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1.
Zootaxa ; 5060(2): 81-94, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811174

RESUMO

Rhagoletis antioquiensis Rodriguez Norrbom, a new species of fruit fly in the striatella species group of Rhagoletis Loew, is described and illustrated. New distribution records are reported for two other species of the striatella group: R. nicaraguensis Herndez-Ortiz Fras, 2000 is reported from Costa Rica, and R. solanophaga Herndez-Ortiz Fras, 2000 from Bolivia. A lectotype is designated for Urophora scutellaris Macquart, 1851 (= R. macquartii (Loew)). New host plant relationships for three species of Rhagoletis, all reared from fruits, are reported: Acnistus arborescens (L.) Schrtdl. and Witheringia solanacea LHer for R. jamaicensis Foote, 1981 from Colombia; Lycianthes pseudolycioides (Chod. Hassl.) Bitter for R. solanophaga from Bolivia; and Solanum pseudocapsicum L., Solanum tuberosum L. subsp. andigenum (Juz. Burkasov) Hawkes, Solanum interandinum Bitter from Colombia and Solanum americanum Mill. in Peru for undetermined species of the psalida group. The key to species of the striatella group of Herndez-Ortiz Fras (2000) is modified to include R. antioquiensis.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Tephritidae , Animais
2.
Zootaxa ; 5057(1): 87-98, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811221

RESUMO

A new species of Euphranta, E. flavothoracica David, Hancock Sachin, sp. n. is described from India and placed in the zeylanica group of species. Postabdominal structures of E. cassiae (Munro), E. crux (Fabricius) and E. klugii (Wiedemann) are described. A revised key to the 16 species of Euphranta known from India is provided. A new generic and specific synonymy is established: Euphranta Loew, 1862 = Ichneumonomacula Chen, 2020, syn. n. and Dacus figuratus Walker, 1856 (=Euphranta figurata (Walker, 1856))= Ichneumonomacula wangyongi Chen, 2020, syn. n.


Assuntos
Tephritidae , Animais
3.
Zootaxa ; 5004(1): 107-130, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811316

RESUMO

Four new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. arevaloi Rodriguez Norrbom, A. cheslavoi Rodriguez Norrbom, A. coronis Rodriguez Norrbom, and A. pseudacris Rodriguez Norrbom. Additionally, A. buscki Stone, A. concava Greene, A. lutea Stone and A. zacharyi Norrbom are reported from Colombia for the first time, the occurrence of A. spatulata Stone in the country is confirmed and new distribution records of A. flavipennis Grenne and A. littoralis (Blanchard) are reported.


Assuntos
Tephritidae , Animais , Colômbia
4.
Zootaxa ; 4996(2): 383-391, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810522

RESUMO

Themarictera rinhai sp. n. is described from Madagascar. Previously Themarictera was a monotypic genus with only the species, T. flaveolata (Fabricius, 1805) having several synonyms, from continental Africa. A key for identification of both species is provided.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Tephritidae , Animais , Madagáscar
5.
Zootaxa ; 5048(3): 444-450, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810790

RESUMO

Asobara jenningsi Gupta sp. nov., a new parasitoid of the braconid genus, is described and illustrated from Karnataka, India. The new species is compared with all the possible closely allied species from the Oriental region.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Lycopersicon esculentum , Tephritidae , Animais , Índia
6.
Zootaxa ; 5023(2): 251-262, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810965

RESUMO

A new species of Elaphromyia, E. juncta David, Hancock Sachin, sp. n. is described from India. It can be differentiated from the morphologically similar E. siva Frey and E. pterocallaeformis (Bezzi) by the wing pattern, epandrial characters, morphology of spicules on the eversible membrane and spermathecal shape. Elaphromyia siva Frey and E. yunnanensis Wang are recorded for the first time from India. Records of E. pterocallaeformis (Bezzi) from southern India are regarded as misidentifications. A key to the 7 known non-African species is included.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Tephritidae , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Índia
7.
Zootaxa ; 5044(1): 1-74, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811016

RESUMO

Seventeen new species of Anastrepha, primarily from Suriname, French Guiana and Par, Brazil, are described and illustrated: A. aithogaster Norrbom from Brazil (Par), French Guiana, and Suriname; A. aliesae Norrbom from Suriname; A. brownsbergiensis Norrbom from Suriname; A. crassaculeus Norrbom Rodriguez Clavijo from Colombia (Magdalena, Norte de Santander) and Suriname; A. curvivenis Norrbom from Brazil (Amazonas), Ecuador (Zamora-Chinchipe), Peru (San Martn), and Suriname; A. fuscoalata Norrbom from Brazil (Par), French Guiana, and Suriname; A. gangadini Norrbom from Suriname; A. juxtalanceola Norrbom from Brazil (Par) and Suriname; A. microstrepha Norrbom from Brazil (Bahia) and Suriname; A. mitaraka Norrbom from French Guiana; A. neptis Norrbom from Brazil (Par), Ecuador (Orellana), Peru (Loreto) and Suriname; A. sobrina Norrbom from Brazil (Par), French Guiana, and Suriname; A. surinamensis Norrbom from Suriname; A. tenebrosa Norrbom from Brazil (Par) and Peru (Loreto); A. triangularis Norrbom from Suriname; A. wachiperi Norrbom from French Guiana and Peru (Cusco); and A. wittiensis Norrbom from Suriname. The following host plant records are reported: A. aithogaster from fruit of Parahancornia fasciculata (Poir.) Benoist (Apocynaceae); A. aliesae from fruit of Passiflora coccinea Aubl. and P. glandulosa Cav. (Passifloraceae); A. crassaculeus from fruit of an undetermined species of Pouteria (Sapotaceae); A. fuscoalata from fruit of Trymatococcus oligandrus (Benoist) Lanj. (Moraceae); A. sobrina from fruit of Eugenia lambertiana DC. (Myrtaceae); and A. wittiensis from fruit of Manilkara bidentata (A. DC.) A. Chev. (Sapotaceae).


Assuntos
Tephritidae , Animais , Brasil , Suriname
8.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e250505, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669805

RESUMO

The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an important pest in the subtropical region of Brazil. This insect has tritrophic relation between wild fruits and parasitoids and is associated with apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards adjacent to the Atlantic Forest in Paraná. We thus investigated the degree of infestation of the fruit fly and natural parasitism in wild and cultivated fruits surrounding apple orchards. For this purpose, we collected fruits of Acca sellowiana (Berg.) Burret, Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Mart), Eugenia uniflora L., Eugenia pyriformis Cambessèdes, Psidium cattleianum Sabine, Psidium guajava (L.), Annona neosericea Rainer and Eriobotrya japonica (Thumb) in apple orchards adjacent to the Atlantic Forest located in Campo do Tenente, Lapa and Porto Amazonas counties. In total, we collected 18,289 fruits during four growing years. The occurrence of A. fraterculus depends on the susceptible period of apple fruits. A. sellowiana and P. cattleianum were considered primary fruit fly multipliers and P. guajava was secondary, all occurring after the apple harvest (IS period). The group of parasitoids with A. fraterculus was Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brèthes, 1924) (Hymenoptera: Figitidae), Opius bellus (Gahan, 1930), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911) and Doryctobracon brasiliensis (Szépligeti, 1911) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) all of which are first records in the Atlantic Forest in Paraná. First record of O. bellus occurring in the State of Paraná, as well as, first record of the tritrophic association between host plant A. neosericea, parasitoids D. areolatus and O. bellus and fruit fly A. fraterculus. The host P. cattleianum stood out among the Myrtaceae species in regard to the high diversity of parasitoid species (81% of parasitoids). The total number of Figitidae species (76.5%) was higher than that of Braconidae species. The influence of climatic events in southern Brazil on wild fruit production should be further studied to understand the association of A. fraterculus with the tritrophic relationship.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Malus , Tephritidae , Animais , Brasil , Florestas
9.
J Insect Sci ; 21(5)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718645

RESUMO

Radiation is considered as a promising insect pest control strategy for minimizing postharvest yield losses. Among various techniques, irradiation is a method of choice as it induces lethal biochemical or molecular changes that cause a downstream cascade of abrupt physiological abnormalities at the cellular level. In this study, we evaluated the effect of 60Co-γ radiation on various developmental stages of Zeugodacus cucurbitae Coquillett and subsequent carry-over effects on the progeny. For this purpose, we treated eggs with 30- and 50-Gy radiation doses of 60Co-γ. We found that radiation significantly affected cellular antioxidants, insect morphology, and gene expression profiles. Our results indicate that in response to various doses of irradiation reactive oxygen species, catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities were increased along with a significant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content. We observed higher mortality rates during the pupal stage of the insects that hatched from irradiated eggs (50 Gy). Furthermore, the life span of the adults was reduced in response to 50 Gy radiation. The negative effects carried over to the next generation were marked by significantly lower fecundity in the F1 generation of the irradiation groups as compared to control. The radiation induced morphological abnormalities at the pupal, as well as the adult, stages. Furthermore, variations in the gene expression following irradiation are discussed. Taken together, our results signify the utility of 60Co-γ radiation for fruit fly postharvest management.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Raios gama , Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Tephritidae/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/efeitos da radiação , Apoptose/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Catalase/efeitos da radiação , Radioisótopos de Cobalto/farmacologia , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/efeitos da radiação , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Larva/fisiologia , Larva/efeitos da radiação , Longevidade/efeitos da radiação , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/efeitos da radiação , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Peroxidase/efeitos da radiação , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Pupa/genética , Pupa/metabolismo , Pupa/fisiologia , Pupa/efeitos da radiação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/efeitos da radiação , Tephritidae/genética , Tephritidae/metabolismo , Tephritidae/fisiologia
10.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20190935, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705931

RESUMO

Diachasmimorpha longicaudata is the most used braconid in biological control programs for Tephritidae fruit flies worldwide. The aim of this work was to assess the functional response and preference of this parasitoid to larvae of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in different densities of hosts. The functional response of females of D. longicaudata was assessed, independently, in two hosts (third instar larvae of C. capitata or A. fraterculus), in seven densities 1, 3, 5, 10, 25, 35 or 55 larvae of fruit flies per one female of parasitoid exposed in unit of artificial parasitism, for three hours, in at least 20 repetitions. The species showed a Type III functional response regardless of the density of host larvae, in both species, indicating that they are feasible hosts for multiplication of the parasitoid, under the conditions tested. The number of individuals parasitized and the percentage of female emergence were superior in A. fraterculus, when compared to C. capitata. Parasitism in field and progeny of female parasitoids can be incremented using larvae of A. fraterculus in the rearing of D. longicaudata.


Assuntos
Ceratitis capitata , Himenópteros , Tephritidae , Vespas , Animais , Drosophila , Feminino , Humanos , Larva
11.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641444

RESUMO

The family Tephritidae (Diptera) includes species that are highly invasive and harmful to crops. Due to globalization, international trade, and human displacement, their spread is continuously increasing. Unfortunately, the control of tephritid flies is still closely linked to the use of synthetic insecticides, which are responsible for detrimental effects on the environment and human health. Recently, research is looking for alternative and more eco-friendly tools to be adopted in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs. In this regard, essential oils (EOs) and their main compounds represent a promising alternative to chemical insecticides. EOs are made up of phytoconstituents formed from the secondary metabolism of many plants and can act as attractants or toxics, depending on the dose. Because of this unique characteristic, EOs and their main constituents are promising tools that can be used both in Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs and in the "lure and kill" technique, exploiting the attractiveness of the product in the former case and its toxicity in the latter. In this article, current knowledge on the biological and behavioral effects of EOs and their main constituents on tephritid fruit flies is reviewed, mainly focusing on species belonging to the Anastrepha, Bactrocera, Ceratitis, and Zeugodacus genera. The mechanisms of action of EOs, their real-world applications, and challenges related to their use in IPM are critically discussed.


Assuntos
Controle de Insetos/métodos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tephritidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17632, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480052

RESUMO

Sterile male Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), fed as immature adults on the plant compound raspberry ketone (RK), show a reduced attraction to cuelure, a synthetic analogue of RK used as an attractant in Male Annihilation Technique. We hypothesized the reduced attraction of RK-fed adult males to cuelure may be a consequence of altered expression of chemoreception genes. A Y-tube olfactometer assay with RK-fed and RK-unfed sterile B. tryoni males tested the subsequent behavioural response to cuelure. Behavioral assays confirmed a significant decrease in attraction of RK-fed sterile males to cuelure. RK-fed, non-responders (to cue-lure) and RK-unfed, responders (to cue-lure) males were sampled and gene expression compared by de novo RNA-seq analysis. A total of 269 genes in fly heads were differentially expressed between replicated groups of RK-fed, cuelure non-responders and RK-unfed, cuelure responders. Among them, 218 genes including 4 chemoreceptor genes were up regulated and 51 genes were down regulated in RK-fed, cuelure non-responders. De novo assembly generated many genes with unknown functions and no significant BLAST hits to homologues in other species. The enriched and suppressed genes reported here, shed light on the transcriptional changes that affect the dynamics of insect responses to chemical stimuli.


Assuntos
Butanonas , Células Quimiorreceptoras/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Infertilidade Masculina/metabolismo , Tephritidae/metabolismo , Animais , Masculino
13.
J Insect Physiol ; 134: 104308, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474015

RESUMO

The microbiota influences hosts' health and fitness. However, the extent to which the microbiota affects host' foraging decisions and related life history traits remains to be fully understood. Our study explored the effects of microbiota manipulation on foraging preference and phenotypic traits of larval and adult stages of the polyphagous fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni, one of the main horticultural pests in Australia. We generated three treatments: control (non-treated microbiota), axenic (removed microbiota), and reinoculation (individuals which had their microbiota removed then re-introduced). Our results confirmed that axenic larvae and immature (i.e., newly emerged 0 day-old, sexually-immature) adults were lighter than control and reinoculated individuals. Interestingly, we found a sex-specific effect of the microbiota manipulation on carbohydrate intake and body composition of 10 day-old mature adults. Axenic males ate less carbohydrate, and had lower body weight and total body fat relative to control and reinoculated males. Conversely, axenic females ate more carbohydrate than control and reinoculated ones, although body weight and lipid reserves were similar across treatments. Axenic females produced fewer eggs than control and reinoculated females. Our findings corroborate the far-reaching effects of microbiota in insects found in previous studies and show, for the first time, a sex-specific effect of microbiota on feeding behaviour in flies. Our results underscore the dynamic relationship between the microbiota and the host with the reinoculation of microbes restoring some traits that were affected in axenic individuals.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Tephritidae , Animais , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Dípteros/microbiologia , Dípteros/fisiologia , Feminino , Fertilidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Larva/microbiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Tephritidae/microbiologia , Tephritidae/fisiologia
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112567, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364125

RESUMO

Males of the Oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) are highly attracted to, and compulsively feed, on methyl eugenol (ME). ME is converted into 2-allyl-4,5-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) and (E)-coniferyl alcohol (E-CF), which are temporarily sequestered in the fly's rectal gland prior to being released at dusk. Previous research initially confirmed that DMP is a relatively strong lure to B. dorsalis males. However, the characteristics of males' response to DMP and toxicology of DMP remains largely unclear. In our study, we demonstrated that DMP was more attractive to sexually mature males than E-CF tested in laboratory bioassays. Interestingly, the responsiveness of mature males to DMP was not uniform throughout the day, eliciting the highest response during the day and dropping to a low level at night. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between the olfactory responses of virgin and mated mature males to DMP. No obvious signs of toxic symptom and deaths were observed in mice during a 14-day acute oral toxicity testing. Further, toxicologically significant changes were not observed in body weight, water intake, food consumption, and absolute and relative organ weights between control and treated groups, implying DMP could be regarded as nontoxic. Lastly, the cytotoxicity data of DMP on cells showed that it exhibited no significant cytotoxicity to normal human and mouse cells. Taken together, results from both the acute and cellular toxicity experiments demonstrated the nontoxic nature of DMP. In conclusion, DMP shows promise as an effective and eco-friendly lure for B. dorsalis males, and may contribute to controlling B. dorsalis in the flied.


Assuntos
Atrativos Sexuais , Tephritidae , Animais , Eugenol/análogos & derivados , Masculino , Camundongos , Reprodução
15.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 616, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The endosymbiont Wolbachia can manipulate arthropod reproduction and invade host populations by inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). Some host species are coinfected with multiple Wolbachia strains which may have sequentially invaded host populations by expressing different types of modular CI factor (cif) genes. The tephritid fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi is a model for CI and Wolbachia population dynamics. It is associated with at least four Wolbachia strains in various combinations, with demonstrated (wCer2, wCer4), predicted (wCer1) or unknown (wCer5) CI phenotypes. RESULTS: We sequenced and assembled the draft genomes of the Wolbachia strains wCer1, wCer4 and wCer5, and compared these with the previously sequenced genome of wCer2 which currently invades R. cerasi populations. We found complete cif gene pairs in all strains: four pairs in wCer2 (three Type I; one Type V), two pairs in wCer1 (both Type I) and wCer4 (one Type I; one Type V), and one pair in wCer5 (Type IV). Wolbachia genome variant analyses across geographically and genetically distant host populations revealed the largest diversity of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in wCer5, followed by wCer1 and then wCer2, indicative of their different lengths of host associations. Furthermore, mitogenome analyses of the Wolbachia genome-sequenced individuals in combination with SNP data from six European countries revealed polymorphic mitogenome sites that displayed reduced diversity in individuals infected with wCer2 compared to those without. CONCLUSIONS: Coinfections with Wolbachia are common in arthropods and affect options for Wolbachia-based management strategies of pest and vector species already infected by Wolbachia. Our analyses of Wolbachia genomes of a host naturally coinfected by several strains unravelled signatures of the evolutionary dynamics in both Wolbachia and host mitochondrial genomes as a consequence of repeated invasions. Invasion of already infected populations by new Wolbachia strains requires new sets of functionally different cif genes and thereby may select for a cumulative modularity of cif gene diversity in invading strains. Furthermore, we demonstrated at the mitogenomic scale that repeated CI-driven Wolbachia invasions of hosts result in reduced mitochondrial diversity and hitchhiking effects. Already resident Wolbachia strains may experience similar cytoplasmic hitchhiking effects caused by the invading Wolbachia strain.


Assuntos
Tephritidae , Wolbachia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Citoplasma , Humanos , Mitocôndrias , Simbiose/genética , Wolbachia/genética
16.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443611

RESUMO

Pheromones are biologically important in fruit fly mating systems, and also have potential applications as attractants or mating disrupters for pest management. Bactrocera kraussi (Hardy) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a polyphagous pest fruit fly for which the chemical profile of rectal glands is available for males but not for females. There have been no studies of the volatile emissions of either sex or of electrophysiological responses to these compounds. The present study (i) establishes the chemical profiles of rectal gland contents and volatiles emitted by both sexes of B. kraussi by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and (ii) evaluates the detection of the identified compounds by gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) and -electropalpogram detection (GC-EPD). Sixteen compounds are identified in the rectal glands of male B. kraussi and 29 compounds are identified in the rectal glands of females. Of these compounds, 5 were detected in the headspace of males and 13 were detected in the headspace of females. GC-EPD assays recorded strong signals in both sexes against (E,E)-2,8-dimethyl-1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane, 2-ethyl-7-mehtyl-1,6-dioxaspiro[4.5]decane isomer 2, (E,Z)/(Z,E)-2,8-dimethyl-1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane, and (Z,Z)-2,8-dimethyl-1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane. Male antennae responded to (E,E)-2,8-dimethyl-1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane, 2-methyl-6-pentyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran, 6-hexyl-2-methyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran, 6-oxononan-1-ol, ethyl dodecanoate, ethyl tetradecanoate and ethyl (Z)-hexadec-9-enoate, whereas female antennae responded to (E,E)-2,8-dimethyl-1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane and 2-methyl-6-pentyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran only. These compounds are candidates as pheromones mediating sexual interactions in B. kraussi.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Reto/metabolismo , Tephritidae , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
17.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 23(6): 33-43, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369732

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the effect of the protein and antioxidant contents of edible mushrooms on the longevity of the fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens). The contents of protein (Bradford assay), antioxidants (DPPH and ABTS assays), total phenols, and flavonoids in nine strains of different edible mushroom species were determined. Freeze-dried and finely ground complete mushroom fruiting bodies were used to feed the flies, with a concentration of 0.5% in the diet. Male and female fruit flies, both fertile and sterile, were used in this study. Two controls were used: the standard fly diet and a diet supplemented with cinnamon as a food rich in antioxidants. Differences in protein and antioxidant contents were found among the evaluated strains. Differences were also observed in the responses of female and male flies as well as between the responses of fertile and sterile flies. Overall, the sterile flies lived longer. The addition of mushrooms in the diet resulted in greater longevity than in the controls. The use of sterile flies allowed observation of the effect of proteins and antioxidants on reproduction and the subsequent effect of reproduction on longevity.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Tephritidae , Animais , Antioxidantes , Dieta , Feminino , Proteínas Fúngicas , Longevidade , Masculino
18.
J Insect Physiol ; 133: 104289, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332969

RESUMO

Polyandry, whereby females mate with more than one male in a reproductive cycle, can result in sperm competition or cryptic female choice, and have fitness implications for both sexes. Understanding patterns of sperm storage in twice-mated females can provide valuable insights to mechanisms that mediate sperm use and paternity. In the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Qfly), and other insects that are managed by the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), polyandry can reduce the efficacy of this pest control method. Patterns of sperm storage in twice-mated Qflies were studied by developing three fly lines that are homozygous for different alleles of a microsatellite marker (Bt32) and using a combination of quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and capillary electrophoresis-based techniques to quantify and genotype sperm in each spermatheca. Female Qflies consistently stored fewer sperm from their second mate than from their first mate. Further, asymmetry between the spermathecae in the distribution of sperm stored from the first mate appears to in part determine the distribution of sperm stored from the second mate, likely because of constraints in storage capacity in the two spermathecae. Implications of these findings for elucidating pattern of sperm competition in this species, and for SIT, are discussed.


Assuntos
Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Tephritidae/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução
19.
Environ Entomol ; 50(5): 1173-1186, 2021 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387323

RESUMO

Parasitoids comprise a speciose insect group, displaying a wide array of life history strategies. In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, the tephritid fruit flies Rhagoletis tabellaria (Fitch) and Rhagoletis indifferens Curran infest red osier dogwood, Cornus sericea L. (Cornaceae), and bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton (Rosaceae), respectively. The flies are parasitized by different braconid wasps at different life stages; Utetes tabellariae (Fischer) oviposits into R. tabellaria eggs, whereas Diachasma muliebre (Muesebeck) oviposits into R. indifferens larvae feeding in cherries. Because Rhagoletis only have one major generation a year and the wasps attack temporally distinct fly life stages, we predicted that eclosion times of U. tabellariae should more closely follow that of its host than the larval-attacking D. muliebre. As predicted, U. tabellariae eclosed on average 6.0-12.5 d later than R. tabellaria, whereas D. muliebre eclosed on average 32.1 d after R. indifferens. Unexpectedly, however, longer chill duration differentially affected the systems; longer overwinters minimally influenced eclosion times of R. tabellaria and U. tabellariae but caused earlier eclosion of both R. indifferens and D. muliebre. Results imply that in temperate regions, diapause timing in braconid wasps evolves in response to both host life stage attacked and fly eclosion characteristics, possibly reflecting differential effects of winter on host plant fruiting phenology. Differences in phenological sensitivity of the lower host plant trophic level to variation in environmental conditions may have cascading effects, sequentially and differentially affecting eclosion times in higher frugivore (fly) and parasitoid (wasp) trophic levels.


Assuntos
Tephritidae , Vespas , Animais , Larva , América do Norte , Óvulo
20.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255582, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388152

RESUMO

The braconid parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is one of the most important natural enemies in classical biological control programs against tephritid fruit flies worldwide. In light of the spread of the invasive fruit fly species, Bactrocera dorsalis in Africa and beyond, there is a need to implement classical biological control. The current study aimed to determine temperature thresholds for D. longicaudata reared on B. dorsalis, using life cycle simulation modeling to guide informed parasitoid releases in Africa. Simulated parameters included thermal requirements, population growth parameters at different temperature requirements, suitable areas for the establishment, and the number of generations per year under projected climatic conditions. The lower thermal threshold for the development was estimated at 10.0°C, with a thermal constant (k) of 333.3-degree days, while the maximum temperature threshold was estimated at 33.69°C. Fecundity was highest at 25°C, with 177.3 eggs per female. Temperature significantly affected the population growth parameters of D. longicaudata, and the maximum value of the intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was 0.145 at 27°C. Results indicate that D. longicaudata could successfully establish in tropical and sub-tropical regions under current and future climatic conditions. However, a slight change in the suitable areas is expected by the year 2050 due to a slight and gradual rise in temperature. Our findings provide important information for further release of this parasitoid in Africa as well as designing pest management strategies to limit the spread and reduce the impact of fruit flies sustainably.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Temperatura , Tephritidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Fertilidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/parasitologia , Tephritidae/parasitologia
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