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1.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 45(5): 496-505, sept.-oct. 2017. graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-167005

RESUMO

Background: Proteus mirabilis poses a critical burden on the breeding industry, but no efficient vaccine is available for animals. Method: A recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing the ompA of P. mirabilis was used to develop a vaccine. The mucosal and systemic immune responses of the recombinant vaccine were evaluated in mice after oral immunisation. The inhibition on P. mirabilis colonisation of vaccines was also determined. Moreover, Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharides (TPPPS) were used as adjuvants to examine the immunomodulatory effects. Results: The pure recombinant L. lactis vaccine significantly induced the production of specific IgA and IgG, IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ, and T lymphocyte proliferation, and the immunised mice exhibited significant resistance to P. mirabilis colonisation. Notably, the TPPPS adjuvant vaccines induced higher levels of immune responses than the pure L. lactis. Conclusions: The L. lactis as a vaccine vehicle combined with TPPPS adjuvant provides a feasible method for preventing P. mirabilis infection (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Animais , Proteus mirabilis/patogenicidade , Lactococcus lactis/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Infecções por Proteus/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Tetraisopropilpirofosfamida/imunologia , Imunidade nas Mucosas/imunologia
2.
Molecules ; 22(7)2017 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28696352

RESUMO

Background: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an important neurotransmitter hydrolase in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. The number of AChEs is various among invertebrate species, with different functions including the 'classical' role in terminating synaptic transmission and other 'non-classical' roles. Methods: Using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology, a new putative AChE-encoding gene was cloned from Pardosa pseudoannulata, an important predatory natural enemy. Sequence analysis and in vitro expression were employed to determine the structural features and biochemical properties of this putative AChE. Results: The cloned AChE contained the most conserved motifs of AChEs family and was clearly clustered with Arachnida AChEs. Determination of biochemical properties revealed that the recombinant enzyme had the obvious preference for the substrate ATC (acetylthiocholine iodide) versus BTC (butyrylthiocholine iodide). The AChE was highly sensitive to AChE-specific inhibitor BW284C51, but not butyrylcholinesterase-specific inhibitor tetraisopropyl pyrophosphoramide (ISO-OMPA). Based on these results, we concluded that a new AChE was identified from P. pseudoannulata and denoted as PpAChE5. Conclusion: Here we report the identification of a new AChE from P. pseudoannulata and increased the AChE number to five in this species. Although PpAChE5 had the biggest Vmax value among five identified AChEs, it showed relatively low affinity with ATC. Similar sensitivity to test insecticides indicated that this AChE might serve as the target for both organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Aranhas/enzimologia , Acetilcolinesterase/genética , Animais , Benzenamina, 4,4'-(3-oxo-1,5-pentanodi-il)bis(N,N-dimetil-N-2-propenil-), Dibrometo/farmacologia , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Carbaril/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Clonagem Molecular , Humanos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Paraoxon/farmacologia , Células Sf9 , Especificidade por Substrato , Tetraisopropilpirofosfamida/farmacologia
3.
Arch Toxicol ; 91(10): 3295-3305, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28299395

RESUMO

Phenyl valerate is used for detecting and measuring neuropathy target esterase (NTE) and has been used for discriminating esterases as potential target in hen model of organophosphorus delayed neuropathy. In previous studies we observed that phenyl valerate esterase (PVase) activity of an enzymatic fraction in chicken brain might be due to a butyrylcholinesterase protein (BuChE), and it was suggested that this enzymatic fraction could be related to the potentiation/promotion phenomenon of the organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN). In this work, PVase activity of purified human butyrylcholinesterase (hBuChE) is demonstrated and confirms the novel observation that a relationship of BuChE with PVase activities is also relevant for humans, as is, therefore the potential role in toxicity for humans. The KM and catalytic constant (kcat) were estimated as 0.52/0.72 µM and 45,900/49,200 min-1 respectively. Furthermore, this work studies the inhibition by preincubation of PVase and cholinesterase activities of hBuChE with irreversible inhibitors (mipafox, iso-OMPA or PMSF), showing that these inhibitors interact similarly in both activities with similar second-order inhibition constants. Acethylthiocholine and phenyl valerate partly inhibit PVase and cholinesterase activities, respectively. All these observations suggest that both activities occur in the same active center. The interaction with a reversible inhibitor (ethopropazine) showed that the cholinesterase activity was more sensitive than the PVase activity, showing that the sensitivity for this reversible inhibitor is affected by the nature of the substrate. The present work definitively establishes the capacity of BuChE to hydrolyze the carboxylester phenyl valerate using a purified enzyme (hBuChE). Therefore, BuChE should be considered in the research of organophosphorus targets of toxicity related with PVase proteins.


Assuntos
Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Valeratos/metabolismo , Acetilcolina/metabolismo , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrólise , Isoflurofato/análogos & derivados , Isoflurofato/farmacologia , Fenotiazinas/farmacologia , Fluoreto de Fenilmetilsulfonil/farmacologia , Tetraisopropilpirofosfamida/farmacologia
4.
Toxins (Basel) ; 7(8): 2739-56, 2015 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26213967

RESUMO

Effective and ecofriendly antifouling (AF) compounds have been arising from naturally produced chemicals. The objective of this study is to use cyanobacteria-derived agents to investigate the role of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity as an effect and/or mode of action of promising AF compounds, since AChE inhibitors were found to inhibit invertebrate larval settlement. To pursue this objective, in vitro quantification of AChE activity under the effect of several cyanobacterial strain extracts as potential AF agents was performed along with in vivo AF (anti-settlement) screening tests. Pre-characterization of different cholinesterases (ChEs) forms present in selected tissues of important biofouling species was performed to confirm the predominance of AChE, and an in vitro AF test using pure AChE activity was developed. Eighteen cyanobacteria strains were tested as source of potential AF and AChE inhibitor agents. Results showed effectiveness in selecting promising eco-friendly AF agents, allowing the understanding of the AF biochemical mode of action induced by different compounds. This study also highlights the potential of cyanobacteria as source of AF agents towards invertebrate macrofouling species.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Mytilus/enzimologia , Thoracica/enzimologia , Animais , Benzenamina, 4,4'-(3-oxo-1,5-pentanodi-il)bis(N,N-dimetil-N-2-propenil-), Dibrometo/farmacologia , Incrustação Biológica , Cobre/farmacologia , Mytilus/efeitos dos fármacos , Fisostigmina/farmacologia , Tetraisopropilpirofosfamida/farmacologia , Thoracica/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 85(1): 179-85, 2014 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24954565

RESUMO

The ecological relevance of polychaetes coupled with their easy culture and maintenance in the laboratory, has led them to become increasingly used in marine ecotoxicological studies, raising the need to validate frequently applied monitoring tools at various biological levels. The present study was aimed to characterize the cholinesterases (ChE) activity in the polychaete Capitella teleta, using three substrates (acetylthiocholine iodide, propionylthiocholine iodide, and S-butyrylthiocholine iodide) and four known inhibitors (eserine hemisulfate, BW284c51, iso-OMPA and chlorpyrifos-oxon). Results showed that most of the measured cholinesterase activity was acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Inhibition of enzyme kinetic experiments denoted that sensitivity of C. teleta's ChE to the organophosphorous metabolite chlorpyrifos-oxon (IC50=60.72 nM) was analogous to some fish species. This study highlights the relevance of ChE characterization before its use as a biomarker in ecotoxicology and biomonitoring studies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Colinesterases/metabolismo , Poliquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetiltiocolina/análogos & derivados , Acetiltiocolina/análise , Animais , Benzenamina, 4,4'-(3-oxo-1,5-pentanodi-il)bis(N,N-dimetil-N-2-propenil-), Dibrometo/análise , Butiriltiocolina/análise , Clorpirifos/análogos & derivados , Clorpirifos/análise , Inibidores da Colinesterase , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Fisostigmina/análise , Poliquetos/metabolismo , Sulfatos/análise , Tetraisopropilpirofosfamida/análise , Tiocolina/análogos & derivados , Tiocolina/análise
6.
Ecotoxicology ; 23(3): 449-58, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24526590

RESUMO

Metals are released into freshwater ecosystems from natural and anthropogenic sources, compromising their structural and functional equilibrium. As early warning tools, cholinesterases (ChEs) are usually used to assess the effects of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, but are also known to be inhibited by metals. The objectives of this work were to characterise the activity of ChE present in the amphipod Echinogammarus meridionalis and the shrimp Atyaephyra desmarestii and to evaluate the in vivo effects of the metals copper and zinc in their ChE activity. To achieve this, firstly the activity of ChE forms were characterised using different in vitro assays with substrates and selective inhibitors. Then, the in vivo effects of 48 h exposures to increasing concentrations of copper and zinc on ChE activity were determined. The ChE form present in both species was acetylcholinesterase (AChE) since both revealed preference for the acetylthiocholine iodide substrate, total inhibition with eserine, the inhibitor of ChEs, and with 1,5-bis(4-allyldimethylammoniumphenyl)-pentan-3-one dibromide, the specific inhibitor of AChE, and presented insensitivity to iso-OMPA, a specific inhibitor of butyrylcholinesterase. The activity of ChEs was inhibited by zinc exposures in the amphipod species, but was not affected by copper. Exposure to copper and zinc did not affect ChEs activity in the shrimp at the concentrations tested. This work is a relevant contribution as foundation for the use of AChE in freshwater crustaceans in further studies including biomonitoring campaigns in different contamination scenarios.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Colinesterases/análise , Cobre/toxicidade , Panicum/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/toxicidade , Acetiltiocolina/análogos & derivados , Acetiltiocolina/metabolismo , Anfípodes/enzimologia , Animais , Butirilcolinesterase/análise , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Colinesterases/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Panicum/enzimologia , Fisostigmina/farmacologia , Tetraisopropilpirofosfamida/farmacologia
7.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 39(6): 1538-46, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24407266

RESUMO

A new pharmacokinetic approach treating cocaine addiction involves rapidly metabolizing cocaine before it reaches brain reward centers using mutated human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) or cocaine hydrolase (CocH). Recent work has shown that helper-dependent adenoviral (hdAD) vector-mediated plasma CocH reduced the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine and prevented reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior up to 6 months in rats. The present study investigated whether hdAD-CocH could decrease ongoing intravenous cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) self-administration. The hdAD-CocH vector was injected into self-administering rats, and after accumulation of plasma CocH, there was a dramatic reduction in cocaine infusions earned under a fixed ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement that lasted for the length of the study (>2 months). Pretreatment with the selective BChE and CocH inhibitor iso-OMPA (1.5 mg/kg) restored cocaine intake; therefore, the decline in self-administration was likely due to rapid CocH-mediated cocaine metabolism. Direct measurements of cocaine levels in plasma and brain samples taken after the conclusion of behavioral studies provided strong support for this conclusion. Further, rats injected with hdAD-CocH did not experience a deficit in operant responding for drug reinforcement and self-administered methamphetamine (0.05 mg/kg) at control levels. Overall, these outcomes suggest that viral gene transfer can yield plasma CocH levels that effectively diminish long-term cocaine intake and may have potential treatment implications for cocaine-dependent individuals seeking to become and remain abstinent.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/terapia , Cocaína/metabolismo , Terapia Genética , Hidrolases/genética , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Adenoviridae/genética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/enzimologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/terapia , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Cocaína/administração & dosagem , Cocaína/sangue , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/enzimologia , Condicionamento Operante/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Feminino , Vetores Genéticos , Metanfetamina/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Esquema de Reforço , Autoadministração , Tetraisopropilpirofosfamida/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23701992

RESUMO

Cholinesterase (ChE, EC 3.1.1.7) activity was investigated in gills and adductor muscle of two bivalve species: Arca noae and Venus verrucosa. The properties of ChEs were investigated using acetylcholine iodide (ASCh), butyrylcholine iodide (BSCh) and propionylcholine iodide (PrSCh) as substrates and eserine, BW254c51 and iso-OMPA as specific inhibitors. The highest level of ChE activity in crude tissue extracts was detected with PrSCh followed by ASCh, while values obtained with BSCh were apparently low, except in A. noae adductor muscle. The enzyme activity in A. noae gills and V. verrucosa gills and adductor muscle was significantly inhibited by BW254c51, but not with iso-OMPA. ChE activity in adductor muscle of A. noae was significantly reduced by both diagnostic inhibitors. The effect of organophosphorous pesticide trichlorfon on ChE activity was investigated in vitro in both species as well as in the gills of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis. The highest sensitivity of ChE to trichlorfon was observed in A. noae gills and adductor muscle (IC50 1.6×10(-7)M and 1.1×10(-7)M, respectively), followed by M. galloprovincialis gills (IC50 1.0×10(-6)M) and V. verrucosa gills and adductor muscle (IC50 1.7×10(-5)M and 0.9×10(-5)M, respectively). The results of this study suggest the potential of ChE activity measurement in the tissues of A. noae as effective biomarker of OP exposure in marine environment.


Assuntos
Bivalves/enzimologia , Colinesterases/metabolismo , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Triclorfon/toxicidade , Acetilcolina , Animais , Colina/análogos & derivados , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/enzimologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/enzimologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Tetraisopropilpirofosfamida/farmacologia
9.
PLoS One ; 7(3): e33975, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22470503

RESUMO

Over the last decades the inhibition of plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity has been widely used as a biomarker to diagnose organophosphate and carbamate exposure. Plasma ChE activity is a useful and non-invasive method to monitor bird exposure to anticholinesterase compounds; nonetheless several studies had shown that the ChE form(s) present in avian plasma may vary greatly among species. In order to support further biomonitoring studies and provide reference data for wildlife risk-assessment, plasma cholinesterase of the northern gannet (Morus bassanus), the white stork (Ciconia ciconia) and the grey heron (Ardea cinerea) were characterized using three substrates (acetylthiocholine iodide, propionylthiocholine iodide, and S-butyrylthiocholine iodide) and three ChE inhibitors (eserine sulphate, BW284C51, and iso-OMPA). Additionally, the range of ChE activity that may be considered as basal levels for non-exposed individuals was determined. The results suggest that in the plasma of the three species studied the main cholinesterase form present is butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Plasma BChE activity in non-exposed individuals was 0.48±0.11 SD U/ml, 0.39±0.12 SD U/ml, 0.15±0.04 SD U/ml in the northern gannet, white stork and grey heron, respectively. These results are crucial for the further use of plasma BChE activity in these bird species as a contamination bioindicator of anti-cholinesterase agents in both wetland and marine environments. Our findings also underscore the importance of plasma ChE characterization before its use as a biomarker in biomonitoring studies with birds.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Aves/sangue , Butirilcolinesterase/sangue , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Animais , Benzenamina, 4,4'-(3-oxo-1,5-pentanodi-il)bis(N,N-dimetil-N-2-propenil-), Dibrometo/química , Benzenamina, 4,4'-(3-oxo-1,5-pentanodi-il)bis(N,N-dimetil-N-2-propenil-), Dibrometo/toxicidade , Butirilcolinesterase/química , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinética , Fisostigmina/química , Fisostigmina/toxicidade , Portugal , Especificidade por Substrato , Tetraisopropilpirofosfamida/química , Tetraisopropilpirofosfamida/toxicidade
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21777695

RESUMO

Cholinesterase (ChE) activities were characterized in silver European eel, Anguilla anguilla, grown in the brackish lagoon of Comacchio (Italy). All specimens were harvested at the "lavoriero", a traditional eel trapping weir that captures eels while leaving internal waters at the onset of reproductive migration. To our knowledge, no investigation on ChE was reported in silver eels. Therefore a first characterization of enzyme activity in muscle, brain, liver and plasma of silver eel was carried out, in the presence of different substrates, selective inhibitors, and four pesticides representative of the carbamate and organophosphate classes. Brain and white skeletal muscle showed similar ChE activities, 5- and 10-fold higher than those detected in liver and plasma, respectively. Km values of 0.31 and 0.30 mM, and Vmax values of 40.28 and 35.47 nmol min(-1) mg protein(-1) were obtained in brain and muscle ChE, respectively. Acetycholinesterase was the predominant ChE form in all tissues, as concluded by comparing the effects of BW 284c51, iso-OMPA and eserine. ChE activities in brain and muscle were significantly inhibited by in vitro treatment with pesticides, with the following order of potency: carbofuran>carbaryl>chlorpyrifos≥diazinon.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/enzimologia , Colinesterases/efeitos dos fármacos , Colinesterases/metabolismo , Fígado/enzimologia , Músculo Esquelético/enzimologia , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Anguilla , Animais , Benzenamina, 4,4'-(3-oxo-1,5-pentanodi-il)bis(N,N-dimetil-N-2-propenil-), Dibrometo/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Colinesterases/sangue , Cinética , Fisostigmina/farmacologia , Tetraisopropilpirofosfamida/farmacologia
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 17(8): 1411-21, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20383595

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are among the most used insecticides in agriculture, causing the inhibition of esterases like acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and carboxylesterase (CbE). Pesticides can reach the aquatic environment, posing risks to non-target organisms, including tadpoles. METHODS: In this work, we characterized the activities of AChE, BChE and CbE in tadpoles of the snouted treefrog Scinax fuscovarius, and verified their in vitro sensibility to different inhibitors [phenylmethane sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), tetra-isopropylpyrophosphamide (iso-OMPA) and the OP diazinon]. In vivo effects of diazinon and esterase recovery after 2-pyridine-aldoxime (2-PAM) treatment of the protein extract were also studied in tadpoles with distinct stages of development exposed to 1 and 3 mg/l for 2 and 7 days. RESULTS: Optimal conditions were established for AChE and CbE; BChE activity was negligible. PMSF affected esterase activities and is not recommended for homogenization buffers. Iso-OMPA treatment caused no changes in AChE and CbE activities, but diazinon inhibited these enzymes in a dose-responsive manner. In vivo, CbE activity was insensitive to diazinon in younger tadpoles, but inhibited after 2 days of exposure in more developed tadpoles. AChE activity was inhibited after 2 and 7 days of exposure, in a dose-responsive manner. Esterase reactivation by 2-PAM was obtained both in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: (1) Tadpoles can be adequate sentinel organisms in biomonitoring studies of OP contamination; (2) AChE was more sensitive than CbE to diazinon; (3) tadpoles from earlier developmental stages seems to be less responsive to OPs; (4) AChE activity was sensitive to diazinon in both development stages, being a better OP biomarker.


Assuntos
Anuros/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/toxicidade , Esterases/antagonistas & inibidores , Organofosfatos/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Acetilcolinesterase/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anuros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Butirilcolinesterase/efeitos dos fármacos , Carboxilesterase/antagonistas & inibidores , Diazinon/toxicidade , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/enzimologia , Tetraisopropilpirofosfamida/toxicidade , Compostos de Tosil/toxicidade
12.
Pharmacol Res ; 58(5-6): 297-301, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18824231

RESUMO

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors stimulate gastrointestinal (GI) motility and are potential treatments of conditions associated with inadequate GI motility. The ability of itopride to facilitate neuronally (predominantly cholinergic) mediated contractions of rat isolated stomach, evoked by electrical field stimulation (EFS), has been compared with other cholinesterase inhibitors and with tegaserod, a clinically effective prokinetic and non-selective 5-HT(4) receptor agonist which also facilitates GI cholinergic function. Neostigmine greatly increased EFS-evoked contractions over a narrow concentration range (0.01-1 microM; 754+/-337% facilitation at 1 microM); higher concentrations (1, 3 microM) also increased muscle tension. Donepezil increased EFS-evoked contractions gradually over the full range of concentrations (0.01-10 microM; maximum increase 516+/-20% at 10 microM). Itopride increased the contractions even more gradually, rising to 188+/-84% at 10 microM. The butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor iso-OMPA 0.01-10 microM also increased EFS-evoked contractions, to a maximum of 36+/-5.0% at 10 microM, similar to that caused by tegaserod (35+/-5.2% increase at 1 microM). The effects of tegaserod, but not itopride were inhibited by the 5-HT(4) receptor antagonist SB-204070A 0.3 microM. In rat isolated colon, neostigmine was again the most efficacious, causing a defined maximum increase in EFS-evoked contractions (343+/-82% at 10 microM), without changing muscle tension. Maximum increases caused by donepezil and itopride were, respectively, 57.6+/-20 and 43+/-15% at 10 microM. These data indicate that the abilities of different AChE inhibitors to increase GI cholinergic activity differ markedly. Understanding the reasons is essential if AChE inhibitors are to be optimally developed as GI prokinetics.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/inervação , Sistema Nervoso Parassimpático/efeitos dos fármacos , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Estômago/inervação , Animais , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Donepezila , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/farmacologia , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Indanos/farmacologia , Indóis/farmacologia , Masculino , Neostigmina/farmacologia , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tetraisopropilpirofosfamida/farmacologia
13.
Xenobiotica ; 38(3): 294-313, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18274958

RESUMO

1. The in vitro human plasma activity and liver microsomal metabolism of pyridostigmine bromide (PB), a prophylactic treatment against organophosphate nerve agent attack, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), an insect repellent, and permethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, either alone or in combination were investigated. 2. The three chemicals disappeared from plasma in the following order: permethrin > PB > DEET. The combined incubation of DEET with either permethrin or PB had no effect on permethrin or PB. Binary incubation with permethrin decreased the metabolism of PB and its disappearance from plasma and binary incubation with PB decreased the metabolism of permethrin and its clearance from plasma. Incubation with PB and/or permethrin shortened the DEET terminal half-life in plasma. These agents behaved similarly when studied in liver microsomal assays. The combined incubation of DEET with PB or permethrin (alone or in combination) diminished DEET metabolism in microsomal systems. 3. The present study evidences that PB and permethrin are metabolized by both human plasma and liver microsomal enzymes and that DEET is mainly metabolized by liver oxidase enzymes. Combined exposure to test chemicals increases their neurotoxicity by impeding the body's ability to eliminate them because of the competition for detoxifying enzymes.


Assuntos
DEET/sangue , DEET/metabolismo , Microssomos Hepáticos/enzimologia , Permetrina/sangue , Permetrina/metabolismo , Brometo de Piridostigmina/sangue , Brometo de Piridostigmina/metabolismo , Biotransformação/efeitos dos fármacos , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , DEET/química , Interações Medicamentosas , Esterases/sangue , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Cinética , Microssomos Hepáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Permetrina/química , Brometo de Piridostigmina/química , Tetraisopropilpirofosfamida/farmacologia
14.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 50(2): 200-5, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18166255

RESUMO

The organophosphate insecticide tetrachlorvinphos (TCVP, Rabon) is the active ingredient in "feed-through" larvacides (e.g., Equitrol) for fly control around horse stables. As with other organophosphates, TCVP elicits toxicity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, leading to accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and cholinergic signs. Relatively little is known, however, on the effects of TCVP-containing larvacides on acetylcholinesterase or other esterases in horses. Previous in vitro studies indicated that horse plasma cholinesterase activity was substantially (>10,000-fold) more sensitive than erythrocyte cholinesterase activity to inhibition by TCVP. In the current study, we examined the relative proportion of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities in horse plasma and muscle, and evaluated the in vivo effects of Equitrol on target and non-target esterases following oral feeding in horses. In vitro inhibition studies suggested that essentially all cholinesterase activity in horse plasma was butyrylcholinesterase, while muscle contained >90% acetylcholinesterase activity. For in vivo studies, adult, male horses (364-590kg; n=3/treatment group) were given either sweet feed alone or sweet feed supplemented with Equitrol daily for 21 consecutive days at the recommended rate. Clinical signs (vital signs, abdominal auscultation, ophthalmic exam, body temperature) were recorded on a daily basis. Heparinized blood samples were taken at days -1, 1, 3, 7, 21, 28, and 42 while muscle (semimembranosus) biopsies were taken under aseptic conditions on days -1 and 21. No signs of overt toxicity were noted at any time during the study. Plasma cholinesterase activity was significantly inhibited (33%) in larvacide-treated horses as early as one day after treatment and peak inhibition (69-71%) was noted at days 7 and 21. Following cessation of dosing, plasma cholinesterase activity recovered (46% and 83% of control on days 28 and 42, respectively). Neither erythrocyte cholinesterase activity nor plasma carboxylesterase activity was affected by larvacide treatment in vivo. Muscle cholinesterase activity was highly variable among individual horses (pre-treatment range: 0.50-4.92nmole/min/mg protein), but there was no suggestion of a treatment-related reduction in muscle cholinesterase activity. These in vivo results confirm our previous in vitro studies indicating marked differential sensitivity of horse plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase to inhibition by TCVP. Furthermore, the results suggest that recommended dosing levels of the TCVP-containing larvacide in horses are unlikely to affect acetylcholinesterase activities or disrupt cholinergic neurotransmission in target tissues.


Assuntos
Benzenamina, 4,4'-(3-oxo-1,5-pentanodi-il)bis(N,N-dimetil-N-2-propenil-), Dibrometo/toxicidade , Butirilcolinesterase/sangue , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Cavalos/fisiologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Tetraisopropilpirofosfamida/toxicidade , Animais , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Combinação de Medicamentos , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/enzimologia , Esterases/sangue , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/enzimologia
15.
Aquat Toxicol ; 84(3): 328-336, 2007 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17688956

RESUMO

Assessment of cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition is widely used as a specific biomarker for evaluating the exposure and effects of non-target organisms to anticholinesterase agents. Cholinesterase and carboxylesterase activities have been measured in larvae of gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata, during the endogenous feeding stage, and ChE was characterized with the aid of diagnostic substrates and inhibitors. The results of the present study showed that whole-body ChE of yolk-sac seabream larvae possesses typical properties of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) with a apparent affinity constant (K(m)) of 0.163+/-0.008 mM and a maximum velocity (V(max)) of 332.7+/-2.8 nmol/min/mg protein. Moreover, sensibility of this enzyme was investigated using the organophosphorus insecticide azinphosmethyl. Static-renewal toxicity tests were conducted over 72 h and larval survival and AChE inhibition were recorded. Mean mortality of seabream larvae increased with increasing concentrations of azinphosmethyl and exposure duration. The estimated 72-h LC50 value to azinphosmethyl was 4.59 microg/l (95% CI=0.46-8.71 microg/l) and inhibition of ChE activity gave an IC50 of 3.04 microg/l (95% CI=2.73-3.31 microg/l). Larvae exposed to azinphosmethyl for 72h showed a 70% inhibition of the whole-body acetylcholinesterase activity at approximately the LC50. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that monitoring ChE activity is a valuable tool indicating OP exposure in S. aurata larvae and that acetylthiocholine is the most appropriate substrate for assessing ChE inhibition in this early-life stage of the fish.


Assuntos
Azinfos-Metil/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Colinesterases/metabolismo , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Dourada/metabolismo , Animais , Azinfos-Metil/toxicidade , Benzenamina, 4,4'-(3-oxo-1,5-pentanodi-il)bis(N,N-dimetil-N-2-propenil-), Dibrometo/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Cinética , Larva , Fisostigmina/farmacologia , Especificidade por Substrato , Tetraisopropilpirofosfamida/farmacologia , Saco Vitelino/efeitos dos fármacos , Saco Vitelino/enzimologia
16.
Toxicology ; 238(2-3): 157-65, 2007 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17644233

RESUMO

Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides elicit acute toxicity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme responsible for inactivating acetylcholine (ACh) at cholinergic synapses. A number of OP toxicants have also been reported to interact directly with muscarinic receptors, in particular the M(2) muscarinic subtype. Parasympathetic innervation to the heart primarily regulates cardiac function by activating M(2) receptors in the sinus node, atrial-ventricular node and conducting tissues. Thus, OP insecticides can potentially influence cardiac function in a receptor-mediated manner indirectly by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase and directly by binding to muscarinic M(2) receptors. Young animals are generally more sensitive than adults to the acute toxicity of OP insecticides and age-related differences in potency of direct binding to muscarinic receptors by some OP toxicants have been reported. We thus compared the effects of the common OP insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) on functional signs of toxicity and cardiac cholinesterase (ChE) activity and muscarinic receptor binding in neonatal and adult rats. Dosages were based on acute lethality (i.e., 0.5 and 1x LD(10): neonates, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg; adults, 68 and 136 mg/kg). Dose- and time-related changes in body weight and cholinergic signs of toxicity (involuntary movements) were noted in both age groups. With 1x LD(10), relatively similar maximal reductions in ChE activity (95%) and muscarinic receptor binding (approximately 30%) were noted, but receptor binding reductions appeared earlier in adults and were more prolonged in neonates. In vitro inhibition studies indicated that ChE in neonatal tissues was markedly more sensitive to inhibition by the active metabolite of chlorpyrifos (i.e., chlorpyrifos oxon, CPO) than enzyme in adult tissues (IC(50) values: neonates, 17 nM; adults, 200 nM). Chelation of free calcium with EDTA had relatively little effect on in vitro cholinesterase inhibition, suggesting that differential A-esterase activity was not responsible for the age-related difference in cholinesterase sensitivity between age groups. Pre-incubation of neonatal and adult tissues with selective inhibitors of AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) indicated that a majority (82-90%) of ChE activity in the heart of both neonates and adults was BChE. The rapid onset (by 4h after dosing) of changes in muscarinic receptor binding in adult heart may be a reflection of the more potent direct binding to muscarinic receptors by chlorpyrifos oxon previously reported in adult tissues. The results suggest that ChE activity (primarily BChE) in neonatal heart may be inherently more sensitive to inhibition by some anticholinesterases and that toxicologically significant binding to muscarinic receptors may be possible with acute chlorpyrifos intoxication, potentially contributing to age-related differences in sensitivity.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos/análogos & derivados , Colinesterases/metabolismo , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Muscarínicos/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Benzenamina, 4,4'-(3-oxo-1,5-pentanodi-il)bis(N,N-dimetil-N-2-propenil-), Dibrometo/farmacologia , Clorpirifos/administração & dosagem , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Feminino , Coração/fisiologia , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Masculino , Agonistas Muscarínicos/farmacologia , Miocárdio/enzimologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Oxotremorina/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tetraisopropilpirofosfamida/farmacologia , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Life Sci ; 80(24-25): 2380-5, 2007 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17467011

RESUMO

At the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) can hydrolyze acetylcholine (ACh). Released ACh quanta are known to diffuse rapidly across the narrow synaptic cleft and pairs of ACh molecules cooperate to open endplate channels. During their diffusion through the cleft, or after being released from muscle nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs), most ACh molecules are hydrolyzed by AChE highly concentrated at the NMJ. Advances in mouse genomics offered new approaches to assess the role of specific cholinesterases involved in synaptic transmission. AChE knockout mice (AChE-KO) provide a valuable tool for examining the complete abolition of AChE activity and the role of BChE. AChE-KO mice live to adulthood, and exhibit an increased sensitivity to BChE inhibitors, suggesting that BChE activity facilitated their survival and compensated for AChE function. Our results show that BChE is present at the endplate region of wild-type and AChE-KO mature muscles. The decay time constant of focally recorded miniature endplate currents was 1.04 +/- 0.06 ms in wild-type junctions and 5.4 ms +/- 0.3 ms in AChE-KO junctions, and remained unaffected by BChE-specific inhibitors, indicating that BChE is not limiting ACh duration on endplate nAChRs. Inhibition of BChE decreased evoked quantal ACh release in AChE-KO NMJs. This reduction in ACh release can explain the greatest sensitivity of AChE-KO mice to BChE inhibitors. BChE is known to be localized in perisynaptic Schwann cells, and our results strongly suggest that BChE's role at the NMJ is to protect nerve terminals from an excess of ACh.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Acetilcolinesterase/genética , Animais , Benzenamina, 4,4'-(3-oxo-1,5-pentanodi-il)bis(N,N-dimetil-N-2-propenil-), Dibrometo/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Eletrofisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Camundongos Knockout , Microscopia Eletrônica , Placa Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Placa Motora/metabolismo , Placa Motora/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Junção Neuromuscular/metabolismo , Junção Neuromuscular/fisiologia , Junção Neuromuscular/ultraestrutura , Transmissão Sináptica/efeitos dos fármacos , Tetraisopropilpirofosfamida/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Toxicology ; 236(3): 178-89, 2007 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17532548

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to characterize cholinesterase (ChE) activity in Gammarus pulex, an abundant and ecologically relevant species of the European stream environment. Biochemical and pharmacological properties were tested using different substrates (acetylthiocholine iodide, propionylthiocholine iodide and butyrylthiocholine iodide) and selective inhibitors (eserine sulfate, BW284c51 and iso-OMPA). In a second part, the in vitro and in vivo effects of a widely used organophosphorous pesticide, chlorpyrifos, on ChE activity were investigated. The results suggest that G. pulex possess only one ChE which displays the typical properties of an acetylcholinesterase, since: (1) it hydrolyses to the substrate acetylthiocholine at a higher rate than all other tested substrates and (2) it is highly sensitive to eserine sulphate and BW284c51, but not to iso-OMPA. In vitro and in vivo inhibitions were observed for highly different contamination levels, which suggests that bioaccumulation and biotransformation mechanisms are involved. In vivo AChE inhibition was observed at realistic environmental concentrations, with lethal effects appearing at inhibitions higher than 50%. The results of this study show the value of G. pulex as a sentinel organism for environmental assessment.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Colinesterases/metabolismo , Crustáceos/enzimologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Animais , Benzenamina, 4,4'-(3-oxo-1,5-pentanodi-il)bis(N,N-dimetil-N-2-propenil-), Dibrometo/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Colinesterases/química , Colinesterases/classificação , Crustáceos/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Monitoramento Ambiental , Iodetos/farmacologia , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Fisostigmina/farmacologia , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Especificidade por Substrato , Tetraisopropilpirofosfamida/farmacologia , Tiocolina/farmacologia
19.
Life Sci ; 80(24-25): 2375-9, 2007 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17459421

RESUMO

The expression of a cholinergic system during embryonic development is a widespread phenomenon. However, no precise function could be assigned to it during early pre-neural stages and there are only few studies that document when it precisely starts to be expressed. Here, we examined the expression of cholinergic components in a murine embryonic stem cell line by RT-PCR, histochemistry, and enzyme activity measurements; the acetylcholine (ACh) content was measured by HPLC. We have demonstrated that embryonic stem cells express ACh, acetylcholine receptors, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterase (AChE and BChE). Butyryl-cholinesterase (BChE) expression was higher than AChE. The cholinesterase activity was down-regulated by adding specific inhibitors to culture medium. Inhibition of BChE led to a reduction of proliferation. This is the first demonstration that mouse embryonic stem cells express the full molecular equipment of a cholinergic system. Locally produced ACh might function as an intercellular signal, modulating the proliferation of stem cells.


Assuntos
Colina O-Acetiltransferase/genética , Colinesterases/genética , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Receptores Colinérgicos/genética , Acetilcolina/metabolismo , Acetilcolinesterase/genética , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Benzenamina, 4,4'-(3-oxo-1,5-pentanodi-il)bis(N,N-dimetil-N-2-propenil-), Dibrometo/farmacologia , Butirilcolinesterase/genética , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Colina O-Acetiltransferase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase , Colinesterases/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Receptores Colinérgicos/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Tetraisopropilpirofosfamida/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17347007

RESUMO

To validate cholinesterase activity as a biomarker of pesticide exposure, we characterized the tissue distribution (whole body, nervous tissue and crop/gizzard), activity at two seasons of cholinesterase in six different species of earthworms collected in an unpolluted field: Lumbricus terrestris, Lumbricus castaneus, Aporrectodea nocturna, Aporrectodea caliginosa, Allolobophora chlorotica and Aporrectodea rosea. The major part of total cholinesterase activity was found in the nervous tissue while activity in crop/gizzard was weak. The level of the total cholinesterase activity was stable for each species considered throughout the year (spring and autumn). Lumbricus species exhibited three-fold higher specific activity than the others (0.086+/-0.015 U mg(-1) and 0.235+/-0.036 U mg(-1) for Allolobophora or Aporrectodea, and Lumbricus species respectively). This stability of the base level makes cholinesterase activity a useful biomarker for monitoring effects of pesticide under natural conditions. Cholinesterase activity was characterized using different substrates and inhibitors. It seems likely that the cholinesterases are acetylcholinesterases in most species investigated as they preferentially hydrolyzed acetylthiocholine and were inhibited by eserine, but not by tetraisopropyl pyrophoramide (iso-OMPA). Characterization of cholinesterase from Allolobophora chlorotica is uncertain and it cannot be classified as a true AChE.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Inibidores da Colinesterase/metabolismo , Colinesterases/análise , Oligoquetos/enzimologia , Animais , Benzenamina, 4,4'-(3-oxo-1,5-pentanodi-il)bis(N,N-dimetil-N-2-propenil-), Dibrometo/toxicidade , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Fisostigmina/toxicidade , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie , Espectrofotometria , Especificidade por Substrato , Tetraisopropilpirofosfamida/toxicidade
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