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1.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 430, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823586

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our aim in this study was to identify affective temperament differences utilizing the TEMPS-A in a large sample size of Lebanese patients with schizophrenia and compare them to healthy controls. Gender differences, demographic factors and degree of psychotic symptoms were also considered. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Psychiatric Hospital of the Cross (PHC) from March to June 2019. Two-hundred fifty chronic patients with schizophrenia were compared to 250 healthy controls randomly chosen from the general population. RESULTS: Patients with schizophrenia significantly had higher mean depressive, cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperament scores compared to healthy controls. Healthy controls significantly had a higher mean hyperthymic temperament score compared to patients with schizophrenia. In the group of patients with schizophrenia exclusively, females scored higher in terms of depressive, cyclothymic and anxious temperaments compared to males. In the group of healthy controls, males scored higher in terms of hyperthymic and irritable temperaments compared to females, whereas a higher mean depressive and anxious temperament scores were significantly found in females compared to males. In addition, higher PANSS total scores, as well as higher positive, negative and general subscales scores were significantly associated with higher depressive, cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperament scores.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Temperamento
2.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 533, 2021 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657124

RESUMO

Prenatal experience and transgenerational influences are increasingly recognized as critical for defining the socio-emotional system, through the development of social competences and of their underlying neural circuitries. Here, we used an established rat model of social stress resulting from male partner aggression induced by peripubertal (P28-42) exposure to unpredictable fearful experiences. Using this model, we aimed to first, characterize adult emotionality in terms of the breadth of the socio-emotional symptoms and second, to determine the relative impact of prenatal vs postnatal influences. For this purpose, male offspring of pairs comprising a control or a peripubertally stressed male were cross-fostered at birth and tested at adulthood on a series of socio-emotional tests. In the offspring of peripubertally stressed males, the expected antisocial phenotype was observed, as manifested by increased aggression towards a female partner and a threatening intruder, accompanied by lower sociability. This negative outcome was yet accompanied by better social memory as well as enhanced active coping, based on more swimming and longer latency to immobility in the forced swim test, and less immobility in the shock probe test. Furthermore, the cross-fostering manipulation revealed that these adult behaviors were largely influenced by the post- but not the prenatal environment, an observation contrasting with both pre- and postnatal effects on attacks during juvenile play behavior. Adult aggression, other active coping behaviors, and social memory were determined by the predominance at this developmental stage of postnatal over prenatal influences. Together, our data highlight the relative persistence of early life influences.


Assuntos
Agressão , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adaptação Psicológica , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Ratos , Estresse Psicológico , Natação , Temperamento
3.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 79(9): 799-807, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Investigating predictive factors of reduced quality of life (QOL) of patients and their association with focal epilepsy can improve management and treatment strategies. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between affective temperaments, depression, anxiety, disease characteristics, and QOL and to explore the predictors of QOL in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and extratemporal lobe epilepsy (ETLE). METHODS: A total of 50 patients with TLE, 51 patients with ETLE, and 70 controls were enrolled. Affective temperaments were evaluated using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A). QOL was assessed by the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory were used to explore depression and anxiety severity, respectively. RESULTS: Compared with the controls, patients with TLE and ETLE had significantly higher scores on all TEMPS-A scales, except on hyperthymic temperament. All the SF-36 subscale scores were lower in the TLE and ETLE groups. Linear regression analysis revealed that depressive symptoms, anxiety, depressive and irritable temperament, and seizure frequency were significant predictors of QOL in TLE. Patients with ETLE with temperamental disturbances, depressive symptoms, and polytherapy had a poorer QOL. CONCLUSIONS: Affective temperaments, psychiatric disorders, and clinical factors may predict impaired QOL in patients with TLE and ETLE. Further studies are needed to identify predictors of QOL in various epilepsy subtypes.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Parciais , Epilepsia , Humanos , Inventário de Personalidade , Qualidade de Vida , Convulsões , Inquéritos e Questionários , Temperamento
4.
J Affect Disord ; 295: 914-919, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Affective temperaments are regarded as subclinical manifestations of major mood disorders and cumulating evidence suggest their role in cardiovascular (CV) pathology. We wished to analyze associations between affective temperaments and severe coronary artery disease (CAD), as assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). METHODS: 225 consecutive patients referred to CCTA due to suspected CAD were included. Medical history and demographic parameters were recorded and all patients completed the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A). The severity and extent of CAD was evaluated by CCTA. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of severe CAD (≥70% luminal stenosis in ≥1 major coronary artery). RESULTS: According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, elevated hyperthymic affective temperament scores significantly decreased the odds of severe CAD (OR=0.92 CI: 0.84-1.00, p = 0.04), while independent positive associations were observed in case of dyslipidemia (OR=4.23 CI: 1.81-9.88, p = 0.001) and cyclothymic affective temperament scores (OR=1.12 CI: 1.02-1.23, p = 0.02). Furthermore, receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was used to define ideal cutoff values. Hyperthymic temperament scores >11 (OR=0.41 CI: 0.19-0.90, p = 0.03), cyclothymic scores >7 (OR=3.23 CI: 1.35-7.76, p = 0.01) and irritable scores >6 (OR=2.79 CI: 1.17-6.69, p = 0.02) were also independently associated with severe CAD. LIMITATIONS: Our study was limited by the cross-sectional design and the self-report nature of the questionnaires. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of affective temperaments might help to identify patients with elevated risk for severe CAD and subsequent need for coronary intervention.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Temperamento , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Humor Irritável , Inventário de Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
J Affect Disord ; 295: 967-973, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: affective temperaments have been so far understudied in the field of obesity. Therefore, we aimed to assess affective temperaments in outpatients with obesity reporting symptoms of binge eating (BE) and multiple weight cycling (MWC) and to investigate the likelihood of an association between affective temperaments and risk of both conditions. METHODS: A total of 300 individuals with obesity seeking treatment at the Obesity Unit of an academic hospital were asked to complete self-report measures of affective temperaments, BE, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and quality of life. RESULTS: Even in the absence of full-blown mental disorders, symptoms of anxiety and depression emerged in the sample; 197 individuals (65.6%) reported BE and 162 (54%) MWC. The most frequent affective temperament was the depressive one. Depression symptoms and cyclothymic scores (directly), and age and hyperthymic score (inversely) were significantly associated with BE risk, while being an active smoker (directly) and hyperthymic score (inversely) were significantly associated with MWC risk, after controlling for confounders in a multiple logistic regression. LIMITATIONS: sample size was small, the study was limited to a single center, no formal definition of weight cycling exists and MWC was self-reported. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial number of outpatients with obesity reported BE and MWC notwithstanding the absence of a formal psychiatric diagnosis. Cyclothymic scores were positively associated with BE while the hyperthymic temperament showed a protective effect on both BE and MWC. These findings suggest the need for multidisciplinary treatments for people with obesity enhancing research on temperament-based psychological interventions.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Temperamento , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Qualidade de Vida
6.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 136, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adults all over the world face serious issues from problematic smartphone use (PSU). It influences them negatively on a cognitive, behavioral, and emotional level, as well as on their tendencies and well-being. In Lebanon, the prevalence of PSU was shown to be 20.2% within the adult population, specifically with young adults (18-34 years old). This study investigates the validity and reliability of the Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS) Arabic version. In addition, this study evaluates the association between PSU and affective temperaments and the mediating role of self-esteem in this association. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried out between August and September 2020, using a sample of community-dwelling participants aged 18 to 29 years. The Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version was used to evaluate smartphone addiction among adolescents and adults. The five different temperaments of the patients were assessed by using the Affective temperament Scale (TEMPS-A). The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to evaluate self-esteem. RESULTS: 461 participants were included in this study. All items of the SAS were extracted and yielded a one-factor solution with Eigenvalues > 1 (variance explained = 49.96%; αCronbach = 0.886). The confirmatory analysis results consolidated those obtained from the factor analysis. Higher depressive temperament (B = 0.46) was significantly associated with more smartphone addiction, whereas higher self-esteem (B = - 0.28) was significantly associated with less smartphone addiction. Self-esteem was found to mediate the association between depressive and hyperthymic temperaments with smartphone addiction. CONCLUSION: This study added a better understanding of the high smartphone addiction rate among adults in Lebanon. It confirms the association between affective temperaments and PSU through the mediating effect of self-esteem on Lebanese adults.


Assuntos
Smartphone , Temperamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autoimagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 138, 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with Substance use disorder have distinct personality traits, they were high score in novelty seeking (NS) and sensation seeking and lower in Self-directedness and higher in Self-transcendence, so we aim to investigate the relationships of temperament and characteristics with related some variables such as substance of choice. DESIGN AND SETTING: A case-control study enrolling 70 Substance use disorder patients and 70 controls was conducted at Mashhad University of medical sciences. METHODS: Using a case-control design, a group of 70 Substance use disorder patients and 70 controls was conducted at Mashhad university of medical sciences. All participation completed the 240 questions of Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R). Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was employed to compare the relationship between temperament and character traits and patterns of substance use. RESULTS: The scores of reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence were significantly lower in the case group compared to healthy individuals (P < 0.05). In contrast, the score of novel seeking was significantly higher in the case group (P < 0.05). On the other hand, harm avoidance was not significantly different between the two studied groups (P = 0.637). CONCLUSIONS: Higher NS in patients with substance use disorder is common and different traits, and temperaments would choose different substance combinations.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Temperamento , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Inventário de Personalidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
8.
Dev Psychol ; 57(8): 1274-1290, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591571

RESUMO

This multistudy article examines whether children's susceptibility to their socialization experiences varies as a function of their dove temperament dispositions, an evolutionarily informed pattern of traits marked by a low threshold of environmental stimulation and greater behavioral flexibility across environmental contexts. Participants in Study 1 consisted of 70 mothers and their 4- to 6-year-old children: M age = 4.79 years; 57% girls; 33% Black or multiracial; 14% Latinx; median annual income range = $55,000 - $74,999. For Study 2, participants were 243 families, including mothers, fathers, and preschool children: M age = 4.60 years; 56% girls; 54% Black or multiracial, 16% Latinx; median annual income = $36,000). The studies used multimethod, multiinformant measurement batteries within a cross-sectional design (i.e., Study 1) or longitudinal design with three annual measurement occasions (i.e., Study 2). Study 1 findings indicated that associations among maternal parenting quality and psychological problems were only significant for children who were high in dove temperament. Consistent with these findings, Study 2 latent growth curve analyses showed that children experiencing high family adversity (i.e., maternal and paternal parenting difficulties, interparental conflict) were more susceptible to subsequent internalizing and social problems only when they were high in dove temperament. Supporting its role as a susceptibility factor, findings revealed that children with dove temperaments evidenced lower levels of psychological problems under supportive family conditions and higher psychological difficulties in adverse family contexts. Analyses further showed that the composition and moderating effects of dove temperament were distinct from other temperamental susceptibility candidates. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Columbidae , Temperamento , Animais , Criança , Educação Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Poder Familiar
9.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(Suppl 9): 6-10, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559769

RESUMO

The notion of "mixity" of the dysphoric phases of the bipolarity includes the most insidious symptoms of the bipolar spectrum of mood disorders: the overlapping between depression-restlessness-irritability-grief-tension-anxiety can cause worsening of the mood disorders and in the most acute phases may cause increased risk of major behavioural disruption including murder and suicide. The "mixity" is a dynamic notion describing the presence of overlapping symptoms of mixed states, in an increasing intensity level. The early utilization of the rating scale on mixed states, "GT-MSRS", which can demonstrate the level of "mixity" of the mood disorder, can prevent this. Mixed states occur in an average of 40% of bipolar patients over a lifetime;when considering bipolarity the notion of the "mixity" becomes the conceptual reference point of the diagnostic process.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Suicídio , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Homicídio , Humanos , Transtornos do Humor , Temperamento
10.
J Psychol ; 155(8): 755-768, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555303

RESUMO

Research has demonstrated that both family environments and individual characteristics are associated with children's happiness. However, relatively less research has explored whether and how natural environments are associated with children's happiness. The current study examines whether the association between exposure to nature and children's happiness is moderated by temperament (negative affectivity and effortful control), whether there is a gender difference in the moderating mechanisms, and whether the detected moderation supports the diathesis-stress or differential susceptibility models. Four hundred and ten children and one parent of each child participated in our study. We found that boys' effortful control, not negative affectivity, moderated the association between exposure to nature and happiness. Furthermore, the results support the differential susceptibility model with boys' low effortful control as a vulnerability factor. Specifically, for boys with lower effortful control, a lower exposure to nature was associated with lower happiness, and a higher exposure to nature was associated with higher happiness than in boys with higher effortful control. However, girls' negative affectivity and effortful control did not moderate the association between exposure to nature and happiness. These findings suggest that the association between natural environments and children's positive developmental outcomes varies with their effortful control and gender.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil , Felicidade , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Temperamento
11.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(6): 2379-2393, 2021 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516299

RESUMO

Purpose This project sought to develop consensus guidelines for clinically meaningful, comprehensive assessment procedures for people who stutter across the lifespan. Method Twelve expert clinicians and researchers who have written extensively about stuttering provided detailed descriptions of the type of data that they routinely collect during diagnostic evaluations of preschool children, school-age children, adolescents, and adults who stutter. Iterative content analysis, with repeated input from the respondents, was used to identify core areas that reflect common domains that these experts judge to be important for evaluating stuttering for varying age groups. Results Six core areas were identified as common components of a comprehensive evaluation of stuttering and people who stutter. These areas should be included to varying degrees depending upon the age and needs of the client or family. The core areas include the following: (a) stuttering-related background information; (b) speech, language, and temperament development (especially for younger clients); (c) speech fluency and stuttering behaviors; (d) reactions to stuttering by the speaker; (e) reactions to stuttering by people in the speaker's environment; and (f) adverse impact caused by stuttering. Discussion These consensus recommendations can help speech-language pathologists who are uncertain about appropriate stuttering assessment procedures to design and conduct more thorough evaluations, so that they will be better prepared to provide individualized and comprehensive treatment for people who stutter across the lifespan.


Assuntos
Gagueira , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Idioma , Longevidade , Fala , Gagueira/diagnóstico , Gagueira/terapia , Temperamento
12.
FASEB J ; 35(10): e21922, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533879

RESUMO

Maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy (MPSP) is a known contributor to maladaptive neurobehavioral development of the offspring; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms linking MPSP with childhood outcome remain largely unknown. Transcriptome-wide gene expression data were generated using RNA-seq from placenta samples collected in a multi-ethnic urban birth cohort in New York City (n = 129). Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was used to characterize placental co-expression modules, which were then evaluated for their associations with MPSP and infant temperament. WGCNA revealed 16 gene coexpression modules. One module, enriched for regulation of chromosome organization/gene expression, was positively associated with MPSP and negatively associated with Regulatory Capacity (REG), a component of infant temperament. Two other modules, enriched for cotranslational protein targeting and cell cycle regulation, respectively, displayed negative associations with MPSP and positive associations with REG. A module enriched with oxidative phosphorylation/mitochondrial translation was positively associated with REG. These findings support the notion that the placenta provides a functional in utero link between MPSP and infant temperament, possibly through transcriptional regulation of placental gene expression.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Placenta/metabolismo , Complicações na Gravidez/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Psicologia da Criança , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Temperamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
13.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 78(11): 1200-1207, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495285

RESUMO

Importance: Postpartum depression (PPD) affects as many as 20% of mothers, yet just 1 in 10 of these women receives evidence-based treatment. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased PPD risk, reduced treatment access, and shifted preferences toward virtual care. Objective: To determine whether an online 1-day cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-based workshop added to treatment as usual improves PPD, anxiety, social support, mother-infant relationship quality, and infant temperament more than treatment as usual alone. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial included 403 women with PPD who were recruited across Ontario, Canada, during the COVID-19 pandemic (April 20 to October 4, 2020). Women with Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) scores of at least 10 who were 18 years or older and had an infant younger than 12 months were eligible. Interventions: Women were randomly assigned to receive a live, interactive online 1-day CBT-based workshop delivered by a registered psychotherapist, psychiatrist, or clinical psychology graduate student in addition to treatment as usual (n = 202) or to receive treatment as usual and wait-listed to receive the workshop 12 weeks later (n = 201). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was change in PPD (EPDS scores) in experimental and wait list control groups 12 weeks after baseline. Secondary outcomes included maternal anxiety (7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire [GAD-7]), social support (Social Provisions Scale), quality of the mother-infant relationship (Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire), and infant temperament (Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised Very Short Form). Results: Participants all identified as women with a mean (SD) age of 31.8 (4.4) years. The workshop led to significant mean (SD) reductions in EPDS scores (from 16.47 [4.41] to 11.65 [4.83]; B = -4.82; P < .001) and was associated with a higher odds of exhibiting a clinically significant decrease in EPDS scores (odds ratio, 4.15; 95% CI, 2.66-6.46). The mean (SD) GAD-7 scores decreased from 12.41 (5.12) to 7.97 (5.54) after the workshop (B = -4.44; 95% CI, -5.47 to -3.38; P < .001) and participants were more likely to experience a clinically significant change (odds ratio, 3.09; 95% CI, 1.99-4.81). Mothers also reported improvements in bonding (B = -3.22; 95% CI, -4.72 to -1.71; P < .001), infant-focused anxiety (B = -1.64; 95% CI, -2.25 to 1.00; P < .001), social support (B = 3.31; 95% CI, 1.04 to 5.57; P < .001), and positive affectivity/surgency in infants (B = 0.31; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.56; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, an online 1-day CBT-based workshop for PPD provides an effective, brief option for mothers, reducing PPD and anxiety as well as improving social support, the mother-infant relationship, and positive affectivity/surgency in offspring. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04485000.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , COVID-19 , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Depressão Pós-Parto/terapia , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Relações Mãe-Filho , Psicoterapia Breve , Apoio Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente/fisiologia , Apego ao Objeto , Ontário , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Temperamento/fisiologia
14.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 130(6): 620-626, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553957

RESUMO

Over the past two decades, interest in the relationship between personality and psychopathology has resurged. However, the clinical problem of adult separation anxiety (ASA) has been largely excluded from this endeavor due to the age-of-onset criterion in older editions of the DSM that prohibited first-onset diagnoses in adulthood. This study tests relationships between ASA symptoms and higher- and lower-order personality traits in a community sample of 565 women. It accounts for systematic error by utilizing informant report, two personality inventories, and data from two time points over three years, and by adjusting for mood state. It also tests longitudinal ASA-personality models. Results indicate that ASA is robustly associated with negative emotionality and its facet of stress reaction, as well as with aggression, alienation, and absorption to somewhat lesser degrees. These relationships are not due to overlap with other traits (except in the case of alienation), or mood-state biases, and they are verified by informants. Moreover, negative temperament predicts greater levels of ASA three years later, adjusting for baseline ASA. Neither positive emotionality or temperament, nor positive emotionality's lower-order scales, were uniquely related to ASA in multitrait models, whereas relationships between ASA and disinhibition and constraint were inconsistent. These findings lay the groundwork for future research testing the mechanisms and causal links between these personality traits and ASA and may help clinicians anticipate traits that are associated with ASA in order to tailor treatments to patients' personalities. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Ansiedade de Separação , Personalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade , Temperamento
15.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579057

RESUMO

Maternal periconceptional diets have known associations with proper offspring neurodevelopment. Mechanisms for such associations include improper energy/nutrient balances between mother and fetus, as well as altered offspring epigenetics during development due to maternal nutrient and inflammatory status. Using a comprehensive food frequency questionnaire and assessing offspring temperament with the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (n = 325, mean age = 13.9 months), we sought to test whether a maternal periconceptional diet characterized by high glycemic loading (MGL) would affect offspring temperament using adjusted ordinal regression. After limiting false discovery to 10%, offspring born to mothers in tertile 3 of glycemic loading (referent = tertile 1) were more likely to be in the next tertile of anxiety [OR (95% CI) = 4.51 (1.88-11.07)] and inhibition-related behaviors [OR (95% CI) = 3.42 (1.49-7.96)]. Male offspring were more likely to exhibit impulsive [OR (95% CI) = 5.55 (1.76-18.33)], anxiety [OR (95% CI) = 4.41 (1.33-15.30)], sleep dysregulation [OR (95% CI) = 4.14 (1.34-13.16)], empathy [6.68 (1.95-24.40)], and maladaptive behaviors [OR (95% CI) = 9.86 (2.81-37.18)], while females were more likely to exhibit increased anxiety-related behaviors [OR (95% CI) = 15.02 (3.14-84.27)]. These associations persisted when concurrently modeled with the maternal-Mediterranean dietary pattern. In a subset (n = 142), we also found MGL associated with increased mean methylation of the imprint control region of SGCE/PEG10. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance of maternal dietary patterns on offspring neurodevelopment, offering avenues for prevention options for mothers.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Carga Glicêmica , Comportamento do Lactente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/etiologia , Metilação de DNA , Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico/etiologia , Feminino , Carga Glicêmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Lactente , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Gravidez , Fatores Sexuais , Temperamento
16.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255750, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352033

RESUMO

This study's main goal was to evaluate the association between anxious temperament and the fear of COVID-19-related self-infection and infection in loved ones (family members, friends, relatives) and cyberchondria. The sample consisted of 499 men and women aged between 18 and 72 who were gathered from the general population via an online recruitment platform. A numerical rating scale comprising 11 degrees of fear was used to assess participants' COVID-19-related fear, and affective temperaments were evaluated using Akiskal's Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) scales. Cyberchondria was assessed using McElroy and Shevlin's Cyberchondria Severity Scale (CSS). Small to medium positive correlations were found between depressive, cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperaments and cyberchondria and between depressive and anxious temperaments and COVID-19 fears. However, no correlation was observed between the hyperthymic temperament and cyberchondria. Cyberchondria positively correlated with both COVID-19 fears scales, though the correlation coefficients were medium. Based on the results of linear regression analysis, only anxious temperament and COVID-19 fear of self-infection were significant predictors of cyberchondria. The analysis also revealed a significant indirect effect of anxious temperament on cyberchondria through fear of COVID-19 self-infection as a mediator between anxious temperament and cyberchondria.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Hipocondríase/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Temperamento
17.
Dev Psychol ; 57(6): 863-875, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424005

RESUMO

The current study examined the interaction between maternal depressive symptoms and child temperament in predicting subsequent child language skills. Participants were 252 mother-child dyads recruited from the All Our Families longitudinal cohort, a primarily middle-class sample (62.9% completed postsecondary education) from Alberta, Canada (90.5% White, 6% Asian, 3.5% other). Maternal depressive symptoms at age 3, controlling for prenatal depressive symptoms, did not evidence a direct effect on child language skills at age 5 (49.6% males; mean [M] = 5.12 years old, standard deviation [SD] = .11). However, both child surgency and effortful control interacted with maternal depression at age 3 to predict later language skills. Low effortful control was a risk factor for poorer language abilities in contexts of high maternal depressive symptoms. High child surgency emerged as a differential susceptibility marker, predicting poorer language skills in contexts of high maternal depressive symptoms but better language skills in contexts of low depressive symptoms. Negative affect did not interact with maternal depressive symptoms in predicting language skills. These findings highlight the complex interaction between maternal and child characteristics in predicting language development during a developmental period in which language skills are a prime indicator of school readiness and a predictor of future academic achievement and socioemotional adjustment. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Depressão , Temperamento , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães , Gravidez
18.
Scand J Psychol ; 62(5): 699-708, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462925

RESUMO

There is a lack of studies evaluating temperament as a predictor of one's mentalizing capacity and its moderating role in the relationship between mentalization in parents and their offspring. So, the aim of this study is to examine whether certain types of children's temperament and their parents' mentalizing capacity can predict children's mentalizing capacity and whether children's temperament is a moderator in the context of parent-child relationship. The sample consisted of 388 participants, i.e., 194 dyads of primary caregivers and their adult children. In order to operationalize the mentalizing capacity (of both parents and their adult children), we used The Reflective Functioning Questionnaire (Fonagy et al., 2017). Different types of temperament in children were measured using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego - auto-questionnaire - short version (Akiskal, Mendlowicz, Jean-Louis et al., J Affect Disord, 85, 45-52, 2005). The results indicate that parents' mentalizing capacity is a significant predictor of this competence in their children. Anxious and depressive temperaments directly predict higher scores on certainty about mental states, while hyperthymic temperament is a negative predictor of a good mentalizing ability. Furthermore, certain temperament types, irritable and hyperthymic, are statistically significant moderators in the relationship between the individual's and the parent's mentalizing capacity. The results suggest the possibility that hyperthymic temperament in children can alleviate the negative consequences of low mentalizing capacity of parents on mentalizing capacity of their children. Finally, the results suggest that positive relationship between high mentalizing capacity of parents and children is especially distinctive for children with irritable temperament.


Assuntos
Mentalização , Temperamento , Crianças Adultas , Humanos , Pais , Inventário de Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Affect Disord ; 294: 695-700, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To analyze the association between temperament (emotional and affective) and scrutinize the progression from suicide ideation to attempt, by using data from a large internet-based sample. METHODS: It is a cross-sectional study, based on the Brazilian Internet Study on Temperament and Psychopathology (BRAINSTEP). Temperament was assessed by the Affective and Emotional Composite Temperament Scale (AFECTS), and life-long suicidal behavior was determined by the adapted Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire (SBQ-17). Odds ratios were obtained through multivariate logistic regression and a multiple linear regression were used in the analysis. According to the "ideation-to-action framework", we performed analyzes using two different reference groups: no suicidal ideation and suicidal ideation. RESULTS: The affective temperaments that showed the greatest association with suicide attempts were depressive, cyclothymic, and volatile. The temperaments that reflected higher associations for progression from ideation to suicide attempt were cyclothymic, depressive, and euphoric. Sensitivity was manifested as the emotional temperament with the strongest positive association with the severity of suicidal behavior, followed by desire and control. Stability was estimated as the emotional trait with the strongest negative association with the severity of suicidal behavior. LIMITATIONS: It is not a population based sample. BRAINSTEP is a self-selected sample whose participants are mostly women, who are highly educated and young. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that temperament assessment using AFECT model may be relevant to assess the risk for the progression from ideation to suicide attempts. These results strengthen the "ideation-to-action" framework that risk factors to suicide ideators can differ from suicide attempters.


Assuntos
Tentativa de Suicídio , Temperamento , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Ideação Suicida
20.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 51: 101002, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411954

RESUMO

Neighborhood disadvantage has consistently been linked to alterations in brain structure; however, positive environmental (e.g., positive parenting) and psychological factors (e.g., temperament) may buffer these effects. We aimed to investigate associations between neighborhood disadvantage and deviations from typical neurodevelopmental trajectories during adolescence, and examine the moderating role of positive parenting and temperamental effortful control (EC). Using a large dataset (n = 1313), a normative model of brain morphology was established, which was then used to predict the age of youth from a longitudinal dataset (n = 166, three time-points at age 12, 16, and 19). Using linear mixed models, we investigated whether trajectories of the difference between brain-predicted-age and chronological age (brainAGE) were associated with neighborhood disadvantage, and whether positive parenting (positive behavior during a problem-solving task) and EC moderated these associations. We found that neighborhood disadvantage was associated with positive brainAGE during early adolescence and a deceleration (decreasing brainAGE) thereafter. EC moderated this association such that in disadvantaged adolescents, low EC was associated with delayed development (negative brainAGE) during late adolescence. Findings provide evidence for complex associations between environmental and psychological factors, and brain maturation. They suggest that neighborhood disadvantage may have long-term effects on neurodevelopment during adolescence, but high EC could buffer these effects.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Poder Familiar , Adolescente , Humanos , Características de Residência , Temperamento , Populações Vulneráveis
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