered psychotherapist, psychiatrist, or clinical psychology graduate student in addition to treatment as usual (n = 202) or to receive treatment as usual and wait-listed to receive the workshop 12 weeks later (n = 201). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was change in PPD (EPDS scores) in experimental and wait list control groups 12 weeks after baseline. Secondary outcomes included maternal anxiety (7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire [GAD-7]), social support (Social Provisions Scale), quality of the mother-infant relationship (Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire), and infant temperament (Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised Very Short Form). Results: Participants all identified as women with a mean (SD) age of 31.8 (4.4) years. The workshop led to significant mean (SD) reductions in EPDS scores (from 16.47 [4.41] to 11.65 [4.83]; B = -4.82; P < .001) and was associated with a higher odds of exhibiting a clinically significant decrease in EPDS scores (odds ratio, 4.15; 95% CI, 2.66-6.46). The mean (SD) GAD-7 scores decreased from 12.41 (5.12) to 7.97 (5.54) after the workshop (B = -4.44; 95% CI, -5.47 to -3.38; P < .001) and participants were more likely to experience a clinically significant change (odds ratio, 3.09; 95% CI, 1.99-4.81). Mothers also reported improvements in bonding (B = -3.22; 95% CI, -4.72 to -1.71; P < .001), infant-focused anxiety (B = -1.64; 95% CI, -2.25 to 1.00; P < .001), social support (B = 3.31; 95% CI, 1.04 to 5.57; P < .001), and positive affectivity/surgency in infants (B = 0.31; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.56; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, an online 1-day CBT-based workshop for PPD provides an effective, brief option for mothers, reducing PPD and anxiety as well as improving social support, the mother-infant relationship, and positive affectivity/surgency in offspring. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04485000.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , COVID-19 , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Depressão Pós-Parto/terapia , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Relações Mãe-Filho , Psicoterapia Breve , Apoio Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente/fisiologia , Apego ao Objeto , Ontário , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Temperamento/fisiologia
11.
Dev Psychol ; 57(8): 1274-1290, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591571

RESUMO

This multistudy article examines whether children's susceptibility to their socialization experiences varies as a function of their dove temperament dispositions, an evolutionarily informed pattern of traits marked by a low threshold of environmental stimulation and greater behavioral flexibility across environmental contexts. Participants in Study 1 consisted of 70 mothers and their 4- to 6-year-old children: M age = 4.79 years; 57% girls; 33% Black or multiracial; 14% Latinx; median annual income range = $55,000 - $74,999. For Study 2, participants were 243 families, including mothers, fathers, and preschool children: M age = 4.60 years; 56% girls; 54% Black or multiracial, 16% Latinx; median annual income = $36,000). The studies used multimethod, multiinformant measurement batteries within a cross-sectional design (i.e., Study 1) or longitudinal design with three annual measurement occasions (i.e., Study 2). Study 1 findings indicated that associations among maternal parenting quality and psychological problems were only significant for children who were high in dove temperament. Consistent with these findings, Study 2 latent growth curve analyses showed that children experiencing high family adversity (i.e., maternal and paternal parenting difficulties, interparental conflict) were more susceptible to subsequent internalizing and social problems only when they were high in dove temperament. Supporting its role as a susceptibility factor, findings revealed that children with dove temperaments evidenced lower levels of psychological problems under supportive family conditions and higher psychological difficulties in adverse family contexts. Analyses further showed that the composition and moderating effects of dove temperament were distinct from other temperamental susceptibility candidates. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Columbidae , Temperamento , Animais , Criança , Educação Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Poder Familiar
12.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 138, 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with Substance use disorder have distinct personality traits, they were high score in novelty seeking (NS) and sensation seeking and lower in Self-directedness and higher in Self-transcendence, so we aim to investigate the relationships of temperament and characteristics with related some variables such as substance of choice. DESIGN AND SETTING: A case-control study enrolling 70 Substance use disorder patients and 70 controls was conducted at Mashhad University of medical sciences. METHODS: Using a case-control design, a group of 70 Substance use disorder patients and 70 controls was conducted at Mashhad university of medical sciences. All participation completed the 240 questions of Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R). Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was employed to compare the relationship between temperament and character traits and patterns of substance use. RESULTS: The scores of reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence were significantly lower in the case group compared to healthy individuals (P < 0.05). In contrast, the score of novel seeking was significantly higher in the case group (P < 0.05). On the other hand, harm avoidance was not significantly different between the two studied groups (P = 0.637). CONCLUSIONS: Higher NS in patients with substance use disorder is common and different traits, and temperaments would choose different substance combinations.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Temperamento , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Inventário de Personalidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
13.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(Suppl 9): 6-10, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559769

RESUMO

The notion of "mixity" of the dysphoric phases of the bipolarity includes the most insidious symptoms of the bipolar spectrum of mood disorders: the overlapping between depression-restlessness-irritability-grief-tension-anxiety can cause worsening of the mood disorders and in the most acute phases may cause increased risk of major behavioural disruption including murder and suicide. The "mixity" is a dynamic notion describing the presence of overlapping symptoms of mixed states, in an increasing intensity level. The early utilization of the rating scale on mixed states, "GT-MSRS", which can demonstrate the level of "mixity" of the mood disorder, can prevent this. Mixed states occur in an average of 40% of bipolar patients over a lifetime;when considering bipolarity the notion of the "mixity" becomes the conceptual reference point of the diagnostic process.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Suicídio , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Homicídio , Humanos , Transtornos do Humor , Temperamento
14.
J Psychol ; 155(8): 755-768, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555303

RESUMO

Research has demonstrated that both family environments and individual characteristics are associated with children's happiness. However, relatively less research has explored whether and how natural environments are associated with children's happiness. The current study examines whether the association between exposure to nature and children's happiness is moderated by temperament (negative affectivity and effortful control), whether there is a gender difference in the moderating mechanisms, and whether the detected moderation supports the diathesis-stress or differential susceptibility models. Four hundred and ten children and one parent of each child participated in our study. We found that boys' effortful control, not negative affectivity, moderated the association between exposure to nature and happiness. Furthermore, the results support the differential susceptibility model with boys' low effortful control as a vulnerability factor. Specifically, for boys with lower effortful control, a lower exposure to nature was associated with lower happiness, and a higher exposure to nature was associated with higher happiness than in boys with higher effortful control. However, girls' negative affectivity and effortful control did not moderate the association between exposure to nature and happiness. These findings suggest that the association between natural environments and children's positive developmental outcomes varies with their effortful control and gender.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil , Felicidade , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Temperamento
15.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579057

RESUMO

Maternal periconceptional diets have known associations with proper offspring neurodevelopment. Mechanisms for such associations include improper energy/nutrient balances between mother and fetus, as well as altered offspring epigenetics during development due to maternal nutrient and inflammatory status. Using a comprehensive food frequency questionnaire and assessing offspring temperament with the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (n = 325, mean age = 13.9 months), we sought to test whether a maternal periconceptional diet characterized by high glycemic loading (MGL) would affect offspring temperament using adjusted ordinal regression. After limiting false discovery to 10%, offspring born to mothers in tertile 3 of glycemic loading (referent = tertile 1) were more likely to be in the next tertile of anxiety [OR (95% CI) = 4.51 (1.88-11.07)] and inhibition-related behaviors [OR (95% CI) = 3.42 (1.49-7.96)]. Male offspring were more likely to exhibit impulsive [OR (95% CI) = 5.55 (1.76-18.33)], anxiety [OR (95% CI) = 4.41 (1.33-15.30)], sleep dysregulation [OR (95% CI) = 4.14 (1.34-13.16)], empathy [6.68 (1.95-24.40)], and maladaptive behaviors [OR (95% CI) = 9.86 (2.81-37.18)], while females were more likely to exhibit increased anxiety-related behaviors [OR (95% CI) = 15.02 (3.14-84.27)]. These associations persisted when concurrently modeled with the maternal-Mediterranean dietary pattern. In a subset (n = 142), we also found MGL associated with increased mean methylation of the imprint control region of SGCE/PEG10. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance of maternal dietary patterns on offspring neurodevelopment, offering avenues for prevention options for mothers.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Carga Glicêmica , Comportamento do Lactente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/etiologia , Metilação de DNA , Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico/etiologia , Feminino , Carga Glicêmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Lactente , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Gravidez , Fatores Sexuais , Temperamento
16.
FASEB J ; 35(10): e21922, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533879

RESUMO

Maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy (MPSP) is a known contributor to maladaptive neurobehavioral development of the offspring; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms linking MPSP with childhood outcome remain largely unknown. Transcriptome-wide gene expression data were generated using RNA-seq from placenta samples collected in a multi-ethnic urban birth cohort in New York City (n = 129). Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was used to characterize placental co-expression modules, which were then evaluated for their associations with MPSP and infant temperament. WGCNA revealed 16 gene coexpression modules. One module, enriched for regulation of chromosome organization/gene expression, was positively associated with MPSP and negatively associated with Regulatory Capacity (REG), a component of infant temperament. Two other modules, enriched for cotranslational protein targeting and cell cycle regulation, respectively, displayed negative associations with MPSP and positive associations with REG. A module enriched with oxidative phosphorylation/mitochondrial translation was positively associated with REG. These findings support the notion that the placenta provides a functional in utero link between MPSP and infant temperament, possibly through transcriptional regulation of placental gene expression.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Placenta/metabolismo , Complicações na Gravidez/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Psicologia da Criança , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Temperamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
17.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(6): 2379-2393, 2021 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516299

RESUMO

Purpose This project sought to develop consensus guidelines for clinically meaningful, comprehensive assessment procedures for people who stutter across the lifespan. Method Twelve expert clinicians and researchers who have written extensively about stuttering provided detailed descriptions of the type of data that they routinely collect during diagnostic evaluations of preschool children, school-age children, adolescents, and adults who stutter. Iterative content analysis, with repeated input from the respondents, was used to identify core areas that reflect common domains that these experts judge to be important for evaluating stuttering for varying age groups. Results Six core areas were identified as common components of a comprehensive evaluation of stuttering and people who stutter. These areas should be included to varying degrees depending upon the age and needs of the client or family. The core areas include the following: (a) stuttering-related background information; (b) speech, language, and temperament development (especially for younger clients); (c) speech fluency and stuttering behaviors; (d) reactions to stuttering by the speaker; (e) reactions to stuttering by people in the speaker's environment; and (f) adverse impact caused by stuttering. Discussion These consensus recommendations can help speech-language pathologists who are uncertain about appropriate stuttering assessment procedures to design and conduct more thorough evaluations, so that they will be better prepared to provide individualized and comprehensive treatment for people who stutter across the lifespan.


Assuntos
Gagueira , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Idioma , Longevidade , Fala , Gagueira/diagnóstico , Gagueira/terapia , Temperamento
18.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 130(6): 620-626, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553957

RESUMO

Over the past two decades, interest in the relationship between personality and psychopathology has resurged. However, the clinical problem of adult separation anxiety (ASA) has been largely excluded from this endeavor due to the age-of-onset criterion in older editions of the DSM that prohibited first-onset diagnoses in adulthood. This study tests relationships between ASA symptoms and higher- and lower-order personality traits in a community sample of 565 women. It accounts for systematic error by utilizing informant report, two personality inventories, and data from two time points over three years, and by adjusting for mood state. It also tests longitudinal ASA-personality models. Results indicate that ASA is robustly associated with negative emotionality and its facet of stress reaction, as well as with aggression, alienation, and absorption to somewhat lesser degrees. These relationships are not due to overlap with other traits (except in the case of alienation), or mood-state biases, and they are verified by informants. Moreover, negative temperament predicts greater levels of ASA three years later, adjusting for baseline ASA. Neither positive emotionality or temperament, nor positive emotionality's lower-order scales, were uniquely related to ASA in multitrait models, whereas relationships between ASA and disinhibition and constraint were inconsistent. These findings lay the groundwork for future research testing the mechanisms and causal links between these personality traits and ASA and may help clinicians anticipate traits that are associated with ASA in order to tailor treatments to patients' personalities. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Ansiedade de Separação , Personalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade , Temperamento
19.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 39(2): 196-201, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341241

RESUMO

Background: Multiple factors can affect early childhood caries (ECC). Maternal stress and child's temperament, as predictors of child behavior, are among factors that may be associated with ECC. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the salivary cortisol level of mothers as an indicator of maternal stress, child's temperament, and ECC. Methods: Ninety preschool children, who were divided into three groups of ECC, severe ECC (S-ECC), and caries-free (CF), were included in this study, as well as their mothers with no history of anxiety disorders. The salivary cortisol levels of mothers were analyzed using ELISA assay. Children were examined for the evidence of caries, using the decayed-missing-filled teeth index, based on the World Health Organization standard criteria. Child temperament was also assessed, using Cloninger's Preschool Temperament and Character Inventory, consisting of seven significant factors (cooperativeness, harm avoidance, novelty seeking, reward dependence, persistence, self-directing, and self-transcendence). Results: The association between the salivary cortisol level of mothers and temperament of children with S-ECC was positive although it was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Of seven temperament factors, only harm avoidance was significantly different between the CF and S-ECC groups (P = 0.016). Conclusion: Maternal stress and child's temperament were not associated with ECC. Based on the present findings, children with less harm avoidance may be more prone to S-ECC.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Hidrocortisona , Pré-Escolar , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Temperamento
20.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255750, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352033

RESUMO

This study's main goal was to evaluate the association between anxious temperament and the fear of COVID-19-related self-infection and infection in loved ones (family members, friends, relatives) and cyberchondria. The sample consisted of 499 men and women aged between 18 and 72 who were gathered from the general population via an online recruitment platform. A numerical rating scale comprising 11 degrees of fear was used to assess participants' COVID-19-related fear, and affective temperaments were evaluated using Akiskal's Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) scales. Cyberchondria was assessed using McElroy and Shevlin's Cyberchondria Severity Scale (CSS). Small to medium positive correlations were found between depressive, cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperaments and cyberchondria and between depressive and anxious temperaments and COVID-19 fears. However, no correlation was observed between the hyperthymic temperament and cyberchondria. Cyberchondria positively correlated with both COVID-19 fears scales, though the correlation coefficients were medium. Based on the results of linear regression analysis, only anxious temperament and COVID-19 fear of self-infection were significant predictors of cyberchondria. The analysis also revealed a significant indirect effect of anxious temperament on cyberchondria through fear of COVID-19 self-infection as a mediator between anxious temperament and cyberchondria.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Hipocondríase/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Temperamento
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