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1.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e255496, 2023.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1529211

RESUMO

O presente artigo tem como objetivo apresentar a construção metodológica desenvolvida em uma pesquisa de mestrado, na qual sustentamos a escrita de cenas como método de pesquisa da escuta clínica. As cenas do trabalho em questão foram recolhidas ao longo do tempo, no contorno da experiência de um projeto de extensão universitária de atenção à infância e adolescência em situação de vulnerabilidade social, situado em uma comunidade periférica. Apresentamos, neste texto, as interrogações que se elaboraram em torno da escolha pelo trabalho com cenas, e compartilhamos o resgate histórico dessas como um método de escrever a clínica, bem como a retomada de sua análise a partir da tradição psicanalítica. Amparadas nesta teoria e em leituras e contribuições do filósofo francês Jacques Derrida, embasamos a noção de que a cena se constitui como um lugar de produção, ao engendrar a configuração particular de elementos significantes nos processos de subjetivação e de construção social. A cena não é, então, compreendida aqui como uma representação do que acontece na clínica, mas como um modo de produzir a escuta e os seus processos de investigação.(AU)


This article aims to present the methodological construction developed in a master's research, in which the writing of scenes as a method of clinical listening research was endorsed. The scenes from the study in question were collected over time, from the experience gained in a project conducted within a university extension program on care in childhood and adolescence in social vulnerability, in a peripheral community. In this study, we present some questions that were elaborated surrounding the choices of working with scenes; and we share the historical rescue of this work as a method of writing on clinic practices and resuming their analysis from the psychoanalytic tradition. Based on the psychoanalytic theory and on the readings and contributions of the French philosopher Jacques Derrida, we corroborate the notion that the scene is constituted as a place of production, engendering the particular configuration of significant elements in the processes of subjectivation and social construction. Here, the scene is not a representation of clinical practice but one mode of producing listening and its research processes.(AU)


Este artículo tiene como objetivo presentar la construcción metodológica desarrollada en una investigación de maestría, en la que sostenemos la escritura de escenas como método de investigación de la escucha clínica. Las escenas del trabajo en cuestión se recogieron a lo largo del tiempo desde la experiencia en un proyecto de extensión universitario de atención a la niñez y adolescencia en situación de vulnerabilidad social aplicado en una comunidad periférica. En este texto, presentamos los interrogantes que se elaboraron en torno a la elección por el trabajo con escenas y compartimos el rescate histórico de las mismas como un método de escribir la clínica y la reanudación del análisis a partir de la tradición psicoanalítica. Amparadas en el psicoanálisis y en lecturas y contribuciones del filósofo francés Jacques Derrida, nos basaremos en la noción de que la escena se constituye como un lugar de producción, engendrando la configuración particular de elementos significantes en los procesos de subjetivación y de construcción social. La escena no es aquí una representación de lo que pasa en la clínica, sino un modo de producir escucha y sus procesos de investigación.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Psicanálise , Criança , Proteção da Criança , Equipamentos e Provisões , Metodologia como Assunto , Refeições , Vulnerabilidade Social , Parapsicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais , Paternidade , Jogos e Brinquedos , Ludoterapia , Pobreza , Fenômenos Psicológicos , Teoria Psicológica , Psicologia , Psicologia Clínica , Terapia da Realidade , Bode Expiatório , Instituições Acadêmicas , Relações entre Irmãos , Classe Social , Isolamento Social , Justiça Social , Responsabilidade Social , Apoio Social , Serviço Social , Fala , Superego , Inconsciente Psicológico , Comportamento , Áreas de Pobreza , Uso de Resíduos Sólidos , Criança Abandonada , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Defesa da Criança e do Adolescente , Cuidado da Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento , Características de Residência , Higiene , Saúde da Criança , Responsabilidade Legal , Adolescente , Poder Familiar , Estágio Clínico , Assistência Integral à Saúde , Estado de Consciência , Vida , Crime , Intervenção em Crise , Afeto , Cultura , Narração , Fraldas Infantis , Sujeitos da Pesquisa , Agressão , Violação de Direitos Humanos , Sonhos , Educação , Ego , Emprego , Mercado de Trabalho , Ética , Nutrição da Criança , Bullying , Marginalização Social , Criança Acolhida , Privilégio Social , Liberdade , Teoria Freudiana , Status Econômico , Respeito , Regras de Decisão Clínica , Inclusão Social , Instabilidade Habitacional , Baixo Nível Socioeconômico , História , Direitos Humanos , Id , Lateralidade Funcional , Amor , Memória , Memória de Curto Prazo , Moral , Nomes
2.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e250370, 2023.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1440796

RESUMO

A atuação em situações de emergências e desastres apresentam-se como um dos grandes desafios na atuação dos profissionais da Psicologia, demandando intervenções singulares, desde o primeiro contato com as vítimas e o com entorno afetado pelo ocorrido, passando pelo trabalho interdisciplinar e interinstitucional junto aos órgãos públicos de segurança, justiça, assistência e saúde. O presente artigo tem como objetivo apresentar, por meio da experiência na assistência às vítimas na Escola Estadual Raul Brasil, as particularidades e adversidades enfrentadas durante o primeiro semestre de intervenções emergenciais que antecederam a contratação de psicólogos por parte do poder público municipal para continuidade das ações. Por meio de relatos de experiência em intervenções psicológicas, obtidos em diferentes instituições para a assistência às vítimas, este trabalho também visa apresentar alternativas que possam servir de referências para a intervenção do psicólogo e da psicóloga em situações de emergências e desastres, especialmente ocorridas na comunidade escolar. Observou-se que a realização do trabalho interdisciplinar e interinstitucional somado à participação da direção da escola no planejamento das ações e a realização de plantões psicológicos e rodas de conversa junto à comunidade escolar foram fundamentais para a assistência às vítimas do ocorrido.(AU)


Timely response to emergency and disaster situations is a major challenge for Psychology professionals and require particular interventions, from initial contact with the victims and the affected environment to interdisciplinary and interinstitutional collaboration with public security, justice, assistance and health agencies. Based on the experience of providing assistance to the victims of the State School Raul Brasil, this paper presents the adversities and specificities faced during the first semester of emergency interventions implemented before psychologists were hired by municipal officials for the continuity of care. By analyzing experience reports on psychological interventions obtained from different institutions for victim assistance, this paper proposes alternatives to be used as reference for psychological intervention in emergency and disaster situations, especially those experienced by the school community. Interdisciplinary and interinstitutional collaboration with the school board for planning actions and offering psychological services and conversation circles for the school community was fundamental to assist the victims.(AU)


La actuación en situaciones de emergencias es uno de los grandes desafíos a los profesionales de la psicología, pues demanda intervenciones singulares desde el primer contacto con las víctimas y con el contexto afectado por lo ocurrido, pasando por la interdisciplinaridad e interinstitucionalidad junto a los organismos públicos de seguridad, justicia, asistencia y salud. Este artículo tiene como objetivo presentar, por medio de la experiencia de la asistencia a las víctimas del colegio estadual Raul Brasil (en São Paulo, Brasil), las particularidades y adversidades enfrentadas durante el primer semestre de las intervenciones de emergencia que antecedieron la contratación de psicólogos por parte del municipio para continuidad de las acciones. Por medio de reportes de experiencia en intervenciones psicológicas, obtenidos en diferentes instituciones para la asistencia a las víctimas, este estudio también pretende presentar alternativas que puedan servir de referencia en la intervención de psicólogos y psicólogas en situaciones de emergencia y desastres, especialmente ocurridas en la comunidad escolar. Se verificó que la realización del trabajo interdisciplinar e interinstitucional, la participación de la dirección del colegio en la implementación de acciones y la realización de guardias psicológicas y círculos de conversación con la comunidad escolar fueron fundamentales para una asistencia a las víctimas.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Emergências , Ansiedade , Pânico , Relações Pais-Filho , Política , Prisões , Psiquiatria , Psicologia Educacional , Psicologia Social , Psicopatologia , Punição , Terapia da Realidade , Religião , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Automutilação , Mudança Social , Problemas Sociais , Socialização , Estereotipagem , Violência , Políticas de Controle Social , Transtorno Bipolar , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Luto , Adaptação Psicológica , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Atitude , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Educação Infantil , Características de Residência , Adolescente , Polícia , Transtorno de Pânico , Violência Doméstica , Trabalho de Resgate , Vida , Vítimas de Crime , Encômio , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Internet , Crime , Direito Penal , Intervenção em Crise , Atentado Terrorista , Terrorismo , Morte , Mecanismos de Defesa , Atenção à Saúde , Disseminação de Informação , Aplicação da Lei , Amigos , Menores de Idade , Agressão , Depressão , Planejamento em Desastres , Auxiliares de Emergência , Humanização da Assistência , Acolhimento , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , Medo , Bullying , Apatia , Abrigo de Emergência , Incêndios , Ajustamento Emocional , Influência dos Pares , Assédio não Sexual , Terapia Focada em Emoções , Sobrevivência , Fracasso Acadêmico , Etnocentrismo , Extremismo , Cyberbullying , Frustração , Violência com Arma de Fogo , Respeito , Angústia Psicológica , Serviços de Saúde Mental Escolar , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Desinformação , Apoio Familiar , Prevenção do Suicídio , Processos Grupais , Culpa , Homicídio , Hostilidade , Direitos Humanos , Jurisprudência , Ira , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Transtornos Mentais , Motivação , Transtornos Neuróticos , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial
3.
Noise Health ; 25(119): 211-219, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358236

RESUMO

Objective: This study was conducted to explore the effects of comprehensive noise reduction management combined with reality therapy on anxiety and depression in hospitalised patients with breast cancer. Methods: The medical records of 166 inpatients with breast cancer in Tongji Hospital affiliated with Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology from March 2020 to March 2022 were retrospectively analysed. According to different intervention methods, these patients were divided into group A (n = 58, receiving conventional intervention), group B (n = 55, receiving conventional intervention combined with reality therapy) and group C (n = 53, receiving conventional intervention combined with comprehensive noise reduction management and reality therapy intervention). Patients' anxiety and depression, quality of life and satisfaction degree in the three groups were compared. Results: Before the intervention, the scores of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Short-From-36 Health Survey (SF-36) scale did not significantly differ amongst the three groups (P > 0.05). After the intervention, we observed a difference in the pairwise comparison of HADS scores amongst the three groups, in which group C had the lowest score and group A had the highest HADS score (P < 0.001). We also noted a difference in the pairwise comparison of SF-36 scores amongst the three groups, in which group C had the highest SF-36 score and group A had the lowest SF-36 score (P < 0.001). The pairwise comparison of satisfaction revealed a difference amongst the three groups, in which group C had the highest satisfaction (92.45%, 94.34% and 94.34%), and group A had the lowest satisfaction (74.14%, 74.14% and 75.86%; P < 0.05). Conclusion: Comprehensive noise reduction management combined with reality therapy can effectively relieve the negative emotions of inpatients with breast cancer, as well as improve their survival state of patients. It is suggested that it be included in the clinical intervention system for breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/terapia , Depressão/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Terapia da Realidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Ansiedade/psicologia
5.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 31(11): 1581-1597, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30712519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The main objective of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to identify the effects of reminiscence therapy in people with dementia (PWD). METHODS: A systematic search of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted using bibliographic databases. A total of 157 original published studies were identified in the search, and 24 complete articles were included in the final review to check for the level of evidence. Two of the study authors independently assessed the quality of the included studies using the "Risk of Bias" (ROB) tool developed by the Cochrane Collaboration. Depression, quality of life, and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) were selected to measure the effect of reminiscence therapy. To determine the effects of reminiscence therapy on these variables, each individual study was analyzed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Software® (Biostat, Englewood, NJ, USA). RESULTS: The overall effect size was presented using standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals. Cohen's d effect size for depression was -0.541 (95% CI: -0.847 to -0.234, Z = -3.730, p<0.001), indicating that depression was significantly reduced in the reminiscence group compared to the control group. Increased quality of life and decreased BPSD were also found in the reminiscence group compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: Reminiscence therapy has a moderate effect on depression and can be broadly used to decrease depression as an alternative to antipsychotics, which can have harmful side effects and high cost.


Assuntos
Demência/terapia , Memória de Longo Prazo , Rememoração Mental , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Humanos , Orientação , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Terapia da Realidade
6.
Neuropsychol Rev ; 29(1): 79-92, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30259388

RESUMO

Decision-making deficits are strong predictors of poor clinical outcomes in addiction treatment. However, research on interventions that address decision-making deficits among people with addiction is scarce and has not been analyzed. We aimed to systematically review evidence on neuropsychological interventions for decision-making deficits in addiction to identify promising therapies. Eligibility criteria were (1) participants with a diagnosis of substance use or behavioral addictive disorders, (2) interventions consisting of (neuro) psychological treatments that address decision-making, (3) comparators comprising control (sham) interventions, treatment as usual or no-treatment, (4) outcomes including a decision-making task, and (5) studies including RCTs and non-randomized trials. Search terms included addiction (or alcohol/drug/substance use/gambling) AND treatment (or specific interventions) AND decision-making (or specific tasks). The search yielded 728 hits, and two independent assessors agreed on the final selection of 12 articles. Interventions included Contingency Management (3 studies), Working Memory Training (2 studies) Goal Management Training (2 studies), Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (2 studies), Reality Therapy, Motivational Interview and Monetary Management. The main outcome measures were tasks of delay discounting, risk-taking and reward-based decision-making. Results showed that Goal Management Training improves reward-based decision-making, while Contingency Management combined with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy has beneficial effects on delay discounting. The evidence on Working Memory Training and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as stand-alone treatments was mixed. Motivational Interview and Monetary Management had no significant effects on decision-making. Bias control across studies was moderate. We conclude that Goal Management Training and Contingency Management combined with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy have potential to modify decision-making in people with addiction. RCTs are needed to establish the efficacy of these interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Tomada de Decisões , Psicoterapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Objetivos , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Terapia da Realidade , Recompensa , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-740853

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of self-assertive training applying the reality therapy techniques (SATART) on self-esteem and internalized stigma of schizophrenia patients. METHODS: This study was a non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design and enrolled 55 people with schizophrenia (experimental group=27, control group=28) from two community mental health centers. The SATART was offered twice a week for 6 weeks in a total 12 sessions. Data were collected from February to April, 2017, using the Korean version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The collected data was analyzed using χ2 test, independent t-test, one-way ANCOVA, and repeated measures ANOVA with using the SPSS/WIN 22.0 program. RESULTS: The experimental group showed significant improvements in self-esteem and recudction of internalized stigma compared to the control group. However, there was no significant improvement on stigma resistance measurement among the subscales of internalized stigma between two groups. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that the SATART program is effective and could be recommended as a psychosocial intervention for self-esteem enhancement and internalized stigma reduction of people with schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Humanos , Assertividade , Centros Comunitários de Saúde Mental , Terapia da Realidade , Esquizofrenia , Autoimagem , Estigma Social
8.
Rev. psicoanál. (Madr.) ; 34(86): 615-631, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-228494

RESUMO

El autor sintetiza los desarrollos del pensamiento de Pierre Marty y delos principales representantes de la Escuela de París de Psicosomática, a laque él ha añadido diferentes conceptos, sobre todo la idea de trabajo. Este texto es una continuación de una hipótesis anterior expresada en «Duelo, melancolía y somatización», en donde muestra que la somatización es un trabajo que se realiza cuando otras modalidades de trabajo psíquico fracasan. (AU)


The author provides a synthesis of the developments in the thought of Pierre Marty and the principal representatives of the Paris Psychosomatic School, including his own conceptual contributions, such as the notion ofa somatizing process. This paper is a continuation of a hypothesis set outin “Mourning, Melancholia and Somatization” which shows that somatization is a process that occurs when other modalities of psychic work fail. (AU)


L´auteur fait la synthèse des développements de la pensée de PierreMarty et des principaux représentants de l´Ecole de Paris de Psychosomatique, à laquelle il a ajouté différents concepts, surtout l´idée de travail. Ce travail est une continuation d´une hypothèse antérieure expriméedans «Deuil, mélancolie et somatisation» où il montre que la somatisation est un travail qui a lieu quand d´autres modalités de travail psychique échouent. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtornos Somatoformes/psicologia , Terapia da Realidade
9.
Psicol. rev ; 27(2): 263-285, dez. 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-998679

RESUMO

O presente artigo procura compreender a função da mentira contada em análise, bem como refletir sobre o manejo transferencial solicitado por tal tipo de relato, à luz da teoria psicanalítica freudiana. Com esses objetivos, efetuou-se um estudo sobre as realidades psíquica e material, a fantasia e a mentira, a fim de poder analisar a incidência do referido relato na clínica psicanalítica e como escutá-lo, desvinculando-o de um viés moralista e atrelado ao desejo. Pretende-se com este artigo esclarecer que, para a clínica, o aspecto da função do mentir que importa é sua forma e não seu conteúdo, além de propor um espaço benevolente para escutar, a partir da livre associação, o discurso mentiroso dos pacientes. Essas reflexões podem contribuir de forma significativa para o aprimoramento do fazer do analista na clínica psicanalítica.


This article intends to understand the role of a lie told in psychoanalysis, as well as reflect on the transferencial management requested by such type of report, in light of the Freudian psychoanalytical theory. With these objectives, a study was conducted about the psychic and material realities, the fantasy and the lie, so as to analyze the incidence of the referred report in the psychoanalytical practice and how to study it, detaching it from a bias that is moralist and connected to desire. This article intends to clarify that, for the practice, the aspect of the lie that matters is its form and not its content, as well as proposing a benevolent place to listen, from free association, to the untruthful discourse of the patients. These reflections can contribute in a significant manner to the improvement of the analyst's work in psychoanalytic practice.


El presente artículo trata de comprender la función de la mentira contada en análisis, bien como reflexionar sobre el manejo transferencial solicitado por tal tipo de relato, a la luz de la teoría psicoanalítica freudiana. Con esos objetivos, se efectuó un estudio sobre las realidades psíquica y material, la fantasía y la mentira, a fin de poder analizar la incidencia del referido relato en la clínica psicoanalítica y como escucharlo, desvinculándolo de un enfoque moralista y entrelazado con el deseo. Se pretende con este artículo esclarecer que, para la clínica, el aspecto de la función de mentir que importa es su forma y no su contenido, además de proponer un espacio benevolente para escuchar, a partir de la asociación libre, el discurso mentiroso de los pacientes. Estas reflexiones pueden contribuir de manera significativa para la mejora del hacer del analista en la clínica psicoanalítica.


Assuntos
Humanos , Terapia da Realidade , Fantasia , Manobra Psicológica , Enganação
10.
Asia Pac Psychiatry ; 10(4): e12330, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30175904

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The online social networking addiction is a type of technology addiction that can lead to distraction, depression, anxiety, and lower academic performance. In this research, an android mobile application was designed based on the previous literature as well as authors' previous works to measure and decrease social networking addiction level. METHODS: This research is a randomized controlled trial. Participants were the students in Urmia University of Technology. The mobile application was designed and sent to 100 (35 males and 65 females) students randomly as an intervention group and was sent to 100 (38 males and 62 females) students randomly as a control group. In order to evaluate the efficacy of treatment, data were collected before and after 2-week treatment. RESULTS: The results indicated that the designed mobile application can measure the online social networking addiction level with online social networking addiction scale, it can also decrease the online social networking addiction, depression, anxiety level, and the time spent on online social networks, and it can improve the sleep quality and life satisfaction level. DISCUSSION: Therefore, the designed mobile application can be used as an appropriate instrument to measure and decrease the online social networking addiction level of college students.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Aditivo/prevenção & controle , Aplicativos Móveis , Redes Sociais Online , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Terapia da Realidade/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Terapia da Realidade/instrumentação , Estudantes , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
11.
IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng ; 26(7): 1345-1352, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985143

RESUMO

To explore the effects of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) in the treatment of claustrophobia, the potential effects of VR and AR on induced anxiety were investigated in this paper. During the experiment, 34 subjects were randomly selected and distributed in AR and VR scenes in a sequence. The skin conductance and heart rates of the subjects were measured throughout the entire process, and the anxiety scale was used to assess the subjective anxiety when the task in each scene was completed. The results showed the following: (1) AR and VR scenes led to feelings of discomfort, but the subjective anxiety scores obtained in the two scenes were not significantly different; (2) the skin conductance level of the subjects significantly increased from the baseline when the subjects entered the experimental scene but remained active in the two scenes without showing significant difference between the scenes; and (3) the heart rate index significantly increased from the baseline after the subjects entered the scene and then gradually decreased. The heart rates of the subjects significantly increased again when the anxiety-induced event was triggered. However, no significant difference was observed between AR and VR scenes. AR and VR have induced obvious anxiety, which was reflected in the subjective and objective physiological indicators. However, no significant difference was found in the effects of AR and VR on the induced anxiety. Considering the cost of building two scenes and other factors, AR was more suitable for the treatment of claustrophobia than VR.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia da Realidade/métodos , Realidade Virtual , Adulto , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Voluntários Saudáveis , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Fóbicos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/terapia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD001120, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29493789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This updated Cochrane Review of reminiscence therapy (RT) for dementia was first published in 1998, and last updated in 2005. RT involves the discussion of memories and past experiences with other people using tangible prompts such as photographs or music to evoke memories and stimulate conversation. RT is implemented widely in a range of settings using a variety of formats. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of RT on people living with dementia and their carers, taking into account differences in its implementation, including setting (care home, community) and modality (group, individual). SEARCH METHODS: We searched ALOIS (the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group's Specialized Register) on 6 April 2017 using the search term 'reminiscence.' SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomised controlled trials of RT for dementia in which the duration of the intervention was at least four weeks (or six sessions) and that had a 'no treatment' or passive control group. Outcomes of interest were quality of life (QoL), cognition, communication, behaviour, mood and carer outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors (LOP and EF) independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Where necessary, we contacted study authors for additional information. We pooled data from all sufficiently similar studies reporting on each outcome. We undertook subgroup analysis by setting (community versus care home) and by modality (individual versus group). We used GRADE methods to assess the overall quality of evidence for each outcome. MAIN RESULTS: We included 22 studies involving 1972 people with dementia. Meta-analyses included data from 16 studies (1749 participants). Apart from six studies with risk of selection bias, the overall risk of bias in the studies was low.Overall, moderate quality evidence indicated RT did not have an important effect on QoL immediately after the intervention period compared with no treatment (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.12 to 0.33; I2 = 59%; 8 studies; 1060 participants). Inconsistency between studies mainly related to the study setting. There was probably a slight benefit in favour of RT in care homes post-treatment (SMD 0.46, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.75; 3 studies; 193 participants), but little or no difference in QoL in community settings (867 participants from five studies).For cognitive measures, there was high quality evidence for a very small benefit, of doubtful clinical importance, associated with reminiscence at the end of treatment (SMD 0.11, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.23; 14 studies; 1219 participants), but little or no difference at longer-term follow-up. There was a probable slight improvement for individual reminiscence and for care homes when analysed separately, but little or no difference for community settings or for group studies. Nine studies included the widely used Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) as a cognitive measure, and, on this scale, there was high quality evidence for an improvement at the end of treatment (mean difference (MD) 1.87 points, 95% CI 0.54 to 3.20; 437 participants). There was a similar effect at longer-term follow-up, but the quality of evidence for this analysis was low (1.8 points, 95% CI -0.06 to 3.65).For communication measures, there may have been a benefit of RT at the end of treatment (SMD -0.51 points, 95% CI -0.97 to -0.05; I2 = 62%; negative scores indicated improvement; 6 studies; 249 participants), but there was inconsistency between studies, related to the RT modality. At follow-up, there was probably a slight benefit of RT (SMD -0.49 points, 95% CI -0.77 to -0.21; 4 studies; 204 participants). Effects were uncertain for individual RT, with very low quality evidence available. For reminiscence groups, evidence of moderate quality indicated a probable slight benefit immediately (SMD -0.39, 95% CI -0.71 to -0.06; 4 studies; 153 participants), and at later follow-up. Community participants probably benefited at end of treatment and follow-up. For care home participants, the results were inconsistent between studies and, while there may be an improvement at follow-up, at the end of treatment the evidence quality was very low and effects were uncertain.Other outcome domains examined for people with dementia included mood, functioning in daily activities, agitation/irritability and relationship quality. There were no clear effects in these domains. Individual reminiscence was probably associated with a slight benefit on depression scales, although its clinical importance was uncertain (SMD -0.41, 95% CI -0.76 to -0.06; 4 studies; 131 participants). We found no evidence of any harmful effects on people with dementia.We also looked at outcomes for carers, including stress, mood and quality of relationship with the person with dementia (from the carer's perspective). We found no evidence of effects on carers other than a potential adverse outcome related to carer anxiety at longer-term follow-up, based on two studies that had involved the carer jointly in reminiscence groups with people with dementia. The control group carers were probably slightly less anxious (MD 0.56 points, 95% CI -0.17 to 1.30; 464 participants), but this result is of uncertain clinical importance, and is also consistent with little or no effect. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The effects of reminiscence interventions are inconsistent, often small in size and can differ considerably across settings and modalities. RT has some positive effects on people with dementia in the domains of QoL, cognition, communication and mood. Care home studies show the widest range of benefits, including QoL, cognition and communication (at follow-up). Individual RT is associated with probable benefits for cognition and mood. Group RT and a community setting are associated with probable improvements in communication. The wide range of RT interventions across studies makes comparisons and evaluation of relative benefits difficult. Treatment protocols are not described in sufficient detail in many publications. There have been welcome improvements in the quality of research on RT since the previous version of this review, although there still remains a need for more randomised controlled trials following clear, detailed treatment protocols, especially allowing the effects of simple and integrative RT to be compared.


Assuntos
Demência/terapia , Rememoração Mental , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orientação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Terapia da Realidade
13.
Psicol. rev. (Belo Horizonte) ; 23(3): 811-821, set.-dez. 2017.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012857

RESUMO

Algumas contribuições pontuais de Jacques Lacan ao tema da ‘repetição’ são aqui abordadas a partir dos conhecidos registros da subjetividade humana: o Real, o Simbólico e o Imaginário. Partimos do sentido coloquial do termo repetição, pressupomos a inovação freudiana e a retomada lacaniana de tal conceito para, daí, tirarmos algumas conseqüências de tal abordagem no que diz respeito à prática clínica do psicanalista, ou seja, ao desejo e ao saber do psicanalista. Estes dois termos se mostraram sensíveis ao fenômeno da repetição, que ocorre em dimensões diversificadas: a significante, a das imagens narcísicas, a do núcleo irredutível do sintoma, entre outras. Portanto, o desejo-saber do psicanalista mostrou-se como um eixo ético indispensável a toda e qualquer abordagem psicanalítica da repetição, principalmente por fundar-se na ética do desejo e na política do psicanalista (falta-a-ser).


Some specific contributions of Jacques Lacan to the theme of ‘repeat’ are addressed here from the known records of human subjectivity: the Real, the Symbolic and the Imaginary. Starting from the colloquial sense of the word repetition, assuming the freudian innovation and lacanian resumption of such concept for, then, we take some consequences of such an approach concerning the clinical practice of the psychoanalyst, I mean, the desire and the knowledge of the psychoanalyst. These two terms were sensitive to the phenomenon of repetition, which occurs in diverse dimensions: the significant, the narcissistic images, the irreducible core symptom, among others. So desire-knowledge of the psychoanalyst showed up as an essential ethical way to any psychoanalytic approach of repetition, mainly for to found in the ethics of the desire and in the psychoanalyst’s politics (lackto- being).


Algunas de las contribuciones específicas de Jacques Lacan sobre el tema de la ‘repetición’ se abordan aquí desde los registros conocidos de la subjetividad humana: lo Real, lo Simbólico y lo Imaginario. Partimos del sentido coloquial de la palabra repetición, asumimos la innovación freudiana y la reanudación lacaniana de lo concepto como para, por lo tanto, tomamos algunas de las consecuencias de este enfoque con respecto a la práctica clínica del psicoanalista, a lo deseo y a lo saber del psicoanalista. Estos dos términos eran sensibles al fenómeno de la repetición, que se produce en diversas dimensiones: la significante, la de las imágenes narcisistas, la del síntoma con su núcleo irreductible, entre otras. Así, el deseo-saber del psicoanalista se presentó como un eje ético esencial para cualquier enfoque psicoanalítico de la repetición, principalmente por fundar-se en la ética del deseo y en la política del psicoanalista (falta-a-ser).


Assuntos
Terapia Psicanalítica , Terapia da Realidade , Inconsciente Psicológico , Imaginação
14.
Publ. CEAPIA ; 26(26): 64-74, 2017.
Artigo em Português | Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: psi-71097

RESUMO

A autora aborda o tema da transicionalidade considerando questões teóricas e técnicas sobre o mesmo. São apresentados dois casos clínicos de pacientes adolescentes limítrofes com falhas na constituição de um espaço potencial e que negam a alteridade nas relações, sofrendo ao perceberem a impossibilidade de manterem os objetos sob seu controle onipotente. O trabalho é primordialmente baseado na teoria de Donald Winnicott e também busca refletir sobre conceitos de autores contemporâneos como Daniel Kuperman e Thomas Ogden


The author approaches the topic of transitionality considering theoretical and technical points about it. The author presents two clinical cases of adolescent patients with failures in the constitution of a potencial space who deny the alterity in the relationships, suffering when they perceive the impossibility of keeping the objects under their omnipotent control. The article is primarily based on the theory of Donald Winnicott and seeks to reflect on the concepts of contemporary authors such as Daniel Kuperman and Thomas Ogden


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Psicopatologia , Psicoterapia , Adolescente , Fantasia , Terapia da Realidade
15.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 20(4): 225-231, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28263660

RESUMO

This study comprehensively examined the effects of treatment interventions for Internet addiction among adolescents in South Korea through a meta-analysis. We analyzed 70 domestic master's theses and journal articles that reported on controlled studies and involved pre- and post-test analyses in the design. The dates of these publications fall between 2000 and 2015. The total effect size, calculated by random-effect analysis (g), revealed that interventions for the treatment of Internet addiction were effective (ES = 1.838). Meta-ANOVAs revealed differences between groups based on a theoretical model, intervention group size, and intervention duration. Integrative therapy produced larger effect sizes (ES = 2.794) compared to other treatment models such as cognitive behavioral therapy and reality therapy. Effect sizes for interventions, including nine to 12 people (ES = 2.178), were larger than those of interventions including more or fewer participants. Finally, treatment interventions that lasted 8 or more weeks revealed larger effect sizes (ES = 2.294) compared to shorter interventions. The study findings suggest directions for the development and effective operation of future Internet addiction interventions among Korean adolescents. Increasing the effectiveness of these interventions requires an integrative theoretical model, an intervention group size of nine to 12 participants, and a long-term intervention.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Internet , Adolescente , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Terapia da Realidade/métodos , República da Coreia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 40(4): 595-601, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28211829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phantom limb pain (PLP), the perception of discomfort in a limb no longer present, commonly occurs following amputation. A variety of interventions have been employed for PLP, including mirror therapy. Virtual Reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) mirror therapy treatments have also been utilized and have the potential to provide an even greater immersive experience for the amputee. However, there is not currently a consensus on the efficacy of VR and AR therapy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to evaluate and summarize the current research on the effect of immersive VR and AR in the treatment of PLP. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted utilizing PubMed and Google Scholar in order to collect all available studies concerning the use of VR and/or AR in the treatment of PLP using the search terms "virtual reality," "augmented reality," and "phantom limb pain." Eight studies in total were evaluated, with six of those reporting quantitative data and the other two reporting qualitative findings. RESULTS: All studies located were of low-level evidence. Each noted improved pain with VR and AR treatment for phantom limb pain, through quantitative or qualitative reporting. Additionally, adverse effects were limited only to simulator sickness occurring in one trial for one patient. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the positive findings, all of the studies were confined purely to case studies and case report series. No studies of higher evidence have been conducted, thus considerably limiting the strength of the findings. As such, the current use of VR and AR for PLP management, while attractive due to the increasing levels of immersion, customizable environments, and decreasing cost, is yet to be fully proven and continues to need further research with higher quality studies to fully explore its benefits.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Neurológica/métodos , Membro Fantasma/reabilitação , Terapia da Realidade/métodos , Humanos , Membro Fantasma/psicologia , Realidade Virtual
17.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 61(3): 310-333, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26216919

RESUMO

Hope theory identifies goal, pathway, and agency as essential elements of hope that promote and maximize the effectiveness of treatment. Much significant evidence has indicated that hope is a strong predictor of substance involvement recovery. This study aimed to test the effectiveness of choice-based reality therapy in strengthening hope in recovery for women convicted of drug offences in Taiwan. The participants in the substance involvement treatment program were 44 incarcerated women convicted of drug offences, who were randomly selected and randomly assigned to equal-sized experimental and control groups. The results of the study, obtained by ANCOVA analysis, showed significant differences between the two groups in the posttest scores for sense of hope as measured in the subscales of goal setting and pursuing, adequate energy, and controlling pathway. The effect size values of the three variables suggested a moderate practical significance. The evidence provided in the present study indicates that, upon completion of the choice-based reality therapy for substance involvement, when compared with those who had not yet attended the program, Taiwanese women convicted of drug offences reported a significantly higher level of hope. Hope was measured by their ability in setting goals and overcoming obstacles and persistence in pursuing the goals they had set up, energy for recovery, and their capacity to set up pathways based on their goals. The findings highlight the value of choice-based reality therapy in enhancing hope of recovery for women convicted of drug offences.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Terapia da Realidade/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/reabilitação , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Rev. Subj. (Impr.) ; 16(3): 70-83, dezembro - 2016. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-957476

RESUMO

Este artigo aborda a construção da metáfora delirante de Schreber, o surgimento do significante "mulher de Deus" e os pontos nos quais ele vivencia transformações em seu corpo por meio dos fenômenos elementares, mais especificamente suas alucinações e delírios. Pretende aí articular a evolução de seu delírio com a invenção de um corpo que possa ser gozado e que lhe permita se nomear. O corpo, segundo a psicanálise, é atravessado pela linguagem, não é o corpo biológico e, por isso mesmo, é marcado pelo significante. Na psicose, o acontecimento do corpo vem como uma resposta a algo que ultrapassa o sujeito, pois o significante aí se corporifica como gozo do Outro. Os acontecimentos de corpo na psicose são efeitos da foraclusão do Nome-do-Pai, significante que, por estar incluído fora, no máximo mantém o Imaginário fragilmente atado ao Real e ao Simbólico por meio das 'bengalas imaginárias'. Essas são recurso de compensação à amarração borromeana aí inexistente por efeito da foraclusão. Uma vez que a imagem do corpo é o suporte da relação do sujeito com o desejo do Outro, Schreber inventa o seu corpo com a imagem feminina delirada para satisfazer a Deus. E se o delírio já é uma tentativa de cura, uma invenção de um saber (S2) que vem dar sentido ao S1, pretendemos aqui esclarecer como o delírio pode servir para inventar um corpo, que na psicose está despedaçado por efeito da foraclusão. Schreber, ao consentir o gozo do Outro na figura de Deus, fez sutura em sua realidade psíquica e inventou um corpo próprio habitável. Inventar um corpo próprio foi, portanto, o modo de Schreber fazer suplência ao Nome-do-Pai foracluído. Com isso, houve uma restituição da realidade psíquica e uma contenção do gozo do Outro por meio da imagem desse corpo transmudado em corpo de mulher, restaurando assim a imagem de si e, desse modo, estabilizando seu delírio.


This article discusses the construction of Schreber's delusional metaphor, the emergence of the significant "Woman-of-God" and the points at which he experiences transformations in his body through elementary phenomena, more specifically his hallucinations and delusions. He intends to articulate the evolution of his delirium with the invention of a body that can be enjoyed and that allows him to be named. The body, according to psychoanalysis, is crossed by language, is not the biological body and is therefore marked by the signifier. In psychosis, the event of the body comes as a response to something that surpasses the subject, for the signifier therein is embodied as an enjoyment of the Other. The events of a body in psychosis are effects of the foreclusion of the Name-of-the-Father, a signifier that, being included outside, at most keeps the Imaginary weakly attached to the Real and to the Symbolic by means of the imaginary canes. These are a compensating resource for the borromean mooring that does not exist due to the effect of foreclusion. Since the image of the body is the support of the subject's relation with the desire of the Other, Schreber invents his body with the feminine image delirious to satisfy God. And if the delusion is already an attempt at healing, an invention of knowledge (S2) that gives meaning to S1, we intend here to clarify how delusion can serve to invent a body, which in psychosis is shattered by the effect of foreclusion. Schreber, by consenting to the enjoyment of the Other in the figure of God, made suture in his psychic reality and invented a habitable body itself. To invent a body of its own was, therefore, Schreber's way of making a substitution for the forbidden Name-of-the-Father. With this, there was a restitution of the psychic reality and a containment of the enjoyment of the Other by means of the image of this body transmuted into a woman's body, thus restoring the image of itself and, as a result, stabilizing its delirium.


Este trabajo se refiere a la construcción de la metáfora delirante de Schreber, el surgimiento del significante "Mujer-de-Dios" y los puntos de los cuales él vivencia transformaciones en su cuerpo por medio de los fenómenos elementares, más específicamente sus alucinaciones y delirios. Pretende articular la evolución de su delirio con la invención de un cuerpo que pueda ser gozado y que le permita ser nombrado. El cuerpo, según el psicoanálisis, es traspasado por el lenguaje, no es el cuerpo biológico y, por eso, es marcado por el significante. En la psicosis, el acontecimiento del cuerpo viene como una respuesta a algo que ultrapasa el sujeto, porque el significante se corporifica como gozo del Otro. Los sucesos del cuerpo en la psicosis son efectos de la forclusión del Nombre-del-Padre, significante que, por estar incluso fuera, en el máximo mantiene el Imaginario débilmente atado al Real y al Simbólico por medio de los "bastones imaginarios". Estas son recurso de compensación a la amarra borromeana allá inexistente por efecto de la forclusión. Una vez que la imagen del cuerpo es el soporte de la relación del sujeto del Otro, Schreber inventa su cuerpo con la imagen femenina delirada para satisfacer a Dios. Y si el delirio ya es un intento de cura, un invento de un saber (S2) que viene a dar sentido al S1, pretendemos aquí aclarar cómo el delirio puede servir para inventar un cuerpo, que en la psicosis está destrozado por efecto de la forclusión. Schreber, al consentir el gozo del Otro en la figura de Dios, hizo sutura en su realidad psíquica e inventó un cuerpo propio habitable. Inventar un cuerpo propio fue, por lo tanto, el modo de Schreber hacer suplencia al Nombre-del-Padre forcluido. Con eso, hubo una restitución de la realidad psíquica y una contención del gozo del Otro por medio de la imagen de este cuerpo cambiado en cuerpo de mujer, restaurando así la imagen de sí y, de esa forma, estabilizando su delirio.


Cet article traite de la construction de la métaphore délirant de Schreber, de l'émergence du signifiant «Femme de Dieu¼ et des points dans lesquels il expérience des transformations dans son corps à travers des phénomènes élémentaires, plus précisément ses hallucinations et ses délires. Il prétend articuler l'évolution de son délire avec l'invention d'un corps qui peut être puissé et que lui permet se nommer. Le corps, selon la psychanalyse, est traversé par la langue, n'est pas le corps biologique et, par conséquent, est marqué par le signifiant. Dans la psychose, l'événement du corps vient comme une réponse à quelque chose qui va au-delà du sujet, parce que le signifiant s'incarne comme la jouissance de l'autre. Les événements du corps dans la psychose sont des effets de forclusion du Nom-du-Père, signifiant que, à cause d'être inclus dehors, dans maximum ils maintien l'Imaginaire fragilement lié au Réel et au Symbolique par moyen des «cannes imaginaires¼. Celles-là sont les ressources de compensation pour le noeud borroméen inexistant là à l'effet de la forclusion. Une fois que l'image corporelle est le rapport du sujet avec le désir de l'Autre, Schreber invente son corps avec l'image féminine délirée pour satisfaire Dieu. Et si le délire est une tentative de guérison, une invention d'un savoir (S2) qui vient donner un sens à S1, nous voulons préciser ici comme le délire peut servir pour composer un corps, qui est déchiré chez la psychose à cause de la forclusion. Schreber, quand il permet la jouissance de l'Autre sur la figure de Dieu, il a fait de suture en sa réalité psychique et a inventé un corps propre habitable. Inventer un corps propre était, par conséquent, la façon de Schreber de faire une substitution au Nom-du-Père forclos. Ainsi, il y avait un remboursement de la réalité psychique et un confinement de la jouissance de l'Autre à travers de l'image de ce corps transmuté en corps de femme, en restaurant, donc, l'image de lui-même et, par conséquent, en stabilisant son délire.


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Metáfora , Psicanálise , Terapia da Realidade
20.
Health Promot Pract ; 17(1): 107-15, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26534900

RESUMO

Through a critical rhetorical analysis using Bandura's social cognitive theory as a lens to view The Biggest Loser (TBL), this article illustrates the contradictions between the show's health promotional aims and its entertainment aims, which show the problems the show creates for health promotion practitioners working on obesity. The social cognitive theory constructs of observational learning, psychological determinants, and environmental determinants emerged from this reading of TBL as central to how the show masquerades as a health promotion tool. This reading reveals that TBL promotes a neoliberal construction of health and obesity that challenges the worldview that many health promotion campaigns take and, therefore, complicates our own efforts to combat obesity. With this revealed, it is suggested that TBL be incorporated into health promotion campaigns only as a foil.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Obesidade/terapia , Marketing Social , Televisão , Redução de Peso , Cognição , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Obesidade/psicologia , Terapia da Realidade/métodos , Estados Unidos
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