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1.
J Strength Cond Res ; 36(8): 2335-2338, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35916750

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Rakovic, E, Paulsen, G, Helland, C, Haugen, T, and Eriksrud, O. Validity and reliability of a motorized sprint resistance device. J Strength Cond Res 36(8): 2335-2338, 2022-An increasing number of sprint-related studies have used motorized devices to provide resistance while sprinting. The aim of this study was to establish within-session reliability and criterion validity of sprint times obtained from a motorized resistance device. Seventeen elite, female, handball players (22.9 ± 3.0 years; 176.5 ± 6.5 cm; 72.7 ± 5.5 kg; training volume 9.3 ± 0.7 hours per week) performed two 30-m sprints under 3 different resistance loading conditions (50, 80 and 110 N). Sprint times (t0-5m, t5-10m, t10-15m, t15-20m, t20-30m, and t0-30m) were assessed simultaneously by a 1080 Sprint motorized resistance device and a postprocessing timing system. The results showed that 1080 Sprint timing was equivalent to the postprocessing timing system within the limits of precision (±0.01 seconds). A systematic bias of approximately 0.34 ± 0.01 seconds was observed for t0-5m caused by different athlete location and velocity at triggering point between the systems. Coefficient of variation was approximately 2% for t0-5 and approximately 1% for the other time intervals, although standard error of measurement ranged from 0.01 to 0.05 seconds, depending on distance and phase of sprint. Intraclass correlation ranged from 0.86 to 0.95. In conclusion, the present study shows that the 1080 Sprint is valid and reliable for sprint performance monitoring purposes.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Corrida , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tempo
2.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272263, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913903

RESUMO

We deal with a finite-buffer queue, in which arriving jobs are subject to loss due to buffer overflows. The burst ratio parameter, which reflects the tendency of losses to form long series, is studied in detail. Perhaps the most versatile model of the arrival stream is used, i.e. the batch Markovian arrival process (BMAP). Among other things, it enables modeling the interarrival time density function, the interarrival time autocorrelation function and batch arrivals. The main contribution in an exact formula for the burst ratio in a queue with BMAP arrivals and arbitrary service time distribution. The formula is presented in an explicite, ready-to-use form. Additionally, the impact of various system parameters on the burst ratio is demonstrated in numerical examples. The primary application area of the results is computer networking, where the complex nature of traffic has a deep impact on the burst ratio. However, due to the versatile arrival model, the results can be applied in other fields as well.


Assuntos
Computadores , Software , Tempo
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(13)2022 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35808516

RESUMO

In the industrial Internet of Things, the network time protocol (NTP) can be used for time synchronization, allowing machines to run in sync so that machines can take critical actions within 1 ms. However, the commonly used NTP mechanism does not take into account that the network packet travel time over a link is time-varying, which causes the NTP to make incorrect synchronization decisions. Therefore, this paper proposed a low-cost modification to NTP with clock skew compensation and adaptive clock adjustment, so that the clock difference between the NTP client and NTP server can be controlled within 1 ms in the wired network environment. The adaptive clock adjustment skips the clock offset calculation when the NTP packet run trip time (RTT) exceeds a certain threshold. The clock skew compensation addresses the inherent issue that different clocks (or oscillators) naturally drift away from each other. Both adaptive clock adjustment and clock skew compensation are environment dependent and device dependent. The measurement result in our experimental environment shows that the when the RTT threshold is set at 1.7 ms, the best synchronization accuracy is achieved.


Assuntos
Internet das Coisas , Humanos , Tempo
4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4161, 2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35853855

RESUMO

Paleomagnetism can elucidate the origin of inner core structure by establishing when crystallization started. The salient signal is an ultralow field strength, associated with waning thermal energy to power the geodynamo from core-mantle heat flux, followed by a sharp intensity increase as new thermal and compositional sources of buoyancy become available once inner core nucleation (ICN) commences. Ultralow fields have been reported from Ediacaran (~565 Ma) rocks, but the transition to stronger strengths has been unclear. Herein, we present single crystal paleointensity results from early Cambrian (~532 Ma) anorthosites of Oklahoma. These yield a time-averaged dipole moment 5 times greater than that of the Ediacaran Period. This rapid renewal of the field, together with data defining ultralow strengths, constrains ICN to ~550 Ma. Thermal modeling using this onset age suggests the inner core had grown to 50% of its current radius, where seismic anisotropy changes, by ~450 Ma. We propose the seismic anisotropy of the outermost inner core reflects development of a global spherical harmonic degree-2 deep mantle structure at this time that has persisted to the present day. The imprint of an older degree-1 pattern is preserved in the innermost inner core.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Tempo
5.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(7): e1010223, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35797365

RESUMO

Human experience of time exhibits systematic, context-dependent deviations from clock time; for example, time is experienced differently at work than on holiday. Here we test the proposal that differences from clock time in subjective experience of time arise because time estimates are constructed by accumulating the same quantity that guides perception: salient events. Healthy human participants watched naturalistic, silent videos of up to 24 seconds in duration and estimated their duration while fMRI was acquired. We were able to reconstruct trial-by-trial biases in participants' duration reports, which reflect subjective experience of duration, purely from salient events in their visual cortex BOLD activity. By contrast, salient events in neither of two control regions-auditory and somatosensory cortex-were predictive of duration biases. These results held despite being able to (trivially) predict clock time from all three brain areas. Our results reveal that the information arising during perceptual processing of a dynamic environment provides a sufficient basis for reconstructing human subjective time duration.


Assuntos
Córtex Visual , Encéfalo , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Tempo
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12890, 2022 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35902608

RESUMO

Our sense of time is fallible, often resulting in the sensation of time flying by quickly or dragging slowly. It has been suggested that changes in sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity may influence the perceived passage of time, however this proposition has never been tested during real-world temporal experience. The current study directly tested the relationship between the passage of time and SNS-PNS activity in the real-world. Sixty-seven participants completed a normal day's activities whilst wearing sensors to capture electrocardiography (ECG), electrodermal activity (EDA) and movement. They also provided hourly rating of the subjective speed at which time was passing. Results revealed that greater SNS activity (e.g., increased heart rate, frequency of phasic skin conductance response) was associated with time passing more quickly. PNS activity was not related to time experience. Whilst the findings support previous suggestions that changes in physiological arousal are associated with distortions to the passage of time, the effects are small and other factors are likely to contribute to real-world temporal experience.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia , Sistema Nervoso Parassimpático , Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Sistema Nervoso Parassimpático/fisiologia , Psicofisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiologia , Tempo
7.
Med Decis Making ; 42(6): 765-775, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35773940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research has demonstrated a tendency for individuals to mentally linearize nonlinear trends, leading to forecast errors. The present research notes that prior conceptualizations of these linear biases do not make identical predictions and examines how linear biases affect forecasts and risk perceptions of an unfolding epidemic. METHODS: This research uses an online experiment and a preregistered direct replication in a different online participant pool (total N = 608) to assess the trajectories of forecasts and risk perceptions over time in an unfolding epidemic. RESULTS: Framing the progress of the epidemic using total cases (v. the rate of new cases) leads to higher forecasts. This research also finds that the effect of frame varies over different time points in the epidemic and differs for forecasts versus risk perceptions. Finally, the effect of frame for forecasted totals is weaker among more numerate individuals. LIMITATIONS: The studies use repeated measures that occur in 1 session rather than over the course of several months and involve a smooth epidemic curve rather than a noisy one with jagged case counts. CONCLUSIONS: This research compares prior conceptualizations of linear biases and yields data with implications both for theory on linear biases and for communicators involved in disseminating information about epidemics. HIGHLIGHTS: Framing the progress of the epidemic using total cases (v. the rate of new cases) leads to higher forecasts.The effect of frame varies over different time points in the epidemic and differs for forecasts v. risk perceptions.The effect of frame for forecasted totals is weaker among more numerate individuals.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Pandemias , Viés , Previsões , Humanos , Tempo
8.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 198(8): 454-466, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35695689

RESUMO

Exposure assessment should consider the stochastic nature of the emitted signals. Therefore, the long-term temporal variability of E-field strength, obtained by band selective measurements for long-term evolution in a real mobile network environment, is considered in this paper. Intensive measurements were carried out 24 h a day for 2 weeks at an indoor location in the urban area. The repeatability of the measurement results was achieved through descriptive statistics of the 24-h instantaneous, time-averaged and integral-based values. More specifically, we addressed the uncertainties on the temporal variability of the instantaneous exposure levels and the effects of duration of averaging and time-integrating on it. To this aim, a huge amount of signal levels (120 960 samples) was collected during the measurement campaign by considering three operators in the 800 MHz downlink band. Results have shown how some factors, such as the time interval in which the measurements are taken, can significantly affect the measurement results and their repeatability. Furthermore, in some cases, such effects become comparable to, or even larger than typical measurement uncertainty. By applying both the 24-h time-averaged and integral-based measure, the variability of daily exposure levels could be reduced to values lower than the measurement uncertainty (i.e. lower than ± 20% of the mean week value obtained with either measure). Based on such results, an indicator depending on the exposure duration should better quantify the far-field exposure in each location.


Assuntos
Campos Eletromagnéticos , Exposição Ambiental , Ondas de Rádio , Tempo
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(12)2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35746120

RESUMO

It is a well-established practice to build a robust system for sound event detection by training supervised deep learning models on large datasets, but audio data collection and labeling are often challenging and require large amounts of effort. This paper proposes a workflow based on few-shot metric learning for emergency siren detection performed in steps: prototypical networks are trained on publicly available sources or synthetic data in multiple combinations, and at inference time, the best knowledge learned in associating a sound with its class representation is transferred to identify ambulance sirens, given only a few instances for the prototype computation. Performance is evaluated on siren recordings acquired by sensors inside and outside the cabin of an equipped car, investigating the contribution of filtering techniques for background noise reduction. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach, achieving AUPRC scores equal to 0.86 and 0.91 in unfiltered and filtered conditions, respectively, outperforming a convolutional baseline model with and without fine-tuning for domain adaptation. Extensive experiments conducted on several recording sensor placements prove that few-shot learning is a reliable technique even in real-world scenarios and gives valuable insights for developing an in-car emergency vehicle detection system.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Som , Ambulâncias , Coleta de Dados , Tempo
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10429, 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35729311

RESUMO

Understanding biological responses to environmental fluctuations (e.g. heatwaves) is a critical goal in ecology. Biological responses (e.g. survival) are usually measured with respect to different time reference frames, i.e. at specific chronological times (e.g. at specific dates) or biological times (e.g. at reproduction). Measuring responses on the biological frame is central to understand how environmental fluctuation modifies fitness and population persistence. We use a framework, based on partial differential equations (PDEs) to explore how responses to the time scale and magnitude of fluctuations in environmental variables (= drivers) depend on the choice of reference frame. The PDEs and simulations enabled us to identify different components, responsible for the phenological and eco-physiological effects of each driver on the response. The PDEs also highlight the conditions when the choice of reference frame affects the sensitivity of the response to a driver and the type of join effect of two drivers (additive or interactive) on the response. Experiments highlighted the importance of studying how environmental fluctuations affect biological time keeping mechanisms, to develop mechanistic models. Our main result, that the effect of the environmental fluctuations on the response depends on the scale used to measure time, applies to both field and laboratory conditions. In addition, our approach, applied to experimental conditions, can helps us quantify how biological time mediates the response of organisms to environmental fluctuations.


Assuntos
Clima , Ecologia , Mudança Climática , Tempo
11.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269636, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679298

RESUMO

In the last two decades, social psychologists have identified several key spending strategies that promote happiness such as making time-saving purchases (buying time) and spending money on others (prosocial spending). Although the emotional benefits of these two spending strategies are well-documented in the current literature, it is unclear whether the effectiveness of these strategies vary depending on individual characteristics. To address this research gap, we surveyed an economically diverse sample of 15,545 Americans about their subjective well-being, spending behavior, personal values and beliefs, as well as demographics including age, gender, and income. Across demographic groups, spending money on others was robustly related to happiness. Spending money on others was also associated with greater happiness regardless of whether participants believed that they would be happier spending money on others. In contrast, the relationship between buying time and happiness was somewhat less reliable. Although gender and personal income did not moderate the relationship between buying time and happiness, the relationship was only marginally significant for men, and non-significant within each income bracket. Our results also indicated that those who valued money over time were significantly happier when they used money to buy time, whereas those who valued time over money reported similar levels of happiness whether or not they bought time. Taken together, the present research shows that the relationship between prosocial spending, buying time, and subjective well-being is largely consistent across the different demographic groups we examined.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Renda , Comportamento do Consumidor , Emoções , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo
12.
Behav Brain Res ; 431: 113951, 2022 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661751

RESUMO

Delay discounting and probability discounting decision making tasks in rodent models have high translational potential. However, it is unclear whether the discounted value of the large reward option is the main contributor to variability in animals' choices in either task, which may limit translation to humans. Male and female mice underwent sessions of delay and probability discounting in sequence to assess how choice behavior adapts over experience with each task. To control for "anchoring" (persistent choices based on the initial delay or probability), mice experienced "Worsening" schedules where the large reward was offered under initially favorable conditions that became less favorable during testing, followed by "Improving" schedules where the large reward was offered under initially unfavorable conditions that improved over a session. During delay discounting, both male and female mice showed elimination of anchoring effects over training. In probability discounting, both sexes of mice continued to show some anchoring even after months of training. One possibility is that "noisy", exploratory choices could contribute to these persistent anchoring effects, rather than constant fluctuations in value discounting. We fit choice behavior in individual animals using models that included both a value-based discounting parameter and a decision noise parameter that captured variability in choices deviating from value maximization. Changes in anchoring behavior over time were tracked by changes in both the value and decision noise parameters in delay discounting, but by the decision noise parameter in probability discounting. Exploratory decision making was also reflected in choice response times that tracked the degree of conflict caused by both uncertainty and temporal cost, but was not linked with differences in locomotor activity reflecting chamber exploration. Thus, variable discounting behavior in mice can result from changes in exploration of the decision options rather than changes in reward valuation.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Desvalorização pelo Atraso , Animais , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Desvalorização pelo Atraso/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Probabilidade , Tempo de Reação , Recompensa , Tempo
13.
Math Biosci Eng ; 19(7): 7337-7348, 2022 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35730309

RESUMO

This paper studies the Pareto scheduling problem of minimizing total weighted completion time and maximum cost on a single machine. It is known that the problem is strongly NP-hard. Algorithms with running time $ O(n^3) $ are presented for the following cases: arbitrary processing times, equal release dates and equal weights; equal processing times, arbitrary release dates and equal weights; equal processing times, equal release dates and arbitrary weights.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Tempo
14.
Neuroscience ; 497: 4-13, 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35667494

RESUMO

Two important themes in Ivan Izquierdo's research each offered both answers and questions about the topic of memory formation and maintenance. The first theme provided evidence supporting the view that short- and long-term memory were distinct processes and could be selectively modulated by several treatments, with some affecting only short-term, others only affecting long-term memory, and still others affecting both. Over many years, Izquierdo's laboratory documented molecular responses across time after training obtaining results that showed differences as well as similarities in the biochemical changes during the first 1-2 h and the next 4-6 h after training, i.e., during the transition from short- to long-term memory. This work clarified the biological underpinnings of the memory processes. The second theme described waves of susceptibility of memory to enhancing and impairing treatments after time, a biphasic profile that contrasted with earlier monotonic decreases in the efficacy of memory modulating treatments as a function of time between training and treatment. Remarkably, these waves of susceptibility to modification were accompanied by biphasic changes in molecular measures at similar times after training. Remarkably, some of the molecular players exhibited persistent changes after training, with increases in levels lasting days following the training experience. These persistent molecular changes may reveal a biological basis for the dynamic nature of memories seen long after the initial memory is consolidated.


Assuntos
Consolidação da Memória , Memória/fisiologia , Tempo
15.
Neural Comput ; 34(7): 1501-1544, 2022 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671462

RESUMO

Human perception and experience of time are strongly influenced by ongoing stimulation, memory of past experiences, and required task context. When paying attention to time, time experience seems to expand; when distracted, it seems to contract. When considering time based on memory, the experience may be different than what is in the moment, exemplified by sayings like "time flies when you're having fun." Experience of time also depends on the content of perceptual experience-rapidly changing or complex perceptual scenes seem longer in duration than less dynamic ones. The complexity of interactions among attention, memory, and perceptual stimulation is a likely reason that an overarching theory of time perception has been difficult to achieve. Here, we introduce a model of perceptual processing and episodic memory that makes use of hierarchical predictive coding, short-term plasticity, spatiotemporal attention, and episodic memory formation and recall, and apply this model to the problem of human time perception. In an experiment with approximately 13,000 human participants, we investigated the effects of memory, cognitive load, and stimulus content on duration reports of dynamic natural scenes up to about 1 minute long. Using our model to generate duration estimates, we compared human and model performance. Model-based estimates replicated key qualitative biases, including differences by cognitive load (attention), scene type (stimulation), and whether the judgment was made based on current or remembered experience (memory). Our work provides a comprehensive model of human time perception and a foundation for exploring the computational basis of episodic memory within a hierarchical predictive coding framework.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Percepção do Tempo , Humanos , Rememoração Mental , Tempo
16.
Epileptic Disord ; 24(3): 496-506, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35770748

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Interictal epileptiform discharges on EEG are integral to diagnosing epilepsy. However, EEGs are interpreted by readers with and without specialty training, and there is no accepted method to assess skill in interpretation. We aimed to develop a test to quantify IED recognition skills. METHODS: A total of 13,262 candidate IEDs were selected from EEGs and scored by eight fellowship-trained reviewers to establish a gold standard. An online test was developed to assess how well readers with different training levels could distinguish candidate waveforms. Sensitivity, false positive rate and calibration were calculated for each reader. A simple mathematical model was developed to estimate each reader's skill and threshold in identifying an IED, and to develop receiver operating characteristics curves for each reader. We investigated the number of IEDs needed to measure skill level with acceptable precision. RESULTS: Twenty-nine raters completed the test; nine experts, seven experienced non-experts and thirteen novices. Median calibration errors for experts, experienced non-experts and novices were -0.056, 0.012, 0.046; median sensitivities were 0.800, 0.811, 0.715; and median false positive rates were 0.177, 0.272, 0.396, respectively. The number of test questions needed to measure those scores was 549. Our analysis identified that novices had a higher noise level (uncertainty) compared to experienced non-experts and experts. Using calculated noise and threshold levels, receiver operating curves were created, showing increasing median area under the curve from novices (0.735), to experienced non-experts (0.852) and experts (0.891). SIGNIFICANCE: Expert and non-expert readers can be distinguished based on ability to identify IEDs. This type of assessment could also be used to identify and correct differences in thresholds in identifying IEDs.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Humanos , Tempo
17.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 22(1): 61, 2022 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An accurate timescale of evolutionary history is essential to testing hypotheses about the influence of historical events and processes, and the timescale for evolution is increasingly derived from analysis of DNA sequences. But variation in the rate of molecular evolution complicates the inference of time from DNA. Evidence is growing for numerous factors, such as life history and habitat, that are linked both to the molecular processes of mutation and fixation and to rates of macroevolutionary diversification. However, the most widely used methods rely on idealised models of rate variation, such as the uncorrelated and autocorrelated clocks, and molecular dating methods are rarely tested against complex models of rate change. One relationship that is not accounted for in molecular dating is the potential for interaction between molecular substitution rates and speciation, a relationship that has been supported by empirical studies in a growing number of taxa. If these relationships are as widespread as current evidence suggests, they may have a significant influence on molecular dates. RESULTS: We simulate phylogenies and molecular sequences under three different realistic rate variation models-one in which speciation rates and substitution rates both vary but are unlinked, one in which they covary continuously and one punctuated model in which molecular change is concentrated in speciation events, using empirical case studies to parameterise realistic simulations. We test three commonly used "relaxed clock" molecular dating methods against these realistic simulations to explore the degree of error in molecular dates under each model. We find average divergence time inference errors ranging from 12% of node age for the unlinked model when reconstructed under an uncorrelated rate prior using BEAST 2, to up to 91% when sequences evolved under the punctuated model are reconstructed under an autocorrelated prior using PAML. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate the potential for substantial errors in molecular dates when both speciation rates and substitution rates vary between lineages. This study highlights the need for tests of molecular dating methods against realistic models of rate variation generated from empirical parameters and known relationships.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tempo
18.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e059375, 2022 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534080

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the trends in medication use indicative of physical and psychological morbidity following the 2010 volcanic eruption in Eyjafjallajökull immediately after and during a 3-year period following the eruption. DESIGN: Population-based register study. SETTING: Eyjafjallajökull eruption in Iceland, 2007-2013. PARTICIPANTS: All residents in Iceland who received at least one medication dispensing were identified. Residents of exposed areas were classified into exposure groups (individual-level data) and residents in other parts of Iceland were included as a non-exposed group (aggregated data). INTERVENTION/EXPOSURE: Eyjafjallajökull erupted on 14 April 2010 and continued for 39 days, producing heavy ash fall in South Iceland. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Using interrupted time series analysis, we examined annual and quarterly changes in medicine use, measured as number of dispensed defined daily dose (DDD) per 1000 individuals. We calculated the level shift (immediate change) and change in slope from pre-eruption to post-eruption (long-term change) in medication dispensing. RESULTS: Among exposed residents, there was a 6% decrease (95% CI -7% to -4%) in the annual number of dispensed DDDs 1-year post-eruption in the overall medication class, including analgesics (-5%, 95% CI -6% to -3%), hypnotics and sedatives (-9%, 95% CI -11% to -7%) and respiratory medications (-7%, 95% CI -9% to -5%; -8%, 95% CI -11% to -4%). Simultaneously, there was a 9% decrease (95% CI -14% to -4%) in the overall medication class among non-exposed residents. Moreover, among exposed residents, we observed change in slope of -4% (95% CI -7% to -1%) in the overall medication class, including for analgesics (-6%, 95% CI -8% to -3%) and other respiratory drugs (-10%, 95% CI -16% to -4%). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the eruption did not lead to increases in medication dispensing among residents of exposed areas, rather decreases for some medicine classes. The results should be interpreted with caution since the content of each eruption differs.


Assuntos
Erupções Vulcânicas , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Morbidade , Tempo , Erupções Vulcânicas/análise
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8226, 2022 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35581249

RESUMO

The experience of passage of time is assumed to be a constitutive component of our subjective phenomenal experience and our everyday life that is detached from the estimation of time durations. However, our understanding of the factors contributing to passage of time experience has been mostly restricted to associated emotional and cognitive experiences in temporally extended situations. Here, we tested the influence of low-level visual stimuli on the experience of passage and duration of time in 10-30 s intervals. We introduce a new paradigm in a starfield environment that allows to study the effects of basic visual aspects of a scene (velocity and density of stars in the starfield) and the duration of the situation, both embedded in a color tracking task. Results from two experiments show that velocity and density of stars in the starfield affect passage of time experience independent from duration estimation and the color tracking task: the experienced passage of time is accelerated with higher rates of moment-to-moment changes in the starfield while duration estimations are comparably unaffected. The results strongly suggest differential psychological processes underlying the experience of time passing by and the ability to estimate time durations. Potential mechanisms behind these results and the prospects of experimental approaches towards passage of time experience in psychological and neuroscientific research are discussed.


Assuntos
Percepção do Tempo , Emoções , Estudos Longitudinais , Tempo
20.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 22(1): 134, 2022 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35581648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Emergency Department (ED) overcrowding is a chronic international issue that is associated with adverse treatment outcomes. Accurate forecasts of future service demand would enable intelligent resource allocation that could alleviate the problem. There has been continued academic interest in ED forecasting but the number of used explanatory variables has been low, limited mainly to calendar and weather variables. In this study we investigate whether predictive accuracy of next day arrivals could be enhanced using high number of potentially relevant explanatory variables and document two feature selection processes that aim to identify which subset of variables is associated with number of next day arrivals. Performance of such predictions over longer horizons is also shown. METHODS: We extracted numbers of total daily arrivals from Tampere University Hospital ED between the time period of June 1, 2015 and June 19, 2019. 158 potential explanatory variables were collected from multiple data sources consisting not only of weather and calendar variables but also an extensive list of local public events, numbers of website visits to two hospital domains, numbers of available hospital beds in 33 local hospitals or health centres and Google trends searches for the ED. We used two feature selection processes: Simulated Annealing (SA) and Floating Search (FS) with Recursive Least Squares (RLS) and Least Mean Squares (LMS). Performance of these approaches was compared against autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), regression with ARIMA errors (ARIMAX) and Random Forest (RF). Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) was used as the main error metric. RESULTS: Calendar variables, load of secondary care facilities and local public events were dominant in the identified predictive features. RLS-SA and RLS-FA provided slightly better accuracy compared ARIMA. ARIMAX was the most accurate model but the difference between RLS-SA and RLS-FA was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides new insight into potential underlying factors associated with number of next day presentations. It also suggests that predictive accuracy of next day arrivals can be increased using high-dimensional feature selection approach when compared to both univariate and nonfiltered high-dimensional approach. Performance over multiple horizons was similar with a gradual decline for longer horizons. However, outperforming ARIMAX remains a challenge when working with daily data. Future work should focus on enhancing the feature selection mechanism, investigating its applicability to other domains and in identifying other potentially relevant explanatory variables.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Previsões , Humanos , Alocação de Recursos , Tempo
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