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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(39): e12547, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30278550

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Pernicious anemia (PA) is an autoimmune gastritis that results from the destruction of gastric parietal cells and the associated lack of an intrinsic factor to bind ingested vitamin B12. While an association between PA and various liver diseases has been rarely reported, reports of associated diseases include primary biliary cholangitis, autoimmune hepatitis, and Interferon-treated hepatitis C. We present 2 cases of PA associated with cryptogenic cirrhosis (CC), which has not been previously reported in the literature. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 42-year-old man presented with fatigue, pallor, and sustained abdominal distension that had persisted for 15 days. An 87-year-old man was admitted to the hospital for an unsteady gait and loss of appetite that had persisted for 20 days. DIAGNOSES: Symptoms, laboratory tests, and imaging findings for both patients were indicative of PA and CC.Both had neurological and psychiatric symptoms during hospitalization that were ultimately linked to a vitamin B12 deficiency but not hepatic encephalopathy. INTERVENTIONS: Both patients received intramuscular injections of vitamin B12. OUTCOMES: Hemoglobin levels of the 2 patients increased gradually, and their neurological symptoms were alleviated. LESSONS: PA associated with a liver disease is rare, and the underlying mechanism can only now be clarified. We speculate that autoimmune dysfunction and chronic vitamin B12 deficiency caused by PA might be unique causes of liver cirrhosis. Additional investigations are needed to verify these findings.


Assuntos
Anemia Perniciosa , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha , Cirrose Hepática/congênito , Vitamina B 12 , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anemia Perniciosa/complicações , Anemia Perniciosa/diagnóstico , Anemia Perniciosa/fisiopatologia , Anemia Perniciosa/terapia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/diagnóstico , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/etiologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/fisiopatologia , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Masculino , Exame Neurológico/métodos , Teste de Schilling/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina B 12/administração & dosagem , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem
5.
Pediatr Res ; 70(3): 222-8, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21623254

RESUMO

Fifty years have passed since the description of juvenile selective malabsorption of cobalamin (Cbl). Quality of life improvements have dramatically reduced the incidence of parasite-induced or nutritional Cbl deficiency. Consequently, inherited defects have become a leading cause of Cbl deficiency in children, which is not always expressed as anemia. Unfortunately, the gold standard for clinical diagnosis, the Schilling test, has increasingly become unavailable, and replacement tests are only in their infancy. Genetic testing is complicated by genetic heterogeneity and differential diagnosis. This review documents the history, research, and advances in genetics that have elucidated the causes of juvenile Cbl malabsorption. Genetic research has unearthed many cases in the past decade, mostly in Europe and North America, often among immigrants from the Middle East or North Africa. Lack of suitable clinical testing potentially leaves many patients inadequately diagnosed. The consequences of suboptimal Cbl levels for neurological development are well documented. By raising awareness, we wish to push for fast track development of better clinical tools and suitable genetic testing. Clinical awareness must include attention to ethnicity, a sensitive topic but effective for fast diagnosis. The treatment with monthly parenteral Cbl for life offers a simple and cost-effective solution once proper diagnosis is made.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos , Síndromes de Malabsorção/complicações , Síndromes de Malabsorção/genética , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/etiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/genética , Vitamina B 12/metabolismo , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Humanos , Síndromes de Malabsorção/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Malabsorção/terapia , Teste de Schilling , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/terapia
6.
World J Gastroenterol ; 17(4): 543-4, 2011 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21274387

RESUMO

A gastric intrinsic factor output under 200 U/h after pentagastrin stimulation (N > 2000 U/h) is specific for pernicious anemia. The other findings are either variable or non specific. Serum intrinsic factor antibodies, considered as specific in general practice, are present only in half of the patients with pernicious anemia. In their absence, since the disappearance of the Schilling tests, the gastric tubage currently used for the study of gastric acid secretion, is obligatory for the simultaneous study of intrinsic factor output. This study is important to eliminate another disease much more frequent than pernicious anemia, the protein bound to cobalamin malabsorption was observed in achlorhydric simple atrophic gastritis in the presence of intrinsic factor secretion.


Assuntos
Anemia Perniciosa/diagnóstico , Fator Intrínseco/metabolismo , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teste de Schilling
7.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 33(4): 400-8, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21251240

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The study aims to evaluate the diagnostic utility of thyrogastric immune features in the identification of intrinsic factor antibody negative (IFA -ve) pernicious anaemia (PA) patients. METHODS: Clinico-pathological features of 'intrinsic factor antibody positive (IFA +ve) PA' and 'IFA -ve presumed PA' Chinese patients in a single hospital (2001-2009) were studied. Coefficients of independent variables identified were used as weighted scores. The result was validated by patients (1994-2000) with Schilling test done. RESULTS: Comparison of 127 'IFA +ve PA' and 130 'IFA -ve presumed PA' patients showed four independent variables, namely (+) gastric parietal cell (GPC) antibody (OR, 2.907, 95%; CI, 2.346-3.468; P < 0.001), (+) antithyroid antibodies (OR, 3.098, 95%; CI, 2.496-3.70; P < 0.001), (+) gastric atrophy (OR, 3.827, 95%; CI, 3.041-4.64; P = 0.001), and (-) Helicobacter pylori (HP) organisms (OR, 0.134, 95%; CI, -1.60-1.869; P = 0.023). The respective scores were 1.067, 1.131, 1.342 and -2.012. Total scores for each patient ranged from 3.54 to -2.012. When the cut-off score 1.528 was applied to the validation sample (n = 75), the specificity of identifying IFA -ve PA was 100%, sensitivity 53%, positive predictive value 100%, and negative predictive value 36%. CONCLUSION: Patients with two out of three features, GPC, antithyroid antibodies, gastric atrophy, but without HP organisms; or three features with HP organisms, can be predicted to have PA.


Assuntos
Anemia Perniciosa/diagnóstico , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Fator Intrínseco/imunologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Anemia Perniciosa/imunologia , China , Gastrite Atrófica/imunologia , Helicobacter pylori/imunologia , Humanos , Células Parietais Gástricas/imunologia , Teste de Schilling
9.
Hell J Nucl Med ; 12(1): 84-6, 2009.
Artigo em Grego Moderno | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19330196

RESUMO

In the following article a comparative evaluation of the tests used for the causative investigation of vitamin B(12) deficiency is presented. Although Schilling test since 2003 is not available in the market, it is considered the gold standard as a functional test of vitamin B(12) absorption, as it not only has a high specificity for the diagnosis of pernicious anaemia but also examines both gastric and intestinal stage of vitamin B(12) absorption. Consequently restoration of Schilling test in the clinical setting is necessary for the etiological diagnosis of B(12) insufficiency at least until a new and better vitamin B(12) absorption test is approved.


Assuntos
Teste de Schilling/métodos , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/etiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
An. pediatr. (2003, Ed. impr.) ; 69(1): 56-58, jul. 2008. tab
Artigo em Es | IBECS | ID: ibc-66737

RESUMO

Los errores congénitos del metabolismo de la cobalamina afectan a su absorción, transporte o metabolismo intracelular. La anemia megaloblástica hereditaria juvenil por déficit de vitamina B12 está causada por una malabsorción de cobalamina. En la anemia perniciosa congénita por déficit de factor intrínseco, y en la anemia megaloblástica 1 por malabsorción de vitamina B12, causada por un defecto en el receptor vitamina B12/factor intrínseco o síndrome de Imerslund-Gräsbeck, existe un déficit de vitamina B12. El diagnóstico diferencial entre estas dos entidades no puede ser completado únicamente mediante la clínica y los datos de laboratorio. Presentamos un paciente español con anemia megaloblástica hereditaria juvenil por déficit de factor intrínseco, heterocigoto compuesto para dos mutaciones distintas en el gen GIF. La identificación de mutaciones causantes de la enfermedad en genes específicos ha mejorado nuestra capacidad de diagnóstico y tratamiento de estas situaciones (AU)


Inborn errors of cobalamin (Cbl) metabolism affect its absorption, transport, as well as its intracellular metabolism. Hereditary juvenile megaloblastic anaemia due to cobalamin deficiency, results from defects in Cbl absorption. There is a lack of vitamin B12 in congenital pernicious anaemia due to intrinsic factor deficiency and megaloblastic anaemia 1 due to selective intestinal malabsorption of vitamin B12 or Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome. Differential diagnosis can't be accomplished only by clinical and biochemical findings. We present a patient from Spain with a megaloblastic anaemia due to intrinsic factor deficiency (IFD). The patient is a compound heterozygous in GIF gene for a splice site mutation inherited from his mother and a missense change inherited from his father. The identification of disease-causing mutations in specific genes has improved our ability to diagnose many of these conditions (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/genética , Mutação/genética , Mutação/fisiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Anemia Megaloblástica/complicações , Teste de Schilling/métodos , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/fisiopatologia , Anorexia/complicações , Palidez/complicações , Fadiga/complicações , Biópsia/métodos , Teste de Schilling/tendências , Teste de Schilling
13.
Colorectal Dis ; 9(6): 562-6, 2007 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17509054

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Restorative proctocolectomy (RP) involves terminal ileal resection and formation of a small bowel reservoir that predisposes to bacterial overgrowth. It was anticipated that these patients would be at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. METHOD: Vitamin B12 levels were measured sequentially in 171 patients who underwent RP. Prospective results were obtained from all 20 patients undergoing pouch formation after the commencement of the study. Further results were obtained retrospectively from case notes and computerized laboratory records of the 151 patients who underwent RP prior to the commencement of the study and these were correlated with the results of follow-up samples taken prospectively from the same patients after the commencement of the study. The median age of the patients was 40 years (range: 13-67) and the median duration of follow up was 5.4 years (range: 1-12). Patients with an abnormally low serum B12 level underwent both a Schilling and a hydrogen breath test. Eight of these patients were then treated with oral vitamin B12. RESULTS: Abnormally low serum B12 levels were found in 25% of patients. Forty per cent of our patient group had three or more sequential B12 measurements and of these, 66% showed steadily declining B12 levels. Ninety-four per cent of patients with low B12 had a normal Schilling test and were negative for bacterial overgrowth. CONCLUSION: Subnormal vitamin B12 levels develop in almost one-quarter of patients after pouch surgery. The exact mechanism for B12 deficiency in these patients is uncertain. In the majority of patients undergoing RP, vitamin B12 levels fall on sequential measurement. Serum B12 levels should be measured during follow up and pouch patients with subnormal B12 levels, should see them successfully restored to a normal value after treatment with oral B12 replacement therapy.


Assuntos
Proctocolectomia Restauradora/efeitos adversos , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Testes Respiratórios , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Teste de Schilling
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 85(3): 129-138, 2006 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16721255

RESUMO

To study the clinical and hematologic features of pernicious anemia in Chinese, we describe 181 Chinese with megaloblastic anemia and low serum cobalamin, in association with either classic Schilling test results (82 patients) or the presence of serum antibody to intrinsic factor (99 patients), encountered in a regional hospital in Hong Kong from May 1994 to May 2005. The median age was 75 years (range, 32-95 yr) and the male to female ratio was 1:1.5. The chief presenting feature was anemia, and fewer than 10% of patients presented predominantly with neurologic deficit. Gastric biopsies of 109 patients showed glandular atrophy in 73, endocrine cell hyperplasia in 5, polyps in 14, adenocarcinoma in 1, and chronic gastritis in the rest. Gastric adenocarcinoma occurred in 1.7% of patients after a median follow-up of 35 months (range, 0.5-132 mo). Diabetes mellitus occurred in 24% of patients and thyroid disease in 7%. No specific ABO blood group was associated with pernicious anemia. Serum antibody to intrinsic factor (73%) occurred more frequently than serum antibody to gastric parietal cell (65%) (p=0.353). The frequency of serum antibody to gastric parietal cell was higher in male (78%) than in female patients (53%) (p=0.018). Pernicious anemia is a major cause of megaloblastic anemia in Chinese.


Assuntos
Anemia Perniciosa/diagnóstico , Anemia Perniciosa/etnologia , Povo Asiático , Células Parietais Gástricas/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anemia Perniciosa/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Fluorimunoensaio , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Fator Intrínseco/sangue , Fator Intrínseco/deficiência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Teste de Schilling , Testes Sorológicos , Vitamina B 12/sangue
17.
Nucl Med Commun ; 26(9): 839-41, 2005 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16096589

RESUMO

Administration of a radiopharmaceutical may result in a radiation dose to an infant due to ingestion of the radiopharmaceutical secreted in the breast milk. Following a maternal administration of Co labelled to vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) as part of a Schilling test an estimate of the absorbed dose to a breast feeding infant was calculated. Milk samples were collected from every feed in the first 24 h, and at approximately 48 and 72 h post-administration. The absorbed dose to the infant's liver (the organ receiving the highest dose) was calculated to be 0.23 mGy. The effective dose to the infant was calculated to be 0.025 mSv, which is considerably lower than the current regulatory limit of 1 mSv. The Administration of Radioactive Substances Advisory Committee advise that the first feed, at approximately 4 h after administration, be discarded. The data show that this was unwarranted, and that the peak concentration of Co in the breast milk occurred at around 24 h.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Cobalto/análise , Leite Humano/química , Radiometria/métodos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Teste de Schilling/métodos , Vitamina B 12 , Aleitamento Materno/efeitos adversos , Radioisótopos de Cobalto/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doses de Radiação , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Lesões por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Teste de Schilling/efeitos adversos
18.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 149(50): 2789-94, 2005 Dec 10.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16385831

RESUMO

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency is a common disorder with potential irreversible haematological and neurological consequences. Currently used diagnostic tests such as the evaluation of serum vitamin B12 and the Schilling test are insufficient, e.g. the positive predictive value of a low serum vitamin B12 level for actual vitamin B12 deficiency (i.e. tissue deficiency) is low. Insufficient availability of vitamin B12 will lead to the accumulation of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine in the body. Nearly all patients with vitamin B12 deficiency also have substantially increased levels of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine. New tests of serum methylmalonic acid and homocysteine are highly sensitive for vitamin B12 deficiency and may obviate the need for the somewhat cumbersome Schilling test.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/diagnóstico , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Homocisteína/sangue , Humanos , Ácido Metilmalônico/sangue , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Teste de Schilling , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
Rev Med Interne ; 25(8): 556-61, 2004 Aug.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15276287

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe the present clinical characteristics of the pernicious anemia (PA). METHOD: It is a retrospective (1996-2002) multicenter (five departments of internal medicine) study of 49 patients presenting an established cobalamin deficiency related to PA. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 74 years (25-93), the female/male ratio 2:9. Several autoimmune disorders were noted in 35% of the patients. Various clinical manifestations, mainly neurological, cutaneous and thrombotic, were found in 65.4% of the patients, at least one hematological abnormalities in 100%. Average serum vitamin B12 and homocystein levels were with 73 pg/ml (20-1960) and 42.9 micromol/l (7, 8-124). Anti-intrinsic factor or anti-parietal gastric cells antibodies were found in 87.5% and 62% of the patients (at least one antibody, in 96%) abnormal Schilling's test results in 86%. All the followed patients were successful treated with intramuscular (n = 27) or oral crystalline cyanocobalamin (n = 5). CONCLUSIONS: PA was associated with several autoimmune disorders; PA may be responsible of various clinical manifestations or biological abnormalities; and oral crystalline cyanocobalamin treatment may be successful.


Assuntos
Anemia Perniciosa/patologia , Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Vitamina B 12/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Anemia Perniciosa/complicações , Anemia Perniciosa/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Teste de Schilling , Fatores Sexuais
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