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1.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 138: 104558, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36167146

RESUMO

Insects rely on a powerful and efficient innate immune system against microbial invaders. One of the most important immune processes is the melanization reaction, in which eumelanin is synthesized and deposited on the physically injured site or the surface of invading pathogens. The melanization reaction is mediated by prophenoloxidase (PPO), which is synthesized as an inactive zymogen and requires proteolytic activation through a clip serine protease cascade. This cascade has been characterized in several Lepidoptera insect species, but it is less understood in most Diptera insects. Here, with the means of reverse genetics and biochemistry, we characterized the function of a clip serine protease BdcSP10 from the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a significant agriculture pest to a broad variety of fruit and vegetable crops. BdcSP10 knockdown inhibited the melanization reaction and rendered adult flies more vulnerable to pathogenic infections. In addition, purified and activated BdcSP10 proteases promoted the melanization reaction in larval hemolymph and directly cleaved and activated purified PPO1 and PPO2 in vitro. Taken together, we identified BdcSP10 as a PPO-activating protease and validated its important role in the defense against microbial infection in B. dorsalis. This work broadens the understanding of the activation mechanism of the melanization reaction in Diptera insects.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Insetos , Tephritidae , Animais , Catecol Oxidase , Precursores Enzimáticos , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Proteases/genética
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250505, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339347

RESUMO

Abstract The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an important pest in the subtropical region of Brazil. This insect has tritrophic relation between wild fruits and parasitoids and is associated with apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards adjacent to the Atlantic Forest in Paraná. We thus investigated the degree of infestation of the fruit fly and natural parasitism in wild and cultivated fruits surrounding apple orchards. For this purpose, we collected fruits of Acca sellowiana (Berg.) Burret, Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Mart), Eugenia uniflora L., Eugenia pyriformis Cambessèdes, Psidium cattleianum Sabine, Psidium guajava (L.), Annona neosericea Rainer and Eriobotrya japonica (Thumb) in apple orchards adjacent to the Atlantic Forest located in Campo do Tenente, Lapa and Porto Amazonas counties. In total, we collected 18,289 fruits during four growing years. The occurrence of A. fraterculus depends on the susceptible period of apple fruits. A. sellowiana and P. cattleianum were considered primary fruit fly multipliers and P. guajava was secondary, all occurring after the apple harvest (IS period). The group of parasitoids with A. fraterculus was Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brèthes, 1924) (Hymenoptera: Figitidae), Opius bellus (Gahan, 1930), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911) and Doryctobracon brasiliensis (Szépligeti, 1911) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) all of which are first records in the Atlantic Forest in Paraná. First record of O. bellus occurring in the State of Paraná, as well as, first record of the tritrophic association between host plant A. neosericea, parasitoids D. areolatus and O. bellus and fruit fly A. fraterculus. The host P. cattleianum stood out among the Myrtaceae species in regard to the high diversity of parasitoid species (81% of parasitoids). The total number of Figitidae species (76.5%) was higher than that of Braconidae species. The influence of climatic events in southern Brazil on wild fruit production should be further studied to understand the association of A. fraterculus with the tritrophic relationship.


Resumo Mosca-das-frutas sul-americana, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae), é uma importante praga da região subtropical do Brasil. Este inseto tem relação tritrófico entre frutos silvestres e parasitoides e está associado a pomares de macieiras (Malus domestica Borkh.) adjacentes à Mata Atlântica no Paraná. Assim, investigamos o grau de infestação da mosca-das-frutas e o parasitismo natural em frutas silvestres e cultivadas ao redor de pomares de maçã. Para tanto, foram coletados frutos de Acca sellowiana (Berg.) Burret, Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Mart), Eugenia uniflora L., Eugenia pyriformis Cambessèdes, Psidium cattleianum Sabine, Psidium guajava (L.), Annona neosericea Rainer e Eriobotrya japonica (Thumb) em pomares de maçã adjacentes à Mata Atlântica localizados nos municípios de Campo do Tenente, Lapa e Porto Amazonas. No total, coletamos 18.289 frutos durante quatro anos de cultivo. A ocorrência de A. fraterculus depende do período de suscetibilidade dos frutos da maçã. A. sellowiana e P. cattleianum foram considerados multiplicadores primários de mosca-das-frutas e P. guajava foi secundário, todos ocorrendo após a colheita da maçã (período IS). Os parasitóides a associados a A. fraterculus foram Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brèthes, 1924) (Hymenoptera: Figitidae), Opius bellus (Gahan, 1930), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911) e Doryctobracon brasiliensis (Szépligeti, 1911) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), todos os quais são primeiros registros na Mata Atlântica no Paraná. Primeiro registro de O. bellus ocorrendo no Estado do Paraná, assim como, primeiro registro da associação tritrófica entre o hospedeiro A. neosericea, parasitoides D. areolatus e O. bellus e mosca-das-frutas A. fraterculus. O hospedeiro P. cattleianum se destacou entre as espécies de Myrtaceae pela alta diversidade de parasitóides associados (81% dos parasitóides). O número total de espécies de Figitidae (76,5%) foi superior ao de espécies de Braconidae. A influência de eventos climáticos no sul do Brasil na produção de frutas silvestres deve ser mais estudada para entender a associação de A. fraterculus com a relação tritrófica.


Assuntos
Animais , Malus , Tephritidae , Himenópteros , Brasil , Florestas
4.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276987, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383542

RESUMO

Tephritid fruit flies, such as the melon fly, Zeugodacus cucurbitae, are major horticultural pests worldwide and pose invasion risks due primarily to international trade. Determining movement parameters for fruit flies is critical to effective surveillance and control strategies, from setting quarantine boundaries after incursions to development of agent-based models for management. While mark-release-recapture, flight mills, and visual observations have been used to study tephritid movement, none of these techniques give a full picture of fruit fly movement in nature. Tracking tagged flies offers an alternative method which has the potential to observe individual fly movements in the field, mirroring studies conducted by ecologists on larger animals. In this study, harmonic radar (HR) tags were fabricated using superelastic nitinol wire which is light (tags weighed less than 1 mg), flexible, and does not tangle. Flight tests with wild melon flies showed no obvious adverse effects of HR tag attachment. Subsequent experiments successfully tracked HR tagged flies in large field cages, a papaya field, and open parkland. Unexpectedly, a majority of tagged flies showed strong flight directional biases with these biases varying between flies, similar to what has been observed in the migratory butterfly Pieris brassicae. In field cage experiments, 30 of the 36 flies observed (83%) showed directionally biased flights while similar biases were observed in roughly half the flies tracked in a papaya field. Turning angles from both cage and field experiments were non-random and indicate a strong bias toward continued "forward" movement. At least some of the observed direction bias can be explained by wind direction with a correlation observed between collective melon fly flight directions in field cage, papaya field, and open field experiments. However, individual mean flight directions coincided with the observed wind direction for only 9 out of the 25 flies in the cage experiment and half of the flies in the papaya field, suggesting wind is unlikely to be the only factor affecting flight direction. Individual flight distances (meters per flight) differed between the field cage, papaya field, and open field experiments with longer mean step-distances observed in the open field. Data on flight directionality and step-distances determined in this study might assist in the development of more effective control and better parametrize models of pest tephritid fruit fly movement.


Assuntos
Carica , Cucurbitaceae , Tephritidae , Animais , Radar , Hawaii , Comércio , Internacionalidade , Verduras , Controle de Insetos/métodos
5.
Cell Rep ; 41(7): 111654, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384127

RESUMO

The evolution of feeding habits leads to speciation in insects. Bactrocera true fruit flies display diverse feeding habits across species. We combine behavioral and functional genomic studies to probe the divergence between the specialist B. minax and the generalist B. dorsalis. We find that both vision and olfaction contribute to their respective host preferences, with a dominant effect of vision over the olfaction in short range. Correspondingly, host location-related genes are significantly enriched in the phototransduction pathway, of which the long-wavelength rhodopsin confers the color preference in both species and has been subject to selection in the specialist. We also find a massive expansion of olfactory receptors in the generalist, along with signatures of conditional expression and positive selection. The phylogenetic context suggests an ancestrally important role of vision in the host location of Bactrocera, as well as the increased performance and plasticity of olfaction alongside the arising of generalism.


Assuntos
Receptores Odorantes , Tephritidae , Animais , Filogenia , Genômica , Tephritidae/genética , Receptores Odorantes/genética , Olfato/genética
6.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 150: 103850, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265808

RESUMO

The arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) enzymes catalyze the acetyl-CoA-dependent acetylation of an amine or arylalkylamine, which is involved in important biological processes of insects. Here, we carried out the molecular and biochemical identification of an arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Using a bacterial expression system, we expressed and purified the encoded recombinant BdorAANAT1-V3 protein. The purified recombinant protein acts on a wide range of substrates, including dopamine, tyramine, octopamine, serotonin, methoxytryptamine, and tryptamine, and shows similar substrate affinity (i.e., Km values: 0.16-0.26 mM) except for serotonin (Km = 0.74 mM) and dopamine (Km = 0.84 mM). Transcriptional profile analysis of BdorAANAT1 revealed that this gene is most prevalent in adults and abundant in the adult brain, gut, and ovary. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 technique, we successfully obtained a BdorAANAT1 knockout strain based on a wild-type strain (WT). Compared with the WT, the cuticle color of larvae and pupae is normal; however, in adult mutants, the yellow region of their thorax is darkly pigmented, and two black spots were evident at the abdomen's end. Moreover, the female BdorAANAT1 knockout mutant had a smaller ovary than the WT, and laid far fewer eggs. Loss of function of BdorAANAT1 caused by RNAi with mature adult females in which the reproductive system is fully developed had no effect on their fecundity. Altogether, these results indicate that BdorAANAT1 regulates ovary development. Our findings provide evidence for the insect AANAT1 modulating adult cuticle pigmentation and female fecundity.


Assuntos
Arilalquilamina N-Acetiltransferase , Tephritidae , Feminino , Animais , Arilalquilamina N-Acetiltransferase/química , Dopamina/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Tephritidae/genética , Tephritidae/metabolismo , Pigmentação/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Drosophila/metabolismo
7.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e266065, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36287405

RESUMO

Our study evaluated the oviposition behaviour of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) in five fruit species. Apples, guavas, mangoes, peaches and tangerines were exposed to infestation for 6, 12 and 24 hours. Anastrepha fraterculus and C. capitata showed different oviposition behaviour in apples and tangerines and similar oviposition behaviour in guavas, mangoes and peaches. There was a positive correlation between infestation time and pupae/kg, as well as between pupae/fruit and the survival rate of the immature (pupal viability). In this study, we present discussions about the oviposition behaviour of flies and the host infestation index. This index can reflect the reproductive capacity that each fruit species offers for each fly species. Here, we see an adult recovery rate greater than 89% in the highest infestation index observed in guava (185 A. fraterculus per unit fruit) and peach (220 C. capitata per unit fruit). Understanding the reproductive capacity of each host can help with risk analysis and the management of fruit flies.


Assuntos
Ceratitis capitata , Citrus , Mangifera , Psidium , Tephritidae , Animais , Feminino , Oviposição , Frutas , Pupa
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(42): 13554-13562, 2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36224100

RESUMO

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate the fast action of acetylcholine in synaptic cholinergic transmissions. Insect nAChRs are the target of several classes of insecticides. Here, the full-length cDNA encoding a nAChR beta1 subunit (Bdorß1) was identified and characterized from a destructive pest, Bactrocera dorsalis. The amino acid sequence of Bdorß1 shows high identities to other insect nAChRs ß1 subunits. Double injection of dsBdorß1 reduced the expression of Bdorß1 and in turn significantly decreased susceptibility to oxa-bridged trans- instead of cis-nitromethylene neonicotinoids. Our results support the involvement of Bdorß1 in the susceptibility of B. dorsalis to oxa-bridged trans- instead of cis-nitromethylene neonicotinoids and imply that these two classes of neonicotinoids might be acting at different nAChR subtypes.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Receptores Nicotínicos , Tephritidae , Animais , Inseticidas/química , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Nitrocompostos/metabolismo , Acetilcolina , DNA Complementar , Neonicotinoides/farmacologia , Neonicotinoides/química , Colinérgicos , Tephritidae/genética , Tephritidae/metabolismo
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17555, 2022 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36266456

RESUMO

The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an invasive pest, that is currently expanding its geographic distribution from the Mediterranean coasts to more temperate areas of Europe. Given that low temperature is a primary determinant of insect species' range boundaries especially in the Northern Hemisphere with pronounced seasonality, we used chill coma recovery time for assessing latitudinal clines in basal chill tolerance of C. capitata adults. We selected six populations obtained from areas with broad climatic variability based on the main bioclimatic variables of temperature and precipitation, spanning a latitudinal range of about 19° from Middle East to Central Europe. Adults were exposed to 0 °C for 4 h, and time to regain the typical standing position of a fly at 25 °C were recorded. The post-stress survival after a period of 8 days was also recorded. Results revealed that adults from Israel and Austria were less chill tolerant than those from Greece, resulting in curvilinear trends with latitude. Analysis of macroclimatic conditions revealed combined effects of latitude (as a proxy of photoperiod) and macroclimatic conditions on chill coma recovery time. Nonetheless, there was not a deleterious effect on post-recovery survival, except for flies obtained from the northern most point (Vienna, Austria). Overall, it seems that evolutionary patterns of basal chill coma recovery time of C. capitata adults are driven mainly by local climatic variability.


Assuntos
Ceratitis capitata , Tephritidae , Animais , Coma , Temperatura Baixa , Temperatura
10.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(10)2022 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36292746

RESUMO

Bactrocera dorsalis is considered a major threat to horticultural crops. It has evolved resistance against insecticides. It is believed that development of new methods is highly desirable to control this destructive agricultural pest. Sterile insect technique is emerging as a potential tool to control this insect pest by reducing their reproductive ability. Here we report that orb2 has high expression in the testis of B. dorsalis which is the target of miR-125-3p and miR-276b-3p and plays a critical role in the spermatogenesis. Dual luciferase reporter assay using HEKT293 cells demonstrates that orb2 gene is downregulated by miR-125-3p and miR-276b-3p and is a common target of these miRNAs. Dietary treatment of adult male flies separately and in combination of agomir-125-3p (Ago-125-3p) and agomir-276b-3p (Ago-276b-3p) significantly downregulated the mRNA of orb2. The combined treatments of agomirs suppressed the level of mRNA of orb2 significantly more than any single treatment. Altered expression of miR-125-3p and miR-276b-3p significantly decreased the total and live spermatozoa in the testis which ultimately caused reduction in male fertility. Furthermore, we demonstrate that miR-125-3p, miR-276b-3p, and orb2 dsRNA are the novel agents that could be used in a genetic-based sterile insect technique (SIT) to control the B. dorsalis.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , MicroRNAs , Tephritidae , Masculino , Animais , Tephritidae/genética , Espermatogênese/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Insetos/genética
11.
J Vis Exp ; (187)2022 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36279540

RESUMO

The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a highly invasive and adaptive pest species that causes damage to citrus and over 150 other fruit crops worldwide. Since adult fruit flies have great flight capacity and females lay their eggs under the skins of fruit, insecticides requiring direct contact with the pest usually perform poorly in the field. With the development of molecular biological tools and high-throughput sequencing technology, many scientists are attempting to develop environmentally friendly pest management strategies. These include RNAi or gene editing-based pesticides that downregulate or silence genes (molecular targets), such as olfactory genes involved in searching behavior, in various insect pests. To adapt these strategies for Oriental fruit fly control, effective methods for functional gene research are needed. Genes with critical functions in the survival and reproduction of B. dorsalis serve as good molecular targets for gene knockdown and/or silencing. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a reliable technique used for gene editing, especially in insects. This paper presents a systematic method for CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis of B. dorsalis, including the design and synthesis of guide RNAs, collecting embryos, embryo injection, insect rearing, and mutant screening. These protocols will serve as a useful guide for generating mutant flies for researchers interested in functional gene studies in B. dorsalis.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Tephritidae , Animais , Feminino , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Tephritidae/genética , Drosophila , Mutagênese , Insetos
12.
PLoS Genet ; 18(10): e1010418, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36197879

RESUMO

Increasing evidence indicates that miRNAs play crucial regulatory roles in various physiological processes of insects, including systemic metabolism. However, the molecular mechanisms of how specific miRNAs regulate energy metabolic homeostasis remain largely unknown. In the present study, we found that an evolutionarily conserved miR-275/305 cluster was essential for maintaining energy metabolic homeostasis in response to dietary yeast stimulation in Bactrocera dorsalis. Depletion of miR-275 and miR-305 by the CRISPR/Cas9 system significantly reduced triglyceride and glycogen contents, elevated total sugar levels, and impaired flight capacity. Combined in vivo and in vitro experiments, we demonstrated that miR-275 and miR-305 can bind to the 3'UTR regions of SLC2A1 and GLIS2 to repress their expression, respectively. RNAi-mediated knockdown of these two genes partially rescued metabolic phenotypes caused by inhibiting miR-275 and miR-305. Furthermore, we further illustrated that the miR-275/305 cluster acting as a regulator of the metabolic axis was controlled by the insulin signaling pathway. In conclusion, our work combined genetic and physiological approaches to clarify the molecular mechanism of metabolic homeostasis in response to different dietary stimulations and provided a reference for deciphering the potential targets of physiologically important miRNAs in a non-model organism.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Tephritidae , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Animais , Glicogênio/genética , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Homeostase/genética , Insulina/genética , Insulina/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Açúcares/metabolismo , Tephritidae/genética , Tephritidae/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
13.
Cell Rep ; 41(3): 111523, 2022 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36260997

RESUMO

All metazoan guts are subject to opposing pressures wherein the immune system must eliminate pathogens while tolerating the presence of symbiotic microbiota. The Imd pathway is an essential defense against invading pathogens in insect guts, but tolerance mechanisms are less understood. Here, we find PGRP-LB and PGRP-SB express mainly in the anterior and middle midgut in a similar pattern to symbiotic Enterobacteriaceae bacteria along the Bactrocera dorsalis gut. Knockdown of PGRP-LB and PGRP-SB enhances the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes and reduces Enterobacteriaceae numbers while increasing abundance of opportunistic pathogens. Microbiota numbers recover to normal levels after the RNAi effect subsided. In contrast, high expression of PGRP-LC in the foregut allows increased antibacterial peptide production to efficiently filter the entry of pathogens, protecting the symbiotic bacteria. Our study describes a mechanism by which regional expression of PGRPs construct a protective zone for symbiotic microbiota while maintaining the ability to fight pathogens.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte , Tephritidae , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Tephritidae/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Antibacterianos , Peptídeos/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142444

RESUMO

Insect chemosensory systems, such as smell and taste, are mediated by chemosensory receptor and non-receptor protein families. In the last decade, many studies have focused on discovering these families in Tephritidae species of agricultural importance. However, to date, there is no information on the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens Loew, a priority pest of quarantine importance in Mexico and other countries. This work represents the first effort to identify, classify and characterize the six chemosensory gene families by analyzing two head transcriptomes of sexually immature and mature adults of A. ludens from laboratory-reared and wild populations, respectively. We identified 120 chemosensory genes encoding 31 Odorant-Binding Proteins (OBPs), 5 Chemosensory Proteins (CSPs), 2 Sensory Neuron Membrane Proteins (SNMPs), 42 Odorant Receptors (ORs), 17 Ionotropic Receptors (IRs), and 23 Gustatory Receptors (GRs). The 120 described chemosensory proteins of the Mexican fruit fly significantly contribute to the genetic databases of insects, particularly dipterans. Except for some OBPs, this work reports for the first time the repertoire of olfactory proteins for one species of the genus Anastrepha, which provides a further basis for studying the olfactory system in the family Tephritidae, one of the most important for its economic and social impact worldwide.


Assuntos
Receptores Odorantes , Tephritidae , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Receptores Odorantes/genética , Receptores Odorantes/metabolismo , Olfato , Tephritidae/genética , Tephritidae/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
15.
BMC Biol ; 20(1): 201, 2022 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nitrogen is considered the most limiting nutrient element for herbivorous insects. To alleviate nitrogen limitation, insects have evolved various symbiotically mediated strategies that enable them to colonize nitrogen-poor habitats or exploit nitrogen-poor diets. In frugivorous tephritid larvae developing in fruit pulp under nitrogen stress, it remains largely unknown how nitrogen is obtained and larval development is completed. RESULTS: In this study, we used metagenomics and metatranscriptomics sequencing technologies as well as in vitro verification tests to uncover the mechanism underlying the nitrogen exploitation in the larvae of Bactrocera dorsalis. Our results showed that nitrogenous waste recycling (NWR) could be successfully driven by symbiotic bacteria, including Enterobacterales, Lactobacillales, Orbales, Pseudomonadales, Flavobacteriales, and Bacteroidales. In this process, urea hydrolysis in the larval gut was mainly mediated by Morganella morganii and Klebsiella oxytoca. In addition, core bacteria mediated essential amino acid (arginine excluded) biosynthesis by ammonium assimilation and transamination. CONCLUSIONS: Symbiotic bacteria contribute to nitrogen transformation in the larvae of B. dorsalis in fruit pulp. Our findings suggest that the pattern of NWR is more likely to be applied by B. dorsalis, and M. morganii, K. oxytoca, and other urease-positive strains play vital roles in hydrolysing nitrogenous waste and providing metabolizable nitrogen for B. dorsalis.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Tephritidae , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Drosophila/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Simbiose , Tephritidae/metabolismo , Tephritidae/microbiologia
16.
PLoS Genet ; 18(9): e1010411, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112661

RESUMO

Fecundity is arguably one of the most important life history traits, as it is closely tied to fitness. Most arthropods are recognized for their extreme reproductive capacity. For example, a single female of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis, a highly invasive species that is one of the most destructive agricultural pests worldwide, can lay more than 3000 eggs during its life span. The ovary is crucial for insect reproduction and its development requires further investigation at the molecular level. We report here that miR-309a is a regulator of ovarian development in B. dorsalis. Our bioinformatics and molecular studies have revealed that miR-309a binds the transcription factor pannier (GATA-binding factor A/pnr), and this activates yolk vitellogenin 2 (Vg 2) and vitellogenin receptor (VgR) advancing ovarian development. We further show that miR-309a is under the control of juvenile hormone (JH) and independent from 20-hydroxyecdysone. Thus, we identified a JH-controlled miR-309a/pnr axis that regulates Vg2 and VgR to control the ovarian development. This study has further enhanced our understanding of molecular mechanisms governing ovarian development and insect reproduction. It provides a background for identifying targets for controlling important Dipteran pests.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Tephritidae , Animais , Drosophila/metabolismo , Ecdisterona/metabolismo , Feminino , Hormônios Juvenis/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Tephritidae/genética , Tephritidae/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Vitelogeninas/genética , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo
17.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 25(7): 654-659, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098172

RESUMO

<b>Background and Objective:</b> Worldwide, <i>Bactrocera carambolae</i> and <i>Bactrocera dorsalis</i> are important pests in horticultural commodities. Based on the trapping with methyl eugenol attractant, it was found that the intermediate morphology between <i>B. carambolae</i> and <i>B. dorsalis</i>. This study observed the comparative biology and survivability of the interspecific and intraspecific hybrids <i>B. carambolae</i> and <i>B. dorsalis</i>. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> This study was conducted at the Indonesian Center of Forecasting Plant Pest Organisms (BBPOPT) and Plant Pest Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia. The method is an experimental method with a randomized block design that involves parental fecundity and survival test (four treatments and six replications) and fecundity and fertility tests (eight treatments and four replications). <b>Results:</b> The results showed a bigger reduction in the fecundity of hybrid parents of <i>B. carambolae</i> and <i>B. dorsalis</i> on interspecific rather than an intraspecific hybrid. The longevity of survival and development of eggs and larvae stages hybrid <i>B. carambolae</i> (♂). Moreover, the fecundity of F1 hybrids was increased compared to the hybrid parents and the fertility was in the range of 79.00-96.75%. <b>Conclusion:</b> Interspecific mating of <i>B. carambolae</i> and <i>B. dorsalis</i> have the potential to survive in nature.


Assuntos
Tephritidae , Animais , Fertilidade , Indonésia , Reprodução
18.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 25(6): 537-548, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098189

RESUMO

<b>Background and Objective:</b> The oriental fruit fly <i>Bactrocera dorsalis</i> (Hendel) is one of the most important insect pest species of fruit and vegetable crops in the tropical and subtropical regions. This study aimed to determine the attraction of female and male <i>B. dorsalis</i> fruit flies to the aroma of fruit juice from the host plants as well as their attraction to methanol extract, ethyl acetate extract and distillate water of selected host fruits. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> The attractiveness of the juice and extract/distillate water of the host fruits to <i>B. dorsalis</i> fruit flies was carried out in an experimental cage measuring 200×200×200 cm that was placed in the laboratory. The volatile compounds in the juice, methanol extract, ethyl acetate extract and distillate water of the selected fruits were analyzed using GCMS-Pyrolysis. <b>Results:</b> The results show that among the eight fruit juice aromas tested, the ones that significantly affected the number of trapped female <i>B. dorsalis</i> were the aromas of banana juice, papaya juice and chilli juice. The results of the analysis by GCMS-Pyrolysis showed that the methanol extract of banana fruit contains one volatile compound that was previously reported to have the ability to attract female <i>B. dorsalis</i> fruit flies. Two volatile compounds in the banana distillate water were also reported to have the ability to attract female <i>B. dorsalis</i> and other fruit flies. <b>Conclusion:</b> From the results of this study, it can be concluded that the methanol extract and distillate water of the green <i>Ambon lumut</i> banana fruit of <i>Musa acuminata</i> Colla has the potential to be developed as an attractant of female <i>B. dorsalis</i>.


Assuntos
Musa , Tephritidae , Animais , Frutas , Metanol , Água
19.
Zootaxa ; 5168(2): 237-250, 2022 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36101287

RESUMO

A new species of Bactrocera Macquart, Bactrocera (Bactrocera) divenderi Maneesh, Hancock and Prabhakar, sp. n., is described from Himachal Pradesh, Northern India and also recorded from Bhutan and northern Pakistan. It belongs to the B. (B.) nigrotibialis complex and a key to the complex is provided. Dacus (Mellesis) fletcheri Drew is newly recorded from India and records of B. (B.) invadens Drew, Tsuruta White from the Himalayan region are discussed.


Assuntos
Tephritidae , Animais , Índia
20.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e263261, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102373

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to investigate the array of hosts, distribution and to evaluate the toxicity of four insecticides: imidacloprid, fipronil, cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos alone and in combination against 3rd instar maggot and adult stage of fruit fly Bactrocera diversa Coquillett, 1904 (Diptera: Tephritidae) during 2021. B. diversa maggots were found vigorously feeding inside the cucurbit hosts (pumpkin, cucumber, bitter gourd, watermelon, round melon, bottle gourd) collected from different localities of Poonch division of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan, and this species is reported for the first time as new record to this region. Susceptibilities of B. diversa to insecticides were evaluated using topical method. Mortality was checked after 3, 6, 8 and 24h of exposure. Cypermethrin was most effective to kill 50% of both larval and adult stage with least LC50 [7.2(1.040±0.214), 17.4(0.748±0.193)], respectively followed by imidacloprid. Imidacloprid most effectively killed 90% of both larval and adult population with least LC90 value [73.2 (3.013±0.708) 16.9 (1.886±0.437)] respectively after 24 hours. Cypermethrin with chlorpyrifos most effectively killed 50 and 90 percent of both larval and adult stage of B. diversa with least LC50 value [11.3 (1.085±0.245), 2.5 (0.759±0.252)] and least LC90 value [171.3 (1.085±0.245), 121.9 (0.759±0.252)], respectively after 24h of exposure. Toxicity of each insecticide increased with exposure for longer time and increased dose. Cypermethrin is suggested as most effective against both larval and adult stages of B. diversa in combination with chlorpyrifos followed by imidacloprid.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Inseticidas , Tephritidae , Animais , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Larva , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Piretrinas
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