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1.
Talanta ; 236: 122889, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635268

RESUMO

Phenolic compounds are an interesting class of natural products because of their proposed contribution to health benefits of foods and beverages and as a bio-source of organic (aromatic) building blocks. Phenolic extracts from natural products are often highly complex and contain compounds covering a broad range in molecular properties. While many 1D-LC and mass spectrometric approaches have been proposed for the analysis of phenolics, this complexity inevitably leads to challenging identification and purification. New insights into the composition of phenolic extracts can be obtained through online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC × LC) coupled to photodiode array and mass spectrometric detection. However, several practical hurdles must be overcome to achieve high peak capacities and to obtain robust methods with this technique. In many LC × LC configurations, refocusing of analytes at the head of the 2D column is hindered by the high eluotropic strength of the solvent transferred from the 1D to the 2D, leading to peak breakthrough or broadening. LC × LC combinations whereby a purely aqueous mobile phase is used in the 1D and RPLC is used in the 2D are unaffected by these phenomena, leading to more robust methods. In this contribution, the combination of temperature-responsive liquid chromatography (TRLC) with RPLC is used for the first time for the analysis of phenolic extracts of natural origin to illustrate the potential of this alternative combination for natural product analyses. The possibilities of the combination are investigated through analysis of wine extracts by TRLC × RPLC-DAD and TRLC × RPLC-ESI-MS.


Assuntos
Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Vinho , Cromatografia Líquida , Fenóis/análise , Temperatura
2.
Food Chem ; 366: 130523, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303206

RESUMO

Our study offers a novel sn-1,3 specific lipase MAJ1 from marine member Janibacter sp. strain HTCC2649 for preparing long-medium-long (LML) type structured triacylglycerols (TAGs). Firstly, the resin ECR1030 was selected as a suitable support for the immobilization of lipase MAJ1. An efficient synthesis of LML-type structured TAGs by the immobilized lipase MAJ1-catalyzed interesterification of methyl palmitate and tricaprylin was studied in a solvent-free system. The reaction conditions, including substrate molar ratio, temperature and enzyme loading, were optimized. Under the optimum conditions (immobilized lipase MAJ1 of 45 U/g, substrate molar ratio of 4:1, temperature of 35 °C, reaction time of 24 h), the structured TAGs with double long chains (DLCST) were obtained in a yield of 44.3 mol%. Secondly, multi-dimensional mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomics (MDMS-SL) was employed to quantify each TAG positional isomer in DLCST. The content of 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-capryloyl-sn-glycerol in DLCST was 97.6% determined by the MDMS-SL technology.


Assuntos
Enzimas Imobilizadas , Lipase , Catálise , Esterificação , Lipase/metabolismo , Solventes , Temperatura , Triglicerídeos
3.
Food Chem ; 366: 130692, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343948

RESUMO

In this study, kamaboko gels were tyndallized at various temperatures and sterilization efficiency and impact on quality parameters were assessed. The microbiological, physical, and chemical properties of kamaboko gels were determined throughout the tyndallization process. Superior sterilization efficiency was achieved by tyndallization at a higher temperature; and the combination of heat-induced germination and thermal inactivation of spores was proposed as the main reason. The process had minimal effect on the color of gels. While tyndallized gels heated at 80 °C possessed superior physical properties, all gels showed impaired quality with the progress of heating cycles. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed that the cause of alterations in quality differed depending on the processing temperature. This study suggests that the sterility of products could be improved by increasing the processing temperature, time or number of heating cycle.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Infertilidade , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Géis , Humanos , Temperatura
4.
Food Chem ; 367: 130639, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348199

RESUMO

In this work, an ingredient containing non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), obtained from overripe bananas, was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and vapor sorption isotherms. Soluble sugars from overripe bananas were extracted using ethanol, resulting in a solid NSP-rich fraction. The physical properties of this new ingredient and its response to temperature and water interactions are needed for its application as a fiber flour aggregate in food preparations. Results from thermal analyses, including gelatinization, glass transition and fusion, allowed building state diagrams, then compared to vapor sorption isotherms which resulted similar to a Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) type III isotherm at 25 °C, for NSP and standards samples as arabinoxylan and polygalacturonic acid. A good fit was obtained for the glass transition curves using the Kwei model. This approach enabled us to explore the stability of the material, regarding safety limits for microbial deterioration and structural changes due to glass transition.


Assuntos
Musa , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Farinha/análise , Polissacarídeos , Temperatura , Água
5.
Food Chem ; 367: 130733, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375890

RESUMO

We used computational molecular dynamics (MD) to assess molecular conformations of apo- and holo-forms (respectively without and with Ca2+) of bovine α-lactalbumin (α-La) at different temperatures, and to correlate them with the protein's foaming properties. At 4 °C and 25 °C no major protein conformation changes occurred. At 75 °C, lots of changes were evidenced: the Ca2+ depletion triggered the complete loss of h2b, h3c helices and S1, S2 and S3 ß-sheets, and partial losses of H1, H2 and H3 α-helices. The absence of Ca2+ in apo-α-La and its leaving from holo-α-La triggered electrostatic repulsion among Asp82, Asp84 and Asp87, leading to the formation of a hydrophobic cluster involving Phe9, Phe31, Ile1, Va42, Ile55, Phe80 and Leu81. These conformational changes were related to an interfacial tension decrease and to a foaming capacity increase, for both apo-α-La and holo-α-La. This study exemplifies how powerful MD is as a tool to provide a better understanding of the molecular origins of food proteins' techno-functionalities.


Assuntos
Lactalbumina , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Animais , Cátions , Bovinos , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Temperatura
6.
Food Chem ; 368: 130822, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411853

RESUMO

Lei bamboo (Phyllostachys violascens) shoots are delicious food in Asia. Here, the molecular basis of lignification in postharvest Lei bamboo shoots under low temperature (LT) is revealed by transcriptomic and metabolomics analyses for the first time. We identified substantial accumulations of jasmonates (JAs) and major lignin biosynthesis precursors (coumarin, trans-4-coumaric acid, trans-ferulic acid and L-phenylalanine). Transcriptome analysis indicated that some regulatory genes were significantly differentially expressed, and the expression patterns of them were highly consistent with the changes in the key lignin precursors or JA profiles. Co-expression analysis showed that the LT responsive genes PvCRPK-4/-5, PvICE2-1/2, PvDREB2B might form a network module with the lignin (PvC3H-2/3, PvC4H-2/4, PvCAD-1/2/3/4, etc.) or JA biosynthesis genes (PvOPR2, PvJAZ-4 and PvPEX5, etc.), indicating a LT-lignification or LT-JA-lignification regulatory pathway in Lei bamboo shoots. Above all, our findings provide new an insight into the LT-associated lignification in postharvest bamboo shoots.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Transcriptoma , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lignina/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Temperatura
7.
Food Chem ; 368: 130836, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411862

RESUMO

The postharvest ripening stage is necessary for Torreya grandis (T. grandis) nuts to complete aromatic synthesis, which requires appropriate temperature and relative humidity (RH). Currently, scarce information is available regarding the changes in aroma profiles in T. grandis nuts and the relationship with their response to different environmental conditions. Therefore, the interaction of temperature (20 °C or 30 °C) and relative humidity (70% RH or 90% RH) was investigated on aromatic substances after harvest. The results showed that 56 aromatic components were detected by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and mainly divided into five categories, among which terpenes were the most abundant (56.2-86.7%). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that both temperature and humidity can affect the aroma composition, and terpenes were mainly influenced by humidity. Specifically, d-limonene occupied the largest proportion of terpenes (63.0-90.8%) and was significantly upregulated by high humidity.


Assuntos
Nozes , Taxaceae , Umidade , Odorantes , Temperatura
8.
Food Chem ; 368: 130771, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438181

RESUMO

The stable isotope and photosynthesis response of tea (Camellia sinensis) is determined under different light and temperature conditions. The results showed that isotopes of young tea leaves were more enriched with increasing light intensity (31 ~ 411 µmol m-2∙s-1). However, the value of δ13C and δ15N seemed depleted, while δ2H and δ18O became enriched as temperature increasing from 15 to 35 °C. Significant isotope differences were found in tea leaves harvested between early growth (0 ~ 10 days) and later growth (10 ~ 21 days) periods (p < 0.05). Pearson's correlation showed a negative correlation between isotopes (δ13C, δ15N and δ2H) and photosynthetic parameters (EVAP and CI) ranging from 0.497 to 0.872, under 25 °C/203 µmol m-2∙s-1. But δ18O had a weak correlation with all photosynthetic parameters under the same conditions. These distinctive correlations between isotopes and photosynthetic parameters provide new insights which could be used to predict tea isotope responses arising from subtle seasonal or climate change conditions.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Fotossíntese , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Isótopos , Folhas de Planta/química , Chá , Temperatura
9.
Gene ; 807: 145952, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500049

RESUMO

Extreme temperature is one of the serious threats to crop production in present and future scenarios of global climate changes. Lentil (Lens culinaris) is an important crop, and there is a serious lack of genetic information regarding environmental and temperature stresses responses. This study is the first report of evaluation of key genes and molecular mechanisms related to temperature stresses in lentil using the RNA sequencing technique. De novo transcriptome assembly created 44,673 contigs and differential gene expression analysis revealed 7494 differentially expressed genes between the temperature stresses and control group. Basic annotation of generated transcriptome assembly in our study led to the identification of 2765 novel transcripts that have not been identified yet in lentil genome draft v1.2. In addition, several unigenes involved in mechanisms of temperature sensing, calcium and hormone signaling and DNA-binding transcription factor activity were identified. Also, common mechanisms in response to temperature stresses, including the proline biosynthesis, the photosynthetic light reactions balancing, chaperone activity and circadian rhythms, are determined by the hub genes through the protein-protein interaction networks analysis. Deciphering the mechanisms of extreme temperature tolerance would be a new way for developing crops with enhanced plasticity against climate change. In general, this study has identified set of mechanisms and various genes related to cold and heat stresses which will be useful in better understanding of the lentil's reaction to temperature stresses.


Assuntos
Lens (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lens (Planta)/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Mudança Climática , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/métodos , Fotossíntese , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Temperatura , Transcriptoma/genética
10.
Food Chem ; 369: 130998, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507088

RESUMO

High Temperature-Short Time (HTST) pasteurization was proposed as an alternative to Holder pasteurization (HOP) to increase the retention of specific human milk (HM) bioactive proteins. The present study explored whether HTST and HOP differently affect peptide release during simulated preterm infant gastrointestinal digestion. Raw (RHM), HOP- and HTST- pasteurized HM were digested using an in vitro dynamic system, and the identified peptides were analyzed by mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics. Before digestion, 158 peptides were identified in either RHM, HTST- or HOP- HM, mostly (84.4%) originating from ß-casein (CASB). During gastric digestion, HOP-HM presented a greater number and more abundant specific CASB peptides. A delayed release of peptides was observed in RHM during the intestinal phase, with respect to both pasteurized HM. Although limited to gastric digestion, the HM peptidomic profile differed according to the pasteurization type, and the pattern of the HTST peptides showed a greater similarity with RHM.


Assuntos
Leite Humano , Pasteurização , Animais , Digestão , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Leite , Peptídeos , Temperatura
11.
Ultrasonics ; 118: 106564, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530395

RESUMO

Tissue-Mimicking Material (TMM) is defined on IEC International Standards and applied in assessing ultrasonic diagnostic and therapeutic equipment's basic safety and essential performance. One of the TMM that fits IEC standards specification has its recipe described at IEC 60601-2-37, and it is fabricated using glycerol (11.21 %), deionized water (82.95%), benzalkonium chloride (0.47 %), silicon carbide (0.53 %), aluminum oxide 0.3 µm (0.88%), aluminum oxide 3.0 µm (0.94 %), and agar (3.08 %). Glycerol is the component responsible for adjusting the TMM's speed of sound. Moreover, it is recommended to store TMM in a closed container immersed in a mixture of water (88.1 %)/glycerol (11.9 %) to prevent it from drying out and avoiding air contact. The literature points out TMM measurements underwater can alter the speed of sound property as TMM tends to lose glycerol. Herein, the authors proposed to assess the viability of measuring the TMM speed of sound in the water/glycerol maintenance solution. First, the authors characterized the maintenance solution's speed of sound for a temperature range of 20 °C to 45 °C. Then, the group velocity of a set of TMM was measured underwater and in the maintenance solution for the same temperature range. The respective group velocity expanded uncertainty was calculated. The results indicate it is feasible to measure TMM in the maintenance solution, achieving group velocity values with no statistical difference from the ones measured underwater in the temperature range of 20 °C to 40 °C.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos , Imagens de Fantasmas/normas , Som , Terapia por Ultrassom/instrumentação , Ultrassonografia/instrumentação , Óxido de Alumínio , Compostos de Benzalcônio , Calibragem , Compostos Inorgânicos de Carbono , Segurança de Equipamentos , Glicerol , Compostos de Silício , Temperatura , Água
12.
Appl Ergon ; 98: 103576, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488191

RESUMO

Workplace temperature screening has become standard practice during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The objective was to determine the consistency of four temperature devices during exposure to simulated and actual environmental conditions reflective of a workplace. An infrared (IR) digital thermometer (accuracy(A)±0.2), IR laser thermometer (A±1), and thermal imaging camera (A±0.3) were used to measure forehead and tympanic (digital only) temperatures. The first experiment was conducted in a controlled simulated environment (-20 to 20 °C) with three participants (32-YOF, 27-YOM, 20-YOF). The second experiment used actual outdoor conditions (-0.48 to 45.6 °C) with two participants (32-YOF, 27-YOM). The tympanic measurement was the least impacted by environmental temperature (mean(±SD)): simulated (36.8(±0.18) °C) and actual (36.9(±0.16) °C). The thermal imaging camera had the lowest RMSE values (0.81-0.97 °C), with outdoor temperatures ranging from 0 to 45 °C. Environmental temperature influenced forehead temperature readings and required a resting period in a thermoneutral environment (5-9 min (-20 to -10 °C) to immediate (15-20 °C)).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperatura Corporal , Febre , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Local de Trabalho
13.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 265: 120374, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536891

RESUMO

Liquid crystals (LCs) are a promising system of molecules for biosensing as a transducing agent for detecting protein human serum albumin (HSA). Herein, we investigate the detection of HSA by a liquid crystal 4'-octyl-4-biphenylcarbonitrile (8CB) intending to develop an LC-based biosensor. The change in the alignment of liquid crystal molecules in the presence of protein results in the transfigurations of the director through interactions. The limit of 8CB to detect HSA is found to be at a reliable concentration in the development of biosensors. The transition in the director configurations from radial to bipolar during the crystalline to the isotropic phase of the liquid crystals are studied under polarizing optical microscopy. These transitions confirm the detection of HSA by 8CB. The docking analysis depicts the interactions by which 8CB liquid crystal molecules bind with protein HSA. The binding energy, binding active residues and their distances between the docked residues of HSA and molecules of ligand 8CB are calculated by molecular docking. Temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy is used to analyse the spectral behaviour of the interactions. The residues validated by molecular docking studies correlate well with the findings of Raman spectra for the interaction between 8CB and HSA.


Assuntos
Cristais Líquidos , Albuminas , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Análise Espectral , Temperatura
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149801, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454155

RESUMO

Temperature may affect the production of saxitoxin (STX) and its derivatives (STXs); however, this is still controversial. Further, STX-biosynthesis gene regulation and the relation of its toxicity with temperature are not clearly understood. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of different temperatures (12 °C, 16 °C, and 20 °C) on the growth, toxin profiles, and expression of two core STX-biosynthesis genes, sxtA and sxtG, in the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium pacificum Alex05, isolated from Korean coasts. We found that temperature significantly affected cell growth, with maximum growth recorded at 16 °C, followed by 20 °C and 12 °C. HPLC analysis revealed mostly 12 of STXs from the tested cultures. Interestingly, the contents of STXs increased in the cells cultured at 16 °C and exposed to cold stress, compared to the 20 °C culture and heat stress; however, toxin components were much more diverse under heat stress. These toxin profiles generally matched with the sxtA and sxtG expression levels. Incubation at lower temperatures (12 °C and 16 °C) and exposure to cold stress increased sxtA and sxtG expressions in the cells, whereas heat stress showed little change or downregulated the transcription of both genes. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed low correlation between STXs eq and expressional levels of sxtA and sxtG in heat-stressed cells. These results suggest that temperature might be a crucial factor affecting the level and biosynthesis of STXs in marine toxic dinoflagellates.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Saxitoxina , Dinoflagelados/genética , Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Saxitoxina/toxicidade , Temperatura
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149804, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455269

RESUMO

Totally 1160 adults living in single-family houses in Sweden participated in a questionnaire survey on subjective indoor air quality (SIAQ). Inspectors investigated the dwellings and performed home measurements (mean indoor temperature 21.4 °C, mean indoor air humidity 34.2%, mean indoor air exchange rate 0.36 ac/h and mean moisture load indoor 1.7 g/m3). Totally 15.5% perceived draught, 28.0% perceived too high room temperature, 42.4% unstable room temperature, 36.8% too low room temperature, 19.6% stuffy air, 19.8% dry air and 29.9% dust or dirt. Measured room temperature was related to perception of room temperature. Higher relative air humidity was related to perceived unstable room temperature (OR = 1.70) and too low room temperature (OR = 1.96). Higher absolute air humidity was related to too high room temperature (OR = 1.21), unstable room temperature (OR = 1.34) and too low room temperature (OR = 1.35). Higher measured relative humidity, absolute air humidity and moisture load were all associated with stuffy air and unpleasant odor (OR = 1.45-1.97). Higher air exchange rate was related to less perceived unstable room temperature (OR = 0.93). Higher U value was related to draught (OR = 1.17), too low room temperature (OR = 1.09), unpleasant odor (OR = 1.12) and dust and dirt (OR = 1.07). New concrete slab foundation was related to less stuffy air (OR = 0.39) (vs. basement). Damp foundation was associated with more stuffy air (OR = 1.44) and unpleasant odor (OR = 1.61). Window pane condensation was related to stuffy air (OR = 1.88). Moldy odor reported by inspector was related to stuffy air (OR = 1.73). Observed mold in the attic was associated with more stuffy air and unpleasant odor. In conclusion, complaints of room temperature can indicate poor thermal environment. Higher air exchange rate can create a more stable thermal sensation. Excess indoor humidity, lower degree of thermal insulation, presence of window pane condensation and indoor dampness/mold can impair SIAQ. Higher ventilation and concrete slab foundation with underlying thermal insulation can improve SIAQ.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Adulto , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Humanos , Umidade , Suécia , Temperatura , Ventilação
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149685, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464805

RESUMO

Small, shallow waterbodies are potentially important sites of greenhouse gas release to the atmosphere. The role of ebullition may be enhanced here relative to larger and deeper systems, due to their shallow water, but these features remain relatively infrequently studied in comparison to larger systems. Herein, we quantify ebullitive release of methane (CH4) in small shallow ponds in three regions of North America and investigate the role of potential drivers. Shallow ponds exhibited open-water season ebullitive CH4 release rates as high as 40 mmol m-2 d-1, higher than previously reported for similar systems. Ebullitive release of CH4 varied by four orders of magnitude across our 15 study sites, with differences in flux rates both within and between regions. What is less clear are the drivers responsible for these differences. There were few relationships between open water-season ebullitive flux and physicochemical characteristics, including organic matter, temperature, and sulphate. Temperature was only weakly related to ebullitive CH4 release across the study when considering all observation intervals. Only four individual sites exhibited significant relationships between temperature and ebullitive CH4 release. Other sites were unresponsive to temperature, and region-specific factors may play a role. There is some evidence that where surface water sulphate concentrations are high, CH4 production and release may be suppressed. Missouri sites (n = 5) had characteristically low ebullitive CH4 release; here bioturbation could be important. While this work greatly expands the number of open-water season ebullition rates for small and shallow ponds, more research is needed to disentangle the role of different drivers. Further investigation of the potential thresholding behaviour of sulphate as a control on ebullitive CH4 release in lentic systems is one such opportunity. What is clear, however, is that efforts to scale emissions (e.g., as a function of temperature) must be undertaken with caution.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Metano , Atmosfera , Metano/análise , Lagoas , Temperatura
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149876, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464810

RESUMO

This study investigates the relationships which deep learning methods can identify between the input and output data. As a case study, rainfall-runoff modeling in a snow-dominated watershed by means of a long short-term memory (LSTM) network is selected. Daily precipitation and mean air temperature were used as model input to estimate daily flow discharge. After model training and verification, two experimental simulations were conducted with hypothetical inputs instead of observed meteorological data to clarify the response of the trained model to the inputs. The first numerical experiment showed that even without input precipitation, the trained model generated flow discharge, particularly winter low flow and high flow during the snow melting period. The effects of warmer and colder conditions on the flow discharge were also replicated by the trained model without precipitation. Additionally, the model reflected only 17-39% of the total precipitation mass during the snow accumulation period in the total annual flow discharge, revealing a strong lack of water mass conservation. The results of this study indicated that a deep learning method may not properly learn the explicit physical relationships between input and target variables, although they are still capable of maintaining strong goodness-of-fit results.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Estações do Ano , Neve , Temperatura
18.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131479, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315081

RESUMO

The present work investigates for the first time the presence and isolation of the thermophilic fungi from hydrothermal spring situated at the locality of Guelma, in the Northeast of Algeria. The production of the thermostable proteases and the optimization of culture conditions under agro-wastes solid-state fermentation to achieve optimal production capacity were explored. A statistical experimental approach consisting of two designs was used to determine the optimum culture conditions and to attain the greatest enzyme production. Besides, different agricultural wastes were initially evaluated as a substrate, whereby wheat bran was selected for enzyme production by the isolate under solid-state conditions. The isolate thermophilic fungi were identified as Mycothermus thermophilus by sequencing the ITS region of the rDNA (NCBI Accession No: MK770356.1). Among the various screened variables: the temperature, the inoculum size, and the moisture were proved to have the most significant effects on protease activity. Employing two-level fractional Plackett-Burman and a Box-Behnken designs statistical approach helped in identifying optimum values of screened factors and their interactions. The analysis showed up 6.17-fold improvement in the production of proteases (~1187.03 U/mL) was achieved under the optimal conditions of moisture content 47%, inoculum 5 × 105 spores/g, and temperature at 42 °C. These significant findings highlight the importance of the statistical design in isolation of Mycothermus thermophilus species from a specific location as well as identifying the optimal culture conditions for maximum yield.


Assuntos
Peptídeo Hidrolases , Argélia , Fermentação , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Sordariales , Temperatura
19.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131655, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315083

RESUMO

Semi-continuous experiments were carried out in lab-scale continuous stirred tank reactors to evaluate the effects of fermentation temperature (37 ± 1 °C and 55 ± 1 °C) and total solids (TS) contents (3 %, 6 %, and 12 %) on biohydrogen production from the dark fermentations (DF) of rice straw (RS) and the total operation duration was 105 days. The experimental results show that biohydrogen production (0.46-63.60 mL/g VSadded) from the thermophilic (55 ± 1 °C) DF (TDF) was higher than the mesophilic (37 ± 1 °C) DF (MDF) (0.19-2.13 mL/g VSadded) at the three TS contents, and achieved the highest of 63.60 ± 2.98 mL/g VSadded at TS = 6 % in TDF. The pH, NH4+-N and total volatile fatty acid of fermentation liquids in the TDF were all higher than those in the MDF. The high abundance of lactic acid-producing bacteria resulted in low biohydrogen produced at TS = 3 %. Under the TDF with TS = 6 %, the highest abundance of hydrolytic bacteria (Ruminiclostridium 54.24 %) led to the highest biohydrogen production. The increase of TS content from 6 % to 12 % induced degradation pathway changes from biohydrogen production to methane production. This study demonstrated that butyric acid fermentation was the main pathway to produce biohydrogen from RS in both DFs.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Oryza , Reatores Biológicos , Fermentação , Hidrogênio , Temperatura
20.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131666, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320439

RESUMO

Facile and low-cost preparation are essential in the conversation of agricultural waste into biochar. In this work, nitrogen-doped biochar (NBC-350-0.1) was prepared by thermal decomposition of urea (urea/biochar = 0.1:1 mass ratio) at a low temperature of 350 °C. NBC-350-0.1 showed good performance for Pb(II) removal with the maximum adsorption capacity of 130.87 mg g-1 at 25 °C, which was five times that of pristine biochar (BC). Adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics studies indicated that the adsorption of Pb(II) by NBC-350-0.1 or BC was the homogeneous monolayer adsorption with chemical action as the rate-limiting step, and was accompanied by spontaneous endothermic. Further analysis showed that the removal of Pb(II) on NBC-350-0.1 and BC depended on the complexation with unsaturated carbon bonds and ion exchange with Ca(II). Moreover, graphitic- and pyridinic-N in NBC-350-0.1 exerted a key part in the adsorption of Pb(II). NBC-350-0.1 regenerated by NaOH exhibited excellent recycling performance keeping the original removal efficiency at 84% after five cycles. In addition, this N doping method is suitable for improving the performance of coffee grounds, sawdust, and bagasse biochar. These results would provide an idea for obtaining recyclable N-doped biochar to treat the Pb(II) polluted wastewater.


Assuntos
Pirólise , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Cinética , Chumbo , Nitrogênio , Temperatura , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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