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1.
Xenotransplantation ; 29(4): e12766, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35695325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is mentioned that students' opinions about xenotransplantation (XTx) have been explored in a limited manner. In particular, there is no literature in Turkey on Nursing and Theology students' perspectives on XTx. This research aimed to find out what Nursing and Theology students thought about XTx. METHODS: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted on students studying at the Theology and Nursing faculties. The study population consisted of 2.581 students educated in these faculties. Without using any sampling method, it was aimed to reach all students, and 1.780 (70%) students were reached. Data were collected using a participant identification form and questionnaire form, which the researchers developed. RESULTS: The difference between the answers given by the Nursing and Theology students to the information statements about XTx was statistically significant (p < .001). Nursing and Theology students' attitudes to organ or tissue Tx from halal animals in case of necessity were positive (p < .001). While the nursing students' attitude toward organ or tissue Tx from non-helal animals in case of necessity was negative, Theology students had no idea (p < .001). In other attitude statements, while nursing students responded positively, Theology students responded as "I have no idea" (p ≤ .001). CONCLUSION: Theology students tended to have the question about XTx and only positive attitude towards XTx from halal animals. Nursing students mostly had positive attitude, but negative when XTx is practiced out of necessity.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Enfermagem , Teologia , Estudos Transversais , Docentes , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Teologia/educação , Transplante Heterólogo
2.
J Pastoral Care Counsel ; 76(3): 227-228, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35542980

RESUMO

As a theology professor in a Catholic University, we are trained to teach minds, touch hearts, and transform lives. But a professor gains deeper understanding of the importance of teaching theology in time of COVID-19 pandemic. My theology is rooted in my personal religious and spiritual experiences. Therefore, experience led me to construct three themes: "Light of Faith"; "The True, Good and Beautiful"; "Religious and Spiritual Experiences."


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Assistência Religiosa , Catolicismo , Humanos , Pandemias , Espiritualidade , Teologia
3.
J Hist Ideas ; 83(2): 181-206, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35603610

RESUMO

The standard narrative of post-Reformation confessionalization suggests that confessional cultures clamped down on intellectual creativity in order to protect orthodox theology. Taking the case of Lutheranism, this article examines Eilhard Lubin's successful defense of his subversive ideas about God, creation, and evil. I put forward the concept of "academic unorthodoxy"-based on the plural, social character of orthodoxy and the potential for disciplinary boundary-work-as a complex but analytically rich approach to the relationship between confessional orthodoxy and intellectual diversity, specifically in early modern Lutheranism but applicable to early modern confessional cultures in general.


Assuntos
Protestantismo , Teologia
4.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 29(4): 1461-1471, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35318579

RESUMO

One major question in the study of metaphors historically is: Are different mechanisms involved in the comprehension of figurative statements versus literal statements? Many studies have addressed this question from a variety of perspectives, with mixed results. Following Harati, Westbury, and Kiaee (Behavior Research Methods, 53, 2214-2225, 2021), we use a computational (word embedding) model of semantics to approach the question in a way that allows for the quantification of the semantic relationship between the two keywords in literal and metaphorical "x is a y" statements. We first demonstrate that almost all literal statements (95.2% of 582 statements we considered) have very high relatedness values. We then show that literality decisions are slower for literal statements with low relatedness and metaphorical statements with high relatedness. We find a similar but smaller effect attributable to the cosine of the vectors representing the two keywords. The fact that the same measurable characteristics allow us to predict which metaphors or literal sentences will have the slowest literality decision times suggests that the same processes underlie the comprehension of both literal and metaphorical statements.


Assuntos
Metáfora , Semântica , Compreensão , Pai , Humanos , Masculino , Teologia
5.
J Hist Ideas ; 83(1): 1-16, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35185021

RESUMO

The first treatise written by Plotinus, On Beauty (Enn. 1.6), was admired among those Christian authors who were open to the influence of Platonic philosophy, in particular the Cappadocian Fathers. This could be due to a possible publication of the treatise before Porphyry's editorial work for the Enneads. The presence of concepts of the treatise in their works is a sign of their interest in its rhetorical qualities and, at a deeper level, in the theoretical support that Plotinus's thought could give to theological reflection. A possible reference to Plotinus's treatise in Augustine, Conf. 10.6.8 is also discussed.


Assuntos
Filosofia , Teologia , Cristianismo , Redação
6.
J Relig Health ; 61(2): 1405-1417, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802096

RESUMO

Although Theravada Buddhism and Roman Catholicism agree on the moral justification for palliative sedation, they differ on the premises underlying the justification. While Catholicism justifies palliative sedation on the ground of the Principle of Double Effect, Buddhism does so on the basis of the Third Noble Truth. Despite their theological differences, Buddhism and Catholicism both value the moral significance of the physician's intent to reduce suffering and both respect the sanctity of life. This blurs the demarcation line between Buddhism and Catholicism regarding the moral justification of palliative sedation.


Assuntos
Budismo , Catolicismo , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Cuidados Paliativos , Teologia
7.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 146(24-25): 1645-1649, 2021 12.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34879416

RESUMO

Because physical and psychological processes cannot be separated, there is a nexus between medicine and theology. In the early church, theologians were widely medically educated; the author of the third gospel was considered as a physician. In the modern age, against the background of the differentiation between medicine and religion, which must be affirmed, one can search for life-promoting forms of their coupling. Pastoral care can learn from medicine to take the embodiment of the human being seriously - and medicine can let theology open up perspectives of hope for itself. Medicine and theology unite the interest in life-promoting transfigurations in the body.


Assuntos
Assistência Religiosa , Religião e Medicina , Humanos , Medicina , Teologia
8.
J Hist Biol ; 54(4): 603-638, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816372

RESUMO

From the mid-nineteenth century to the Gilded Age, Catharine Beecher and other American social reformers combined natural theology and evangelism to instruct their audiences how to lead healthy, virtuous, and happy lives. Worried about the consequences of urbanization, industrialization, unstable sexual and gender roles, and immigration, these "Christian physiologists" provided prescriptive scientific advice for hygiene and personal conduct based on the traditional norms of white, middle-class, Protestant domesticity. According to Beecher and her counterparts, the biosocial reproduction of ideal American households promised to reverse the degeneration of men and women across the country and to ensure the long-term vitality of their children. Using evidence from Beecher, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, and other nineteenth-century writers, I investigate the methods and aims of Christian physiology along with its relationships to natural theology, Darwinian feminism, and other reform movements. I also analyze how Beecher and her successors employed concepts including the machine, the tissue, the cell, and the germ to justify their conclusions about the optimal structure and functions of American society. Overall, I demonstrate how these actors leveraged the body and the family as mechanisms to produce healthy parents, children, and communities for an ailing nation.


Assuntos
Protestantismo , Teologia , Cristianismo , Emigração e Imigração , Feminino , Humanos , Higiene/história , Estados Unidos
9.
J Pastoral Care Counsel ; 75(3): 214-223, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351216

RESUMO

We present knowledge from the field of psychology of religion for professional clinicians. The model "Search for the Sacred" and other concepts of psychology of religion are introduced: Sacred core and ring, sanctification, spiritual emotions, spiritual relationships, spiritual pathways, and sacred moments. These are discussed in relation to different concepts of theology for broadening the understanding and application of these concepts. Interviews with Danish Christians facing a crisis illustrate the application of the theoretical perspectives.


Assuntos
Assistência Religiosa , Espiritualidade , Humanos , Religião , Teologia
10.
J Relig Health ; 60(6): 4387-4401, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417951

RESUMO

This descriptive study was performed to determine the knowledge and attitudes of 492 Faculty of Theology students in Turkey regarding organ donation and the determinants of organ donation intention according to the theory of planned behavior. The study used the Attitudes Toward Organ Donation Scale and the Organ-Tissue Donation and Transplantation Knowledge Scale. According to the results of the regression analysis, the factors affecting organ donation intention were attitude (OR 1.19, 95%CI 1.11-1.27), subjective norms (OR 1.10, 95%CI 1.01-1.20), and perceived behavioral control (OR 1.30, 95%CI 1.18-1.44). In this study, behavioral intention was significantly associated with attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control.


Assuntos
Teologia , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Morte Encefálica , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia
11.
J Relig Health ; 60(4): 2702-2727, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991287

RESUMO

The belief that mental distress is caused by demons, sin, or generational curses is commonplace among many evangelical Christian communities. These beliefs may have positive or negative effects for individuals and groups. Phenomenological descriptions of these experiences and the subjective meanings associated with them, however, remain somewhat neglected in the literature. The current study employed semi-structured interviews with eight evangelical Christians in order to idiographically explore their experiences of mental distress in relation to their faith and wider communities. Through an interpretative phenomenological analysis, two superordinate themes were constructed: negative spiritualisation and negotiating the dialectic between faith and the lived experience of mental distress. Participants variously experienced a climate of negative spiritualisation, whereby their mental distress was demonised and dismissed, and they were further discouraged from seeking help in secular institutions and environments. Participants often considered such dismissals of their mental distress as unhelpful and stigmatising and experienced heightened feelings of shame and suffering as a result. Such discouragement also contributed to the process of othering and relational disconnection. Alongside a rejection of church teachings, which exclusively spiritualised psychological distress, participants negotiated a nuanced personal synthesis of faith, theology, and distress, which assumed a localised and idiographic significance. This synthesis included advocating for the uptake of aetiological accounts, which contextualised mental distress in terms of the whole person and resisted de-politicised, dichotomised, and individualistic narratives. Results are discussed in relation to a broad range of literature in the field, while further research suggestions are provided.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Cristianismo , Emoções , Humanos , Vergonha , Teologia
12.
J Pastoral Care Counsel ; 75(1): 4-12, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843309

RESUMO

In this article, the author discusses the question of how to evaluate delusions with religious or spiritual content from a theological perspective. How does a spiritual care practitioner listen to such delusions? The author proposes a theory of meaning that can account for both ordinary and extraordinary experiences and discusses a list of theological criteria in terms of which spiritual care practitioners can understand delusional and other extraordinary experiences and beliefs with spiritual content.


Assuntos
Delusões , Assistência Religiosa , Clero , Humanos , Espiritualidade , Teologia
13.
Wiad Lek ; 74(3 cz 2): 731-735, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843644

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: Is to study the levels of influence of the Christian spiritual tradition on the attitude of medical students to abortion, which necessitated a comparative analysis of Christian ethics and the main approaches of secular bioethics regarding artificial termination of pregnancy; analysis of the results of sociological research taking into account the peculiarities of religious self-identification of medical students. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The complex nature of the studied issue necessitated the application of interdisciplinary approaches, philosophical, general scientific and special sociological methods of collecting, processing and analyzing information. Certain differences between Christian moral guidelines and attitudes towards artificial termination of pregnancy were found in a questionnaire study conducted by a sociological group of the Bogomolets National Medical University (hereinafter - NMU) in 2020. The object of the study were first and sixth year students and postgraduate students of NMU (N = 375). RESULTS: Results: Based on a comparative analysis of the evaluative judgments of three groups of respondents (1 group - those who identified themselves as Christians; 2 group - those who are uncertain with their attitude towards religion; 3 group - those who consider themselves non-believers) regarding artificial termination of pregnancy, it was found that the attitude of medical students-believers towards this problem differs from the more liberal approaches of the respondents of the second and third groups, and, at the same time, has significant differences with Christian moral guidelines on this issue. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: A comparative analysis of the main approaches of secular bioethics and Christian ethics to the issue of artificial termination of pregnancy allows us to conclude that the Christian position is distinguished by the recognition of sacredness, inviolability of human life, inalienable dignity and value of human being from conception to the natural end of life. This determines the special importance of the Christian spiritual tradition in overcoming the manifestations of abortive mentality in contemporary Ukrainian society.


Assuntos
Bioética , Teologia , Feminino , Humanos , Filosofia , Gravidez , Secularismo , Ucrânia
14.
J Med Philos ; 46(2): 219-237, 2021 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822132

RESUMO

Full-Blooded religion is not acceptable in mainstream bioethics. This article excavates the cultural history that led to the suppression of religion in bioethics. Bioethicists typically fall into one of the following camps. 1) The irreligious, who advocate for suppressing religion, as do Timothy F. Murphy, Sam Harris, and Richard Dawkins. This irreligious camp assumes American Fundamentalist Protestantism is the real substance of all religions. 2) Religious bioethicists, who defend religion by emphasizing its functions and diminishing its metaphysical commitments. Religious defenders empty religion of its theology to present its feel-good functions in a way that is acceptable to the irreligious. However, religion reduced to its functions dissolves into a counter-culture that may counteract materialism but lacks the power to motivate much more. This article criticizes both camps, as both presume Enlightenment myths and consequently neuter religion. Both irreligious and religious bioethicists commonly presume Enlightenment myths about secularity and religion. Secularity is presumed neutral and rational. Religion is presumed divisive and irrational. This myth provides built-in value-judgements; we have already judged secularity as good and religion as bad. Much of the debate over religion in bioethics is arguing over false stereotypes of religion. Consequently, mainstream bioethics neuters religion, while the irreligious are gifted political power to define the field.


Assuntos
Bioética , Princípios Morais , Cristianismo , Diversidade Cultural , Eticistas , Humanos , Religião , Teologia
15.
J Med Philos ; 46(2): 169-187, 2021 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822133

RESUMO

The proper role, if any, for religion-based arguments is a live and sometimes heated issue within the field of bioethics. The issue attracts heat primarily because bioethical analyses influence the outcomes of controversial court cases and help shape legislation in sensitive biopolicy areas. A problem for religious bioethicists who seek to influence biopolicy is that there is now widespread academic and public acceptance, at least within liberal democracies, that the state should not base its policies on any particular religion's metaphysical claims or esoteric moral system. In response, bioethicists motivated by religious concerns have adopted two identifiable strategies. Sometimes they rely on slippery-slope arguments that, sometimes at least, have empirically testable premises. A more questionable response is the manipulation and misuse of secular-sounding moral language, such as references to "human dignity," and the plights of groups of people labeled "vulnerable."


Assuntos
Bioética , Eticistas , Cristianismo , Humanos , Idioma , Religião , Secularismo , Teologia
16.
J Relig Health ; 60(6): 3907-3914, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876340

RESUMO

Theophrastus Bombastus Von Hohenheim (1493-1541), known as Paracelsus, was a German-Swiss Renaissance man. His interests included alchemy and medicine. During the early 1500s, he worked as a physician, introducing mineral-based therapies to treat ailments. He is credited with developing the first recipe for laudanum, a powerful opium-based pain medication. He had radical beliefs, claiming that supreme knowledge could be reached by observing nature, not by reading books. He expressed rebellious opinions on religious topics and, though devoted Christian, criticized the Catholic Church, preaching that the spirit of Christianity dwells in the human soul and not within the church walls. Paracelsus' efforts to "renovate" the expression of the Christian faith by limiting the ritual and augmenting the spirituality among believers are presented.


Assuntos
Médicos , Terapias Espirituais , Catolicismo , Cristianismo , Humanos , Espiritualidade , Teologia
17.
J Relig Health ; 60(6): 3759-3774, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860402

RESUMO

A multi-dimensional construct of Catholic health care is examined using a bibliometric analysis of 181 scientific studies from the Web of Science database. Medical ethics, religion, and health services research by 418 authors from 26 countries reveals developments in the Catholic health care domain since 1973. Using VOSviewer, we map keyword clusters to reveal the structure of research on Catholic health care that transcends religious and secular literatures. The clusters mostly reflect clinical and ethical issues of reproductive health and the end of life, as well as the essence and the future of the Catholic identity from the theological and empirical perspectives.


Assuntos
Catolicismo , Ética Médica , Bibliometria , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Teologia
18.
J Relig Health ; 60(4): 2810-2829, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682079

RESUMO

The use of the religious experience to mitigate suffering within the context of a cancer diagnosis and treatment is poorly understood. Specifically, in this article, we explore suffering and the religious experience using Howard Thurman's theological perspective. This perspective permits an exploration of the ways in which spirituality enables African American cancer patients to better manage suffering through: (1) a positive self-image as a child of God or the identification with the sufferings of Jesus; (2) seeking harmony in one's environment; (3) the use of spirituality as self-nourishment; and, (4) the perspective of suffering as sacrament. In this paper, we use the narratives of African American cancer patients to argue that these theological perspectives are indeed relevant to the relief of suffering among this population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Terapias Espirituais , Afro-Americanos , Criança , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Espiritualidade , Teologia
19.
J Med Philos ; 46(2): 156-168, 2021 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674872

RESUMO

Timothy Murphy has done those of us in the field of bioethics a great service by being forthright about how irreligious centers of power work against theology and theologians. This has opened the door to direct and honest conversation about some facts that were previously known (especially to theologians working in the field) but rarely discussed publicly. Now, eight years after Murphy's important article appeared in the American Journal of Bioethics, there is room to engage the facts and arguments surrounding the (lack of a) role for theology in the field. It is important, first of all, to agree that if theology is to be excluded while other normative traditions included this must be defended on the basis of a coherent set of defensible claims, not merely raw assertions and power plays. Once the field comes to terms with the fact that no coherent set of defensible claims exist which can justify excluding theology from the field, this will create the conditions for the possibility of the kind of intellectual solidarity which can transform bioethics into a field that is at once much more diverse and inclusive while also of its very nature interested in robust debate which includes references first principles and metaphysical foundations.


Assuntos
Bioética , Cristianismo , Humanos , Religião , Teologia
20.
J Med Philos ; 46(2): 238-253, 2021 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674874

RESUMO

Although many of the pioneers of present-day bioethics came from religious and theological backgrounds, the recent controversy about the role of religion in bioethics has elicited much attention. Timothy Murphy would ban religion from bioethics altogether. Much of the ado hinges on conflicting understandings of just what bioethics is and just what religion is. This paper attempts to make more explicit how the fields of bioethics and religion have been understood in this context, and how they should not be understood. We begin by looking at bioethics as a field: its origins, purpose, scope, and its methods. We then examine the notion of religion, looking especially at its importance for bioethics. Humanity is not just Homo sapiens but also Homo religiosus. Religion is more than a code of ethics; it gives insight into many of the foundational matters of bioethics.


Assuntos
Bioética , Cristianismo , Diversidade Cultural , Humanos , Religião , Teologia
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