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1.
Infant Behav Dev ; 70: 101808, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36610269

RESUMO

Altered body composition in preterm infants is associated with risks to cognitive development, but the effect specific to prefrontal cortex (PFC) development is unknown. We were interested in the impact of fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) gains out to 4 months corrected gestational age (CGA) on PFC development, as indexed by working memory and temperament. This is a prospective observational pilot study recruiting 100 preterm (<33 weeks gestation), appropriate for gestational age, and very low birth weight infants, of which 49 infants met inclusion criteria. Body composition was measured using air displacement plethysmography at hospital discharge and 4 months CGA. Questionnaire based temperament assessments were completed at 12 and 24 months CGA and a working memory assessment was completed at 24 months CGA. Associations between developmental tests and body composition obtained at term and 4 months were analyzed. Increased FM at discharge was associated with increased fear and decreased soothability at 12 months. Increased FM at 4 months was associated with increased activity level, increased distress from limitations at 12 months and decreased attentional shifting, decreased frustration, and decreased inhibitory control at 24 months. Increased FFM at 4 months was associated with increased activity level at 12 months and increased impulsivity and decreased low intensity pleasure at 24 months. In this exploratory pilot study, increased FM out to 4 months and increased FFM after discharge are associated with negative markers of infant temperament. Infant temperament may be sensitive to body composition status at least to 4 months CGA.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Memória de Curto Prazo , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Temperamento , Composição Corporal
2.
Genet Sel Evol ; 55(1): 3, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Longitudinal records of temperament can be used for assessing behavioral plasticity, such as aptness to learn, memorize, or change behavioral responses based on affective state. In this study, we evaluated the phenotypic and genomic background of North American Angus cow temperament measured throughout their lifetime around the weaning season, including the development of a new indicator trait termed docility-based learning and behavioral plasticity. The analyses included 273,695 and 153,898 records for yearling (YT) and cow at weaning (CT) temperament, respectively, 723,248 animals in the pedigree, and 8784 genotyped animals. Both YT and CT were measured when the animal was loading into/exiting the chute. Moreover, CT was measured around the time in which the cow was separated from her calf. A random regression model fitting a first-order Legendre orthogonal polynomial was used to model the covariance structure of temperament and to assess the learning and behavioral plasticity (i.e., slope of the regression) of individual cows. This study provides, for the first time, a longitudinal perspective of the genetic and genomic mechanisms underlying temperament, learning, and behavioral plasticity in beef cattle. RESULTS: CT measured across years is heritable (0.38-0.53). Positive and strong genetic correlations (0.91-1.00) were observed among all CT age-group pairs and between CT and YT (0.84). Over 90% of the candidate genes identified overlapped among CT age-groups and the estimated effect of genomic markers located within important candidate genes changed over time. A small but significant genetic component was observed for learning and behavioral plasticity (heritability = 0.02 ± 0.002). Various candidate genes were identified, revealing the polygenic nature of the traits evaluated. The pathways and candidate genes identified are associated with steroid and glucocorticoid hormones, development delay, cognitive development, and behavioral changes in cattle and other species. CONCLUSIONS: Cow temperament is highly heritable and repeatable. The changes in temperament can be genetically improved by selecting animals with favorable learning and behavioral plasticity (i.e., habituation). Furthermore, the environment explains a large part of the variation in learning and behavioral plasticity, leading to opportunities to also improve the overall temperament by refining management practices. Moreover, behavioral plasticity offers opportunities to improve the long-term animal and handler welfare through habituation.


Assuntos
Genômica , Temperamento , Feminino , Bovinos/genética , Animais , Temperamento/fisiologia , Genótipo , Fenótipo , América do Norte
3.
Appetite ; 182: 106444, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592796

RESUMO

Children's media use has been found to be associated with obesogenic eating and obesity risk. Children's temperament and food parenting have been found to be important factors associated with children's eating behavior. The current study examined whether children's temperament and food parenting moderated the associations between children's media use and children's food approach behaviors. Parents (n = 214) of children between 3- to 5- years old were recruited to complete an online survey. Findings showed that children's temperament (i.e., negative affectivity and effortful control) and food parenting (i.e., coercive control) moderated the relationship between children's media use and children's food approach behavior. The results suggest that children's temperament and food parenting play important roles in understanding the relationship among children's media use and children's eating behavior.


Assuntos
Poder Familiar , Temperamento , Humanos , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Pais , Relações Pais-Filho , Comportamento de Escolha , Comportamento Alimentar
4.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(1)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36676739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) is designed to assess affective temperaments. The short version of the TEMPS-A (TEMPS-A-SV) has been translated into various languages for use in research and clinical settings. However, no research has been conducted to validate the Korean version of the TEMPS-A-SV in patients with mood disorders. The goal of this study is to evaluate the reliability and validity of the TEMPS-A-SV in Korean mood disorder patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional retrospective study, a total of 715 patients (267 patients with major depressive disorder, 94 patients with bipolar disorder I, and 354 patients with bipolar disorder II) completed the Korean TEMPS-A-SV. Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega were used to assess the reliability. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was also performed. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to examine associations between the five temperaments. The difference in five temperament scores between the gender or diagnosis groups was analyzed, and the correlation between five temperament scores and age was tested. RESULTS: The Korean TEMPS-A-SV displayed good internal consistency (α = 0.65-0.88, ω = 0.66-0.9) and significant correlations between the subscales except one (the correlation between hyperthymic and anxious). Using EFA, a two-factor structure was produced: Factor I (cyclothymic, depressive, irritable, and anxious) and Factor II (hyperthymic). The cyclothymic temperament score differed by gender and the anxious temperament score was significantly correlated with age. All the temperaments, except for irritable temperament, showed significant differences between diagnosis groups. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results show that the TEMPS-A-SV is a reliable and valid measurement that can be used for estimating Koreans' affective temperaments. However, more research is required on affective temperaments and associated characteristics in people with mood disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtornos do Humor , Humanos , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Temperamento , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Transversais , Paris , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inventário de Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , República da Coreia
5.
Dev Psychobiol ; 65(1): e22351, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36567657

RESUMO

Exposure to adversity is a well-documented risk factor for cognitive, behavioral, and mental health problems. In fact, the consequences of adversity may be intergenerational. A growing body of research suggests that maternal exposures to adversity, including those prior to childbirth, are associated with offspring biobehavioral development. In a sample of 36 mothers and their preschool-age children (mean child age = 4.21 ± 0.92 years), we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy to replicate and extend this work to include brain activation during inhibitory control in young children. We found that measures of maternal exposure to adversity, including cumulative, childhood, and preconception exposures, were significantly and positively associated with activation in the right frontopolar prefrontal cortex (PFC) and in the left temporal and parietal clusters during inhibitory control. In addition, and consistent with previous findings, children's increased negative affect and decreased effortful control were associated with increased right PFC activation during inhibitory control. These findings provide preliminary evidence that maternal and dispositional risk factors are linked to alterations in PFC functioning during the preschool years. Children of mothers with a history of exposure to adversity, as well as children who are less temperamentally regulated, may require increased neural resources to meet the cognitive demands of inhibitory control.


Assuntos
Mães , Temperamento , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Mães/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Fatores de Risco , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia
6.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 36(1): 60-66, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36449732

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: People and communities around the world face many crises, including increasing burdens from disease, psychopathology, burn-out, social distrust, and acts of hate and terrorism. Personality disorder is arguably both a root cause and a consequence of these problems, creating a vicious cycle of suffering caused by fears, immoderate desires, and social distrust that are inconsistent with rational goals and prosocial values. Fortunately, recent advances in understanding the biopsychosocial basis and dynamics of development in personality and its disorders offer insights to address these problems in effective person-centered ways. RECENT FINDINGS: Fundamental advances have been made recently in the understanding of the psychobiology and sociology of personality in relationship to health, and in basic mechanisms of personality change as a complex process of learning and memory. Promotion of self-awareness and intentional self-control releases a strong tendency for people to seek coherence of their emotions and habits with what gives their life meaning and value. SUMMARY: People have a strong drive to cultivate personalities in which their emotions and habits are reliably in accord with reasonable goals and prosocial values. Person-centered therapeutics provide practical ways to promote a virtuous cycle of increasing well being for individuals and their communities and habitats.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Temperamento , Humanos , Personalidade , Emoções , Psicopatologia
7.
Compr Psychiatry ; 121: 152359, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36495692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previously Cloninger's temperament traits have been researched as a risk factor for depression mostly in cross-sectional studies. In these studies, especially high harm avoidance has been associated with an increased risk of depression. The main objective of this study was to investigate how temperament traits affect the risk of the onset of depression in a previously mentally healthy adult population. METHODS: This study includes a follow-up period of 23 years from the age of 31 until 54 in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Study. Temperament was measured at the 31-year follow-up using Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). The outcome of the study was depressive disorder diagnosis during the follow-up in both sexes. To be able to take correlations between temperament traits we also did an analysis using temperament clusters. RESULTS: Our sample size was 3999 individuals, out of which 240 were diagnosed with depression. For women an increase in the TCI score for novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA) or persistence (P) increased the risk of depression during the follow-up. For men only HA was a significant predictor of depression. An increase in reward dependence (RD) was found to reduce the risk of psychotic depression. In the analysis using the temperament clusters, the cluster including shy and pessimistic individuals was associated with risk for depression diagnosis in men. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective general population-based cohort study added to previous knowledge of high HA being a risk factor for depression, but it also found new associations such as higher P and NS.


Assuntos
Depressão , Temperamento , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Transversais , Caráter , Inventário de Personalidade
9.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 832, 2022 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36575407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Up to now several subtypes of social anxiety disorder (SAD) have been proposed. METHODS: In the present study, we used a cluster analytic approach to identify qualitatively different subgroups of SAD based on temperament characteristics, that is, harm avoidance (HA) and novelty seeking (NS) dimensions of Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory. RESULTS: Based on a large, diverse clinical sample (n = 575), we found evidence for two distinct subgroups of SAD: a larger (59%) prototypic, inhibited cluster characterized by high HA and low NS, and a smaller atypic, and comparatively more impulsive cluster characterized by medium to high HA and increased NS. The subgroups differed regarding a variety of sociodemographic and clinical variables. While the prototypic SAD subtype suffered from more severe SAD and depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and reduced social functioning, the atypic NS subtype showcased higher reproductive behaviour, self-directedness and -transcendence, comparatively. Additional hierarchical logistic regression highlights the contribution of age and education. CONCLUSIONS: Our results valuably extend previous evidence for the existence of at least two distinct subtypes of SAD. A better knowledge of the characteristic differences in prototypic behaviour, personality, coping strategies and comorbidities between the identified (and further) subtypes can contribute to the development of effective prevention interventions and promotes the conceptualization of tailored treatments.


Assuntos
Fobia Social , Adulto , Humanos , Comportamento Exploratório , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Temperamento , Caráter , Inventário de Personalidade
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36497895

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, medical students were burdened with high levels of stress, anxiety, and depression. The objective of the present study was to investigate predictors of positive mental health among medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted an online survey from September 2021 to March 2022. We applied the snowball recruitment technique involving medical students from the University of Catania, Italy. We administered, anonymously, a questionnaire about demographic characteristics, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21), the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A), and the short form of the Mental Health Continuum (MHC-SF). Participants showed moderate anxiety, depression, and stress levels, and more than half had positive mental health status overall. This finding was inversely related to age, depression severity, cyclothymic, and depressive temperaments. Our results showed that medical students with depressive and cyclothymic temperaments were more at risk of worsening mental health status during the pandemic. Our findings may allow for further developments about the impact of personological characteristics on students' mental health to enable more efficient support for the most vulnerable.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Psicometria , Pandemias , Saúde Mental , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Temperamento , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade
11.
Dev Neuropsychol ; 47(7): 327-352, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36475997

RESUMO

We examined effects of maternal and child lifetime traumatic stress exposures, infant temperament, and caregiving quality on parent ratings of preschoolers' executive functioning (EF). Maternal lifetime trauma was associated with preschoolers' EF problems; this association was mediated by greater child trauma exposure. Infant temperament was associated with EF abilities, particularly among females. Among males, infant extraversion/surgency mediated the association of maternal lifetime trauma with poorer child EF. Caregiving quality was negatively associated with maternal and child trauma exposures but did not predict child EF. Findings have implications for interventions to identify children at risk for poor EF and optimize outcomes.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Temperamento , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Lactente , Humanos , Função Executiva , Família , Pais
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36497915

RESUMO

Depressive symptoms (DepS) associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) are influenced by affective temperaments (ATs), behavioral inhibition system (BIS), and behavioral activation system (BAS). However, the effect of interactions between ATs and BIS/BAS on DepS in MDD remains poorly understood. Herein, we aimed to investigate the effects of these interactions. The Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A), BIS/BAS questionnaire, and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) were used to evaluate ATs, BIS/BAS, and DepS, respectively, in 90 participants with MDD. Data were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression analysis to assess the interaction effect. The interaction (ß = 0.199, p < 0.05) between depressive temperament (DepT) (ß = 0.319, p < 0.01) and BIS scores (ß = 0.300, p < 0.01) exhibited a significant positive effect on DepS (ΔR2 = 0.038, p < 0.05). However, the interaction between ATs and BAS scores did not exhibit a significant effect on DepS. Our findings suggest that interactions between BIS sensitivity and DepT worsen DepS in individuals with MDD. Hence, to manage DepS associated with BIS sensitivity and DepT, evaluating their interaction may be useful in daily clinical practice. This study presents important insights into MDD psychopathology.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Humanos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Temperamento , Inquéritos e Questionários , Inibição Psicológica , Análise de Regressão , Inventário de Personalidade
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36497530

RESUMO

According to Cloninger's model, personality is conceptualized in temperament and character traits contributing to a child's psychosocial development. Additionally, parent-child interaction is important for the child's socio-emotional development. To date, the relationship between attachment and temperament and character for child mental health development and its effects on parents remains mostly unclear. The aim of the present study was thus to examine the relationship of attachment, temperament and character, parental stress, and mental health problems among 125 children (mean age = 7.14 years) in Switzerland. Temperament and character, attachment disorder (symptoms), parental stress, and mental health problems were assessed with psychometric questionnaires; attachment was assessed with an additional observational measure. Descriptive characters of the sample were presented, and group differences and correlations were computed. For temperament traits, results revealed significant group differences for novelty seeking and persistence and attachment disorder types. For character traits, the findings showed significant group differences for self-directedness and cooperativeness and attachment disorder types. Moderate effect sizes for groups differences were found. Further, the mixed-type (inhibited and disinhibited) and inhibited attachment disorder type were the most burdened groups. The present findings suggest that temperament and character traits, as well as parental stress and mental health problems are associated with the occurrence of attachment disorders among children. Future longitudinal studies with larger samples are needed to examine the causal relationships of temperament and character with attachment, including person-related and environmental factors among children.


Assuntos
Caráter , Saúde Mental , Humanos , Criança , Temperamento , Inventário de Personalidade , Psicometria
14.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276665, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36301820

RESUMO

This quasi-experimental research explores the relationship between participation in two-week summer camps and changes in children's altruism and self-esteem. Data were collected from 256 children aged 6 to 16 years. A self-reported altruism scale, a self-evaluation questionnaire and a temperament measure (EAS) were administered on two occasions either two weeks apart during the summer holidays or in class before and after the autumn holidays. The responses of 145 children attending summer camps were compared with those of 111 pupils. A significant increase in the altruism score was found between the pre-test and post-test in the camp condition, but no change in the children's self-esteem was found with the entire sample. Exploratory analyses suggest variables that may be associated with more favourable participation in summer camps; certain dimensions of temperament are among them, as well as factors related to the camps themselves. Differences in the increase of altruism and self-esteem scores in summer camp were observed according to the identified child profiles. The limitations of this work are highlighted before proposing perspectives for future research.


Assuntos
Acampamento , Emoções , Autoimagem , Criança , Humanos , Autoavaliação (Psicologia) , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suíça , Altruísmo , Temperamento
15.
Dev Psychobiol ; 64(7): e22323, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36282741

RESUMO

Temperamental risk, such as surgency, negative affect, and poor effortful control, has been posited as a predictor of externalizing symptom development. However, autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity underlying processes of reactivity and regulation may moderate associations between early temperament and later externalizing behaviors during early childhood. The aim of the present study was to examine how interactions between resting sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic (PNS) activity at age 5 may moderate associations between temperamental risk at age 3 and externalizing behavior at age 6 (n = 87). Results demonstrate different interactions between resting ANS activity and temperamental risk to predict externalizing behaviors. For children with lower SNS activation at rest, surgency was positively associated with externalizing behaviors. Negative affect was positively associated with externalizing behaviors except when there were either high levels of SNS and PNS activity or low levels of SNS and PNS activity. Effortful control was not associated with externalizing behaviors, though SNS and PNS activity interacted to predict externalizing behaviors after accounting for effortful control. Taken together, the results highlight the importance to examine multisystem resting physiological activity as a moderator of associations between temperamental risk and the development of externalizing  behaviors.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil , Temperamento , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Temperamento/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Sistema Nervoso Parassimpático
16.
Dev Psychobiol ; 64(7): e22324, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36282740

RESUMO

In childhood, higher levels of temperamental fear-an early-emerging proclivity to distress in the face of novelty-are associated with lower social responsivity and greater social anxiety. While the early emergence of temperamental fear in infancy is poorly understood, it is theorized to be driven by individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation to novel stimuli. The current study used eye tracking to capture infants' (N = 124) reactions to a video of a smiling stranger-a common social encounter-including infant gaze aversions from the stranger's face (indexing arousal regulation) and pupil dilation (indexing physiological reactivity), longitudinally at 2, 4, 6, and 8 months of age. Multilevel mixed-effects models indicated that more fearful infants took more time to look away from a smiling stranger's face than less fearful infants, suggesting that high-fear infants may have slower arousal regulation. At 2 and 4 months, more fearful infants also exhibited greater and faster pupil dilation before gaze aversions, consistent with greater physiological reactivity. Together, these findings suggest that individual differences in infants' gaze aversions and pupil dilation can index the development of fearful temperament in early infancy, facilitating the identification of, and interventions for, risk factors to social disruptions.


Assuntos
Pupila , Sorriso , Lactente , Humanos , Pupila/fisiologia , Medo , Temperamento/fisiologia , Afeto
17.
Dev Psychobiol ; 64(7): e22306, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36282751

RESUMO

Temperament in early childhood is a good predictor of later personality, behavior, and risk of psychopathology. Variation in temperament can be explained by environmental and biological factors. One biological mechanism of interest is the gut microbiome (GM), which has been associated with mental and physical health. This review synthesized existing literature evaluating the relationship between GM composition and diversity, and temperament in early life. Web of Science, PsycInfo, PubMed, and Scopus were searched, and data were extracted according to PRISMA guidelines. In total, 1562 studies were identified, of which six remained following application of exclusion/inclusion criteria. The findings suggest that there is an association between higher alpha diversity and temperament: greater Surgency/Extraversion and High-Intensity Pleasure in males, and lower Effortful Control in females. Unique community structures (beta diversity) were found for Surgency/Extraversion in males and Fear in females. An emerging pattern of positive temperament traits being associated with GM communities biased toward short-chain fatty acid production from a metabolism based on dietary fiber and complex carbohydrates was observed and is worthy of further investigation. To gain deeper understanding of the relationship, future research should investigate further the functional aspects of the microbiome and the influence of diet.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Temperamento , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Fibras na Dieta , Fatores Biológicos , Carboidratos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36294230

RESUMO

The objective of the current work was to examine the relationships between affective temperaments dimensions, trait anger, and the preference for rap music in a sample of Italian adults. An online survey was administered to 662 subjects. We assessed preference for rap music using a Likert scale. Ina addition, we investigated the sample' affective temperament traits using the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego (TEMPS-A) short scale and the trait anger by using the Trait Anger component of the State Trait Anger Expression Inventory 2 (STAXI-2). Multiple linear regression indicated that cyclothymic temperament score, hyperthymic temperament score, and trait anger scores were positive predictors while older age, and depressive temperament and higher education score were negative predictors of preference for rap music. The results expand previous literature on personality and music preference indicating the association of high energy/high activity temperaments and trait anger to preference for rap music.


Assuntos
Música , Temperamento , Adulto , Humanos , Inventário de Personalidade , Ira , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232158

RESUMO

Previous research illustrated that infants' temperamental traits shape parents' behaviors, but parents' behaviors can also elicit or intensify infants' behaviors in ways that shape temperament. One understudied aspect of parenting that may exhibit bidirectional influences with temperament is parent technology use (e.g., use of mobile devices) within family contexts. To date, few studies have examined whether maternal technology use is associated with infant temperament and whether age-related differences in these associations exist. The present study was a secondary analysis of pooled data from three infant feeding studies. Mothers (n = 374) of young infants (age 16.2 ± 6.2 weeks) completed measures of maternal technology use during infant feeding and care interactions, infant temperament, and family demographics. Maternal technology use was positively associated with negative affectivity and negatively associated with orienting/regulatory capacity but was not associated with positive affectivity/surgency. The association between maternal technology use and negative affectivity was stronger for younger infants than older infants, while the association between maternal technology use and orienting/regulatory capacity was not significant for younger infants but was for older infants. Findings suggest maternal technology use is associated with infant negative affectivity and orienting/regulatory capacity, but the strength of these associations may change with infant age. Further longitudinal research is needed to verify this interpretation and understand mechanisms underlying these associations.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Lactente , Temperamento , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mães , Poder Familiar , Tecnologia
20.
Iran J Med Sci ; 47(5): 477-483, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117574

RESUMO

Background: Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common type of cancer in the world. In traditional Persian medicine (TPM), various types of temperament (Mizaj) are considered to diagnose, treat, and prevent a variety of illnesses. The present study aimed to evaluate the temperament of patients with NMSC in comparison with a control group. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in 2018 at the Dermatology Clinic of Shahid Faghihi Hospital affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Shiraz, Iran). A total of 110 patients, aged ≥20 years with confirmed NMSC (case group), and 181 individuals without NMSC (control group) were enrolled in the study. The temperament of the participants in both groups was evaluated using Mojahedi's Mizaj questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS software, and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The results showed that the odds ratio of developing NMSC was 2.62 (95%CI: 1.42-4.83, P=0.002) times higher in individuals with dry temperament than other types of temperament. Moreover, the odds ratio of patients with a history of chronic skin ulcers and other types of cancer was 35.7 (95%CI: 11.9-107.15, P<0.001) and 5.22 (95%CI: 1.43-19.06, P=0.012) times higher, respectively, than the control group. Conclusion: Temperament is associated with NMSC, particularly the dry temperament type, and should be considered a risk factor.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cutâneas , Temperamento , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia
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