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1.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(5)2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068362

RESUMO

Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a reliable and high-throughput technique for gene expression studies, but its accuracy depends on the expression stability of reference genes. Schima superba is a fast-growing timber species with strong resistance. However, thus far, reliable reference gene identifications have not been reported in S. superba. In this study, 19 candidate reference genes were selected and evaluated for their expression stability in different tissues of S. superba. Three software programs (geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper) were used to evaluate the reference gene transcript stabilities, and comprehensive stability ranking was generated by the geometric mean method. Our results show that SsuACT was the most stable reference gene and that SsuACT + SsuRIB was the best reference gene combination for different tissues. Finally, the stable and less stable reference genes were verified using SsuSND1 expression in different tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first report to verify appropriate reference genes for normalizing gene expression in S. superba for different tissues, which will facilitate the future elucidation of gene regulations in this species and useful references for relative species.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Theaceae/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Técnicas Genéticas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Padrões de Referência , Software
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 354, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs), carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) are important energy source or nutrients for all plant growth and metabolism. To persist in shaded understory, saplings have to maintain the dynamic balance of carbon and nutrients, such as leaf NSCs, C, N and P. To improve understanding of the nutrient utilization strategies between shade-tolerant and shade-intolerant species, we therefore compared the leaf NSCs, C, N, P in response to shade between seedlings of shade-tolerant Schima superba and shade-intolerant Cunninghamia lanceolate. Shading treatments were created with five levels (0, 40, 60, 85, 95% shading degree) to determine the effect of shade on leaf NSCs contents and C:N:P stoichiometry characteristics. RESULTS: Mean leaf area was significantly larger under 60% shading degree for C. lanceolata while maximum mean leaf area was observed under 85% shading degree for S. superba seedlings, whereas leaf mass per area decreased consistently with increasing shading degree in both species. In general, both species showed decreasing NSC, soluble sugar and starch contents with increasing shading degree. However shade-tolerant S. superba seedlings exhibited higher NSC, soluble sugar and starch content than shade-intolerant C. lanceolate. The soluble sugar/starch ratio of C. lanceolate decreased with increasing shading degree, whereas that of S. superb remained stable. Leaf C:N ratio decreased while N:P ratio increased with increasing shading degree; leaf C:P ratio was highest in 60% shading degree for C. lanceolata and in 40% shading degree for S. superba. CONCLUSION: S. superba is better adapted to low light condition than C. lanceolata through enlarged leaf area and increased carbohydrate reserves that allow the plant to cope with low light stress. From mixed plantation viewpoint, it would be advisable to plant S. superba later once the canopy of C. lanceolata is well developed but allowing enough sunlight.


Assuntos
Cunninghamia/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Theaceae/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Carbono/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Plântula/fisiologia , Amido/metabolismo , Luz Solar , Árvores
3.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(4): 1063-1072, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530179

RESUMO

We investigated the fire resistance conferred by different forest age groups (young, middle-age and mature forest) and organs (leaf, branch, and bark) of six typical tree species (Myrica rubra, Schima superba, Symplocos sumuntia, Machilus pingii, Castanopsis eyrei, and Quercus glauca) in Qingshigang national forest farm, Yanling County, Hunan Province, subtropical China. We measured morphological, physical, and chemical properties that could be used as proxies for fire resistance and examined the variances of fire resistance among different organs and age groups in the same tree species. Further, we comprehensively ranked all the tree species by their capacity in fire resistance. We found considerable variation in fire resistance among organs and age groups. Compared with branches and barks, leaves had relatively higher water content (53.7%), higher crude ash content (4.5%), and lower crude fiber content (23.9%). Fire resistance of trees decreased first and then increased with increasing stand age. Trees in middle-aged stage showed the lowest contents of water, crude ash, and crude fiber. The comprehensive scores of fire resistance for diffe-rent organs were significantly different among species. Fire resistance of leaves generally decreased in the order of M. pingii > C. eyrei > S. sumuntia > M. rubra > S. superba > Q. glauca. For branches, M. pingii and C. eyrei showed the strongest fire resistance, followed by M. rubra and S. superba. For barks, S. superba and C. eyrei were relatively stronger in fire resistance than other species, while M. pingii and Q. glauca were the weakest. The comprehensive scores of fire resistance performance of species were different. S. superba (1.033) and M. rubra (0.526) were the most fire-resistant species, while M. pingii (-0.405) and Q. glauca (-1.151) were the least fire-resistant. Therefore, S. superba and M. rubra were the preferred tree species for fire prevention forest belt in forests of subtropical southern China.


Assuntos
Incêndios , Theaceae , China , Florestas , Árvores
4.
J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods ; 102: 106681, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087362

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study was aimed to assess uric acid (UA)-lowering effect and its possible mechanisms of a natural complex product Yaocha in a live zebrafish model. METHODS: The zebrafish high UA model was established by feeding 5 dpf zebrafish with both an uricase inhibitor potassium oxonate at 10 mM and an UA synthesis precursor xanthine sodium at 0.5 mM for 24 h. Yaocha was administered to the high UA zebrafish through soaking at 3 various concentrations, with allopurinol as a positive control. UA level, xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity, and mRNA expression of hypoxanthine guanine-phosphoribosyltransferases transferase (HPRT1) and organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) were measured. RESULTS: Yaocha effectively reduced UA level and inhibited xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in the high UA zebrafish. Yaocha could be a potential therapeutics for hyperuricemia through up-regulating HPRT1 and OAT1 gene expression and suppressing XO activity. DISCUSSION: These results suggested that Yaocha hold a potential for high UA prevention and therapy, possibly through inhibiting UA production and promoting urate secretion and purine conversion.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Animais , Aspalathus/química , Produtos Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Produtos Biológicos/química , Dipeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipoxantina Fosforribosiltransferase/genética , Proteína 1 Transportadora de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Theaceae/química , Peixe-Zebra
5.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(6): 1909-1915, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494743

RESUMO

The numerical classification and ordination of plant communities can reveal the relationship between plant distribution and environment, with implications on vegetation restoration and forest management. Community types were classified using a clustering method based on 45 forest dynamic plots with each area of 0.04 hm2 in Wuchaoshan, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China. The ordination of plant community and the relationship between communities and edaphic variables (soil nutrient availability and topography) were explored using redundancy analysis. Results showed there were three community types in the study area, including Schima superba community type, Quercus fabri-Symplocos anomala community type, and Cyclobalanopsis glauca community type. Stem density and basal area of trees were not significantly different among those community types. Species richness in the C. glauca community was higher than that in S. superba community, but not significantly different from the Q. fabri-S. anomala community. Results from the redundancy analysis showed that community distribution was significantly related to edaphic factors. Topographic and soil factors accounted for 46.4% of the total variation in community distribution while total soil phosphorus, available phosphorus, available potassium, elevation, slope, aspect, and canopy openness had significant effects on community composition. Total soil phosphorus, available potassium, and altitude were the main factors influencing community distribution in Wuchaoshan. 53.6% of the total variation in community distribution were not explained, perhaps due to anthropogenic disturbance.


Assuntos
Florestas , Theaceae , China , Solo , Árvores
6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14942, 2019 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628341

RESUMO

The competition-colonization trade-off, by which species can partition spatial niches, is a potentially important mechanism allowing the maintenance of species diversity in plant communities. We examined whether there was evidence for this trade-off among tree species in a subtropical forest and how it correlated with eight functional traits. We developed and estimated a metric for colonization ability that incorporates both fecundity and seed dispersal based on seed trap data and the sizes and distributions of adult trees. Competitive ability was estimated as survival probability under high crowding conditions based on neighborhood models. Although we found no significant relationship between colonization and competitive abilities, there was a significant negative correlation between long distance dispersal ability and competitive ability at the 5 cm size class. Colonizers had traits associated with faster growth, such as large leaves and low leaf lamina density, whereas competitors had traits associated with higher survival, such as dense wood. Our results imply that any trade-off between competition and colonization may be more determined by dispersal ability than by fecundity, suggesting that seed dispersal is an important contributor to diversity maintenance. Future work should test how competitive ability covaries with the components of colonization ability, as we did here.


Assuntos
Fagaceae/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Juglandaceae/fisiologia , Lauraceae/fisiologia , Theaceae/fisiologia , Árvores/fisiologia , Florestas , Modelos Estatísticos , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta , Probabilidade , Dispersão de Sementes , Sementes , Especificidade da Espécie , Madeira
7.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 2955-2963, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529870

RESUMO

Light is a key factor affecting seed germination and seedling growth. In this study, seed germination and seedling growth of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Schima superba were compared under controlled conditions with five light treatments (100%, 60%, 40%, 15% and 5% of full sunlight). The results showed that light intensity significantly impacted seed germination and seedling growth of both species. With decreasing light intensity, the germination rate and germination index of C. lanceolata increased, while those of S. superba showed a trend which increased first and then decreased, with the maximum at 40% light intensity. The seedling survival rate of both species was 0 under full sunlight, while significantly decreased with decreasing light intensity from 60% to 5%. Root length, basal stem diameter and height showed a consistent trend with the change of light availability in both species. Root length significantly decreased, basal stem diameter and height increased first and then decreased with decreasing light intensity, with the minimum at 5% light intensity. With decreasing light intensity, root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass and total biomass of C. lanceolata seedlings declined, while high biomass accumulation of S. superba seedlings were observed in 15%-60% light intensities, and lowest at 5% light intensity. Biomass accumulation in each organ of S. superba seedlings was greater than that of C. lanceolata seedlings under the same light intensity. High stem biomass and leaf biomass, low root biomass and root to shoot ratio were a phenotypic response to low light intensity in C. lanceolata and S. superba seedlings grown under poor light condition. The growth of C. lanceolata is better under relatively high light intensity than S. superba. Whereas S. superba is moderately shade-tolerant at the seedling stage, thus is more suitable for planting under closed canopy.


Assuntos
Cunninghamia/fisiologia , Germinação/fisiologia , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Theaceae , Sementes
8.
Molecules ; 24(8)2019 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013655

RESUMO

Plant-derived extracts are a promising source of new drugs. Schima superba is traditionally used in China for heat clearing, detoxification, and treatment of furuncles. In this study, the anticandidal properties and mechanism of action of S. superba (SSE) were explored using a stem bark extract. SSE possessed high polyphenol and saponin contents of 256.6 ± 5.1 and 357.8 ± 31.5 µg/mg, respectively. A clear inhibition zone was observed for C. albicans growth through the disc diffusion method and the 50% inhibition of C. albicans by SSE was 415.2 µg/mL. Transcriptomic analysis in C. albicans treated with different doses of SSE was conducted through RNA-seq. Average values of 6068 genes and 20,842,500 clean reads were identified from each sample. Among these samples, 1680 and 1956 genes were differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from the SSE treatments of 0.2 and 0.4 mg/mL, respectively. C. albicans growth was inhibited by the changes in gene expression associated with the cell wall and membrane composition including the regulation of chitin degradation and ergosterol biosynthesis. This result could be reflected in the irregularly wrinkled morphology of the ruptured cell as revealed through SEM analysis. ESI-MS and NMR analyses revealed that the major compound purified from SSE was sasanquasaponin III and the 50% inhibition of C. albicans was 93.1 µg/mL. In summary, the traditional Chinese medicine S. superba can be applied as an anticandidal agent in complementary and alternative medicine.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais , Theaceae/química , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
9.
Phytomedicine ; 58: 152769, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melanoma is a high fatality skin cancer which lacks effective drugs. Sasanquasaponin, an important sort of constituents in theaceae, has been demonstrated to have potent anti-tumor effect in breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. As a sasanquasaponin, we speculate that Sasanquasaponin III (SQS III) isolated from Schima crenata Korth may also have anti-tumor activity. PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate whether SQS III has anti-melanoma activity and examine the underlying mechanisms of SQS III against melanoma. METHODS/STUDY DESIGNS: The anti-proliferative effect of SQS III was assessed by cells viability assay. Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining assay was utilized for detection of apoptosis. Mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were detected using JC-1 and DCFH-DA assay, respectively. Autophagy was monitored using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and GFP-LC3 transfection fluorescence analysis. Autophagosome-lysosome fusion and lysosomal degradation were determined using a GFP-LC3 & LAMP1 co-localization assay and DQ-BSA staining. Proteins related to apoptosis and autophagy were analyzed by Western blotting. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that the SQS III exhibited potent anti-cancer activity in A375 cells by inducing both apoptosis and autophagy. In melanoma cells treated with SQS III, caspases were activated and PARP was cleaved, proving the occurrence of apoptosis. Mechanistic studies indicated that the pro-apoptosis activity of SQS III was mediated by death receptor pathway and mitochondrial dysfunction which was induced by ROS accumulation and reversed by the ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). In addition to triggering apoptosis, SQS III may also cause autophagy in melanoma cells. Our results demonstrated that SQS III induced up-regulated expression of GFP-LC3, autophagosome-lysosomal fusion and lysosomal degradation. Additionally, the ROS accumulation was also involved in the activation of autophagy. Meanwhile, it was also found that after SQS III treatment, the expression of LC3-II was up-regulated and the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway was inhibited. The autophagy inhibitor 3-MA converted cytotoxicity and apoptosis of SQS III in A375 cells, which indicated that autophagy promoted the SQS III-induced apoptosis. CONCLUSION: SQS III showed potent anti-cancer activity by inducing apoptosis and autophagy, which provides insights into its possible use as a therapy for melanoma.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Saponinas/farmacologia , Theaceae/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/genética , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/metabolismo , Saponinas/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
10.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 135: 1-11, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30802596

RESUMO

Phylogenetic analyses using diverse datasets can yield conflicting inference of evolutionary history. Phylogenetic conflicts observed in both animal and plant systems have often been explained by two competing (but not mutually exclusive) hypotheses, i.e., hybridization vs. incomplete lineage sorting (ILS). The likelihood of either process contributing to phylogenetic conflict in a given group is context-dependent, involving attributes of life history, distribution, and phylogeny, among others. Here we explore phylogenetic conflict in Stewartia s.l., a genus with ca. 20 species of trees and shrubs from the tea family (Theaceae) disjunctly distributed between eastern Asia (EAS) and eastern North America (ENA). We use both restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) and complete plastome sequence data to reconstruct the phylogeny of the group using concatenation and coalescence approaches. Our results indicate strong conflicts between the topologies reconstructed using nuclear and plastid data. Four-taxon D-statistic (ABBA-BABA) tests detected prevailing signals of introgression. Bayesian Analysis of Macro-evolutionary Mixtures (BAMM) inferred that species diversification occurred in the middle to late Miocene. Ancestral range reconstructions indicated co-distribution of ancestral species (represented by internal nodes) for both the Hartia clade (in southern China) and the EAS Stewartia s.s. clade (Japan Archipelago and the Yangtze Valley of China). The latter clade experienced multiple events of dispersal and vicariance during its diversification history. Ancient introgressive hybridization following species diversification in the mid- to late-Miocene likely caused diverging histories in the nuclear and plastid genomes, leading to phylogenetic conflict in Stewartia s.l. Our study indicates that species diversification driven by both the intensification of the East Asian summer monsoon since the late Miocene and reduced risks of extinction due to frequent dispersal possibly via East China Sea Land Bridge impacted the anomalous species richness between EAS and ENA. Our study highlights the importance of using data from different genomes while reconstructing deep and shallow phylogenies of organisms.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Filogenia , Theaceae/genética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Calibragem , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Hibridização Genética , Filogeografia , Plastídeos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 41, 2019 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schima superba (Theaceae) is a popular woody tree in China. The obscure chromosomal characters of this species are a limitation in the development of high-density genetic linkage maps, which are valuable resources for molecular breeding and functional genomics. RESULTS: We determined the chromosome number and the karyotype of S. superba as 2n = 36 = 36 m, which is consistent with the tribe Schimeae (n = 18). A high-density genetic map was constructed using genotyping by sequencing (GBS). A F1 full-sib with 116 individuals and their parents (LC31 × JO32) were sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq™ platform. Overall, 343.3 Gb of raw data containing 1,191,933,474 paired-end reads were generated. Based on this, 99,966 polymorphic SNP markers were developed from the parents, and 2209 markers were mapped onto the integrated genetic linkage map after data filtering and SNP genotyping. The map spanned 2076.24 cM and was distributed among 18 linkage groups. The average marker interval was 0.94 cM. A total of 168 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for 14 growth traits were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The chromosome number and karyotype of S. superba was 2n = 36 = 36 m and a linkage map with 2209 SNP markers was constructed to identify QTLs for growth traits. Our study provides a basis for molecular-assisted breeding and genomic studies, which will contribute towards the future research and genetic improvement of S. superba.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Theaceae/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Cariotipagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
12.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13669, 2018 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209316

RESUMO

In this study, leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry were used as indicators of nitrogen saturation and to assess ecosystem nutrient limitations. Schima superba, a representative and widely distributed dominant evergreen broadleaf tree species of the subtropical forests in southern China, was used for this purpose. A nutrient-addition experiment and a field survey were conducted to test the responses of trees from different provenances to N deposition. The relationships between leaf N and P stoichiometry and biomass, nutrient limitation, and soil N:P were analyzed. There was a relationship between leaf N, P, N:P, soil N:P and plant dry biomass. A threshold leaf N:P ratio (16.3) divided the five provenances into different nutrient-limitation classes that were related to the soil N:P ratio or N deposition. The leaf N:P ratio provided an indication of P limitation. A higher soil P level reduced the N deposition effect on plant growth. The leaf N:P ratio of individuals from different provenances can be used as a predictor of nutrient limitation, and this was related to the soil N:P ratio.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Theaceae/química , Biomassa , China , Solo/química
13.
Tree Physiol ; 38(10): 1486-1501, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29579301

RESUMO

The abundance of phenolic compounds (including anthocyanins) in leaves is associated with photosynthetic performance, but the regulatory mechanism is unclear. Schima superba Gardn. et Champ. and Cryptocarya concinna Hance., which exhibit distinct anthocyanin accumulation patterns, are dominant tree species in the early- and late-successional stages, respectively, of subtropical forests in China. RNA-seq and analyses of phenolic concentrations, antioxidant capacity and photosynthetic characteristics were performed on young and mature leaves of these two species under contrasting light conditions. The high-light-acclimated young leaves of S. superba and C. concinna and low-light-acclimated young leaves of C. concinna were red. These red leaves had higher ratios of electron transport rate to gross photosynthesis (ETR:Pgross) and total antioxidant capacity to chlorophyll (TAC:Chl) than did the green leaves, regardless of light conditions. In addition, the red leaves had a higher expression level of the UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) gene than did the green leaves, irrespective of light conditions. Total antioxidant capacity was positively correlated with flavonoid content in C. concinna leaves and with total phenolic content in leaves of both species under both high and low light. Consistent with the measurements of photosynthetic performance and flavonoids:Chl ratio, photosynthesis-related genes were extensively downregulated and flavonoid-pathway-related genes were extensively upregulated in young leaves relative to mature leaves. Under high and low light, both non-photochemical quenching and TAC:Chl, which serve as different types of photoprotective tools, were enhanced in young leaves of S. superba, whereas only TAC:Chl was enhanced in young leaves of C. concinna. Our results indicate that the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in young leaves is likely enhanced by an imbalance between photosynthetic electron supply and demand and that flavonoids play a larger role in meditating photoprotection in late-successional species than in early-successional ones.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cryptocarya/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Theaceae/metabolismo , China , Transporte de Elétrons , Folhas de Planta/química , Clima Tropical
14.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; 20(2): 128-138, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28492090

RESUMO

Camellia oleifera is expected to provide alternative aglycone to synthesize some saponins similar to that from Schima superba with inhibitory activity against Magnaporthe oryzae. Eight theasapogenol galactosides were synthesized via protection of adjacent hydroxyl groups by a benzylidene for regioselective glycosylation in the multi-hydroxyl sapogenin. Water soluble galactose chain connected far from liposoluble end was a key group in inhibiting the growth of M. oryzea unless theasapogenol was modified by two galactosyl groups or by one galactosyl group and one benzylidene group. The amphoteric characteristics of saponin such as saccharide group number, distance between bipolar groups play an important role in inhibiting mycelium growth of M. oryzae.


Assuntos
Galactosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Galactosídeos/farmacologia , Magnaporthe/efeitos dos fármacos , Saponinas/síntese química , Theaceae/química , Camellia/química , Galactosídeos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Saponinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; 20(10): 962-968, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28891321

RESUMO

Two new ent-kaurane diterpenes (1-2), together with five known analogs, were isolated from the stems of Eurya chinensis. The structures of new compounds were established by extensive analysis of mass spectrometric and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. Compound 3 exhibited noticeable anti-inflammatory activity as denoted by inhibiting LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells with an IC50 value of 7.82 µM. Compound 4 showed potent cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines NCI-H46, HepG2 and SW480 with IC50 values ranging from 7.45 to 8.54 µM.


Assuntos
Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano/isolamento & purificação , Theaceae/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano/química , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano/farmacologia , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Caules de Planta/química , Células RAW 264.7
16.
New Phytol ; 215(3): 1235-1248, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28695680

RESUMO

Subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests (EBLFs) inhabit large areas of East Asia. Although paleovegetation reconstructions have revealed that the subtropical EBLFs existed in Southwest China during the Miocene, the historical construction of these forests remains poorly known. Here, we used the tea family (Theaceae), a characteristic component of the subtropical EBLFs, to gain new insights into the assembly of this important biome. Using a robust phylogenetic framework of Theaceae based on plastome and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence data, the temporal history of the family was reconstructed. Data from other characteristic components of subtropical EBLFs, including Fagaceae, Lauraceae and Magnoliaceae, were also integrated. Most of the essential elements of the subtropical EBLFs appear to have originated around the Oligocene-Miocene (O-M) boundary. However, small woody lineages (e.g. Camellia, Hartia) from Theaceae were dated to the late Miocene. Accelerated net diversification rates within Theaceae were also detected near the O-M transition period and the late Miocene. Our results suggest that two independent intensifications of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) around the O-M boundary and the late Miocene may have facilitated the historical assembly of the subtropical EBLFs in East Asia.


Assuntos
Florestas , Clima Tropical , Biodiversidade , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Extinção Biológica , Extremo Oriente , Especiação Genética , Filogenia , Plastídeos/genética , Theaceae/classificação , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 4009, 2017 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28638066

RESUMO

The genus Schima includes about 20 species and is distributed only in southern China and adjacent areas of Asia. The previous molecular phylogenetic analysis suggested Schima is in the tribe Gordoniae, along with Gordonia and Franklinia. However, because few fossils have been reported, the biogeographic origin of Schima is still poorly known. In this paper mummified fossil fruits of Schima are described from the upper Oligocene Yongning Formation of the Nanning Basin, Guangxi, South China. In gross morphology, the new fossil species, Schima kwangsiensis, is similar to the extant S. superba by its pentacarpellate, loculicidally dehiscent capsules, 5 imbricate sepals, pedicels with bracteoles and marginally winged seeds. Due to its excellent preservation, the new species may provide sufficient details for understanding the early evolutionary and phytogeographic history of the genus. Morphological clustering analysis shows that the new fossil species is closely related to two extant species (S. wallichii and S. superba) in the genus, implying that they may belong to an ancient taxon that occurs earlier than the others. More importantly, this discovery represents the earliest record of this genus in Asia and it explicitly moves the fossil record back to the late Oligocene in this region.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Filogeografia , Theaceae/genética , China , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 12(6): e0178026, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28575004

RESUMO

Schima is an ecologically and economically important woody genus in tea family (Theaceae). Unresolved species delimitations and phylogenetic relationships within Schima limit our understanding of the genus and hinder utilization of the genus for economic purposes. In the present study, we conducted comparative analysis among the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes of 11 Schima species. Our results indicate that Schima cp genomes possess a typical quadripartite structure, with conserved genomic structure and gene order. The size of the Schima cp genome is about 157 kilo base pairs (kb). They consistently encode 114 unique genes, including 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNAs, and 4 rRNAs, with 17 duplicated in the inverted repeat (IR). These cp genomes are highly conserved and do not show obvious expansion or contraction of the IR region. The percent variability of the 68 coding and 93 noncoding (>150 bp) fragments is consistently less than 3%. The seven most widely touted DNA barcode regions as well as one promising barcode candidate showed low sequence divergence. Eight mutational hotspots were identified from the 11 cp genomes. These hotspots may potentially be useful as specific DNA barcodes for species identification of Schima. The 58 cpSSR loci reported here are complementary to the microsatellite markers identified from the nuclear genome, and will be leveraged for further population-level studies. Phylogenetic relationships among the 11 Schima species were resolved with strong support based on the cp genome data set, which corresponds well with the species distribution pattern. The data presented here will serve as a foundation to facilitate species identification, DNA barcoding and phylogenetic reconstructions for future exploration of Schima.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/genética , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Genoma de Planta , Theaceae/genética , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Pharm Biol ; 55(1): 837-846, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28140744

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Ternstroemia gymnanthera Sprague (Theaceae) possesses various known pharmacological properties. However, its anti-inflammatory activity has not been reported. OBJECTIVE: The anti-inflammatory activity of Ternstroemia gymnanthera stem bark aqueous extract (TGSBE) was evaluated using LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT assay after 24 h with TGSBE (25-200 µg/mL). Further testing used TGSBE at 100 and 200 µg/mL. Griess and ELISA methods after 24 h with TGSBE determined NO and cytokine levels, respectively; then, mRNA levels (iNOS & cytokines) were analyzed by Quantitative-PCR after 12 h. NF-κB and MAPK were assessed by immunoblotting after TGSBE treatment for 12 h, followed by LPS for 30 min. Immunofluorescence assay was also performed for NF-κB. ROS and MMP, after 12 h with TGSBE, were determined by flow cytometry. The antioxidant potential of TGSBE was analyzed by ABTS assay. The Folin-Ciocalteu method determined the total phenolic content of TGSBE. LPS concentration was 0.5 µg/mL. RESULTS: TGSBE at 200 µg/mL showed about 96.2% viability while suppressing the production of NO (88.99%), TNFα (24.38%), IL-6 (61.70%) and IL-1ß (55.12%) and gene expression by 67.88, 45.24, 65.84, and 70.48%, respectively. TGSBE decreased ROS (79.26%) and improved MMP (48.01%); it inhibited translocation of NF-κB and MAPK activation. Radical scavenging activity was 50% at 402.17 µg/mL (ascorbic acid standard: 88.8 µg/mL). Total phenolic content was 240.9 mg GAE/g. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: TGSBE suppresses the inflammatory response by inhibiting the NF-κB and MAPK cascades exhibiting therapeutic potential to treat inflammatory diseases associated with increased activation of macrophages.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Theaceae , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/biossíntese , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Caules de Planta , Células RAW 264.7 , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
20.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 28(4): 1087-1093, 2017 Apr 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29741303

RESUMO

Growth and root development of three Schima superba seedling provenances were influenced by adjacent plant competition in the homogeneous and heterogeneous nutrient environment, which revealed the reasons of S. superba competition differences in the different genotypes. The results indicated that, compared with homogeneous nutrient environment, all three S. superba provenances showed higher seedling height, more dry matter accumulation, and significant root proliferation in heterogeneous nutrient environment. Under heterogeneous nutrient environment, the seedlings of S. superba from Jian'ou of Fujian exhibited higher competitive advantage in growth than that of S. superba from Longquan of Zhejiang and Xinfeng of Jiangxi, especially standing out under mixed cultivation with seedlings of Cunninghamia lanceolata. Under mixed cultivation, the root growth parameters of S. superba such as root length, root surface area and volume increased by 20.4%-69.0% compared with the single plant, which enhanced the foraging ability and growth advantage. To some extent, however, the root development in Longquan of Zhejiang and Xinfeng of Jiangxi was suppressed when subjected to the pattern of mixed cultivation. Besides, the root growth and development of all three S. superba provenances were suppressed, which might be due to their root self-recognition in the pattern of mono cultivation. Therefore, the seedling growth in Jian'ou of Fujian decreased significantly, but seedling growth in Longquan of Zhejiang and Xinfeng of Jiangxi was not suppressed, even increased evidently, as their root physiological plasticity might play the crucial role in seedling growth. Hence the S. superba from Jian'ou of Fujian with high foraging efficiency and competition ability was suggested with the method of mixed forestation to improve the S. superba forest plantation productivity.


Assuntos
Raízes de Plantas , Theaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cunninghamia , Plântula
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