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1.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372562

RESUMO

Many of the world's most pressing issues, such as the emergence of zoonotic diseases, can only be addressed through interdisciplinary research. However, the findings of interdisciplinary research are susceptible to miscommunication among both professional and non-professional audiences due to differences in training, language, experience, and understanding. Such miscommunication contributes to the misunderstanding of key concepts or processes and hinders the development of effective research agendas and public policy. These misunderstandings can also provoke unnecessary fear in the public and have devastating effects for wildlife conservation. For example, inaccurate communication and subsequent misunderstanding of the potential associations between certain bats and zoonoses has led to persecution of diverse bats worldwide and even government calls to cull them. Here, we identify four types of miscommunication driven by the use of terminology regarding bats and the emergence of zoonotic diseases that we have categorized based on their root causes: (1) incorrect or overly broad use of terms; (2) terms that have unstable usage within a discipline, or different usages among disciplines; (3) terms that are used correctly but spark incorrect inferences about biological processes or significance in the audience; (4) incorrect inference drawn from the evidence presented. We illustrate each type of miscommunication with commonly misused or misinterpreted terms, providing a definition, caveats and common misconceptions, and suggest alternatives as appropriate. While we focus on terms specific to bats and disease ecology, we present a more general framework for addressing miscommunication that can be applied to other topics and disciplines to facilitate more effective research, problem-solving, and public policy.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Mal-Entendido Terapêutico/psicologia , Animais , Quirópteros , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Reservatórios de Doenças , Humanos , Idioma , Saúde Pública , Política Pública/tendências , Zoonoses/transmissão
6.
Enferm. intensiva (Ed. impr.) ; 32(1): 42-44, ene.-mar. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202299

RESUMO

Inspirados por esfuerzos más amplios para hacer más sólidas las conclusiones de la investigación científica, hemos recopilado una lista de algunos de los errores estadísticos más comunes que aparecen en la literatura científica. Los errores tienen su origen en diseños experimentales ineficaces, análisis inapropiados y/o razonamientos erróneos. Proporcionamos asesoramiento sobre la forma en que los autores, revisores y lectores pueden identificar y resolver estos errores y esperamos evitarlos en el futuro. Todos los errores pueden ser identificados en los distintos apartados de una publicación principalmente en material y métodos, resultados o conclusiones


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Relatório de Pesquisa/normas , Publicações/normas , Manuscritos Médicos como Assunto , Erro Experimental/classificação , Mal-Entendido Terapêutico , Revisão da Pesquisa por Pares/normas , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Má Conduta Científica/classificação , Correlação de Dados , Tamanho da Amostra
7.
Tex Med ; 117(2): 43, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641121

RESUMO

Over the years, several vaccines have been blamed for SIDS, including those for pertussis, tetanus, diphtheria, Hemophilus influenzae type B, polio, and hepatitis B. This misconception has triggered a lot of scientific study to find out if vaccines could, in fact, cause SIDS. However, multiple studies and safety reviews have concluded that the answer is no, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).


Assuntos
Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Morte Súbita do Lactente/etiologia , Mal-Entendido Terapêutico , Vacinas Virais/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Risco , Morte Súbita do Lactente/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita do Lactente/prevenção & controle
8.
AJOB Neurosci ; 12(1): 57-67, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528320

RESUMO

Intracranial electrophysiological research methods, including those applying electrodes on the cortical surface or in deep structures, have become increasingly important in human neuroscience. They also pose novel ethical concerns, as human studies require the participation of neurological patients undergoing surgery for conditions such as epilepsy and Parkinson's disease. Research participants in this setting may be vulnerable to conflicts of interest, therapeutic misconception, and other threats to valid recruitment and consent. We conducted semi-structured interviews with investigators from NIH-funded studies involving recording or stimulation inside the human skull. We elicited perspectives on study recruitment and consent procedures, and analyzed transcripts using a modified grounded theory approach. We interviewed 26 investigators from 19 separate intracranial electrophysiology studies, who described two study types: opportunity studies (n = 15) and experimental trials (n = 4). Respondents described significant heterogeneity in recruitment and consent procedures, even among studies employing similar techniques. In some studies, clinician-investigators were specifically barred from obtaining consent, while in other studies clinician-investigators were specifically required to obtain consent; regulatory guidance was inconsistent. Respondents also described various models for subject selection, the timing of consent, and continuing consent for temporally extended studies. Respondents expressed ethical concerns about participants' vulnerability and the communication of research-related risks. We found a lack of consensus among investigators regarding recruitment and consent methods in human intracranial electrophysiology. This likely reflects the novelty and complexity of such studies and indicates a need for further discussion and development of best practices in this research domain.


Assuntos
Eletrofisiologia , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Mal-Entendido Terapêutico , Encéfalo , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Pesquisadores
10.
BMC Med Ethics ; 22(1): 10, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Informed consent is a universally accepted precondition for scientific researches involving human participants. However, various factors influence the process of obtaining authentic informed consent, and researchers particularly working in resource-poor countries often face considerable difficulties in implementing the universally recommended procedures for obtaining informed consent. We have conducted this Rapid Ethical Assessment (REA) to accommodate the local cultural norms and to understand the relevant ethical issues in the Silti community before the conduct of a cluster-randomized controlled trial. METHODS: This REA was conducted in two purposively selected Woredas/Districts and Worabe Town administration of Silti Zone. Data were collected using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Purposive and convenient sampling techniques were used to select respondents. Five in-depth interviews and 15 Focus Group Discussions were conducted in the Amharic language. The collected data was transcribed, translated, and analyzed using a thematic approach. RESULT: Most of the community members never heard about research and therapeutic misconception was common. In the area, the permission of people working in the formal and informal community administration is essential before approaching individuals. The male head of the household should also be involved in the decision before individual household members participate in research. Furthermore, sensitizing the community using public and religious gatherings was suggested before individual recruitment. In the consent process, delivering selected information particularly the purpose and benefits of the research was emphasized and the tendency of preferring verbal consent was documented despite the willingness of the individuals to sign on the consent form. Local health workers were identified as appropriate personnel to communicate information and the procedures of the research were found to be acceptable. However, the value of small incentives was suggested to motivate potential participants. Finally, involving all concerned stakeholders and respecting the cultural norm of the community was emphasized. CONCLUSION: Through REA, we understand the research awareness of the community, their expectation, and the cultural norms relevant to the ethical conduct of research. It enabled us to devise culturally sensitive and scientifically sound strategies to secure authentic informed consent. The process of conducting REA was found to be feasible, quick, and efficient.


Assuntos
Desnutrição Aguda Grave , Mal-Entendido Terapêutico , Criança , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Pesquisadores
11.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 26, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For many rare diseases, few treatments are supported by strong evidence. Patients, family members, health care providers, and policy-makers thus have to consider whether to accept, recommend, or fund treatments with uncertain clinical effectiveness. They must also consider whether and how to contribute to clinical research that may involve receiving or providing the therapy being evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To understand why and how patients and families with rare metabolic diseases, specialist metabolic physicians, and health policy advisors choose whether to participate in studies and how they use and value research. METHODS: We conducted separate focus group interviews with each stakeholder group (three groups in total); two groups were conducted by telephone and the third was held in-person. Participants were recruited using purposive sampling. We analyzed each interview transcript sequentially using a qualitative description approach to inductively identify key themes. Several strategies to ensure credibility and trustworthiness were used including debriefing sessions after each focus group and having multiple team members review transcripts. RESULTS: Four patients/caregivers, six physicians, and three policy advisors participated. Our findings did not support conventional perspectives that therapeutic misconception (gaining access to treatment) is the main motivating factor for patients/caregivers to participate in clinical research. Rather, patients'/caregivers' expressed reasons for participating in research included advancing science for the next generation and having an opportunity to share their experiences. Patients/caregivers and physicians described the difficulties in weighing risks versus benefits of accepting treatments not well-supported by evidence. Physicians also reported feeling conflicted in their dual role as patient advisor/advocate and evaluator of the evidence. Policy advisors were primarily focused on critically appraising the evidence to make recommendations for the health system. CONCLUSIONS: Stakeholders differ in their perspectives on rare disease research but share concerns about the risks versus benefits of therapies when making individual- and population-level decisions.


Assuntos
Doenças Raras , Mal-Entendido Terapêutico , Cuidadores , Família , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
12.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(10): 2225-2234, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012351

RESUMO

Parkinson disease symptoms become apparent when there has been substantial loss of brain dopamine. That is the consequence of the slow progression of the Lewy body neurodegenerative process. Replenishment of brain dopamine with levodopa therapy dates back approximately a half century and continues to be the most efficacious symptomatic treatment. Understanding the fundamentals of levodopa treatment is crucial to therapeutic success. Various myths over the years have sabotaged treatment outcomes and have discouraged primary care physicians from managing patients with Parkinson disease. That is unfortunate because in some regions, neurologists, and in particular movement specialists, are in short supply. The long history of these persistent levodopa myths and the counterarguments are the focus of this article.


Assuntos
Levodopa/uso terapêutico , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Mal-Entendido Terapêutico , Humanos
13.
CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol ; 9(12): 686-694, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080100

RESUMO

There is still a lack of efficient designs for identifying the dose response in oncology combination therapies in early clinical trials. The concentration response relationship can be identified using the early tumor shrinkage time course, which has been shown to be a good early response marker of clinical efficacy. The performance of various designs using an exposure-tumor growth inhibition model was explored using simulations. Different combination effects of new drug M and cetuximab (reference therapy) were explored first assuming no effect of M on cetuximab (to investigate the type I error (α)), and subsequently assuming additivity or synergy between cetuximab and M. One-arm, two-arm, and four-arm designs were evaluated. In the one-arm design, 60 patients received cetuximab + M. In the two-arm design, 30 patients received cetuximab and 30 received cetuximab + M. In the four-arm design, in addition to cetuximab and cetuximab + M as standard doses, combination arms with lower doses of cetuximab were evaluated (15 patients/arm). Model-based predictions or "simulated observations" of early tumor shrinkage at week 8 (ETS8) were compared between the different arms. With the same number of individuals, the one-arm design showed better statistical power than other designs but led to strong inflation of α in case of misestimated reference for ETS8 value. The two-arm design protected against this misestimation and, with the same total number of subjects, would provide higher statistical power than a four-arm design. However, a four-arm design would be helpful for exploring more doses of cetuximab in combination with M to better understand the interaction.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacocinética , Cetuximab/farmacocinética , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Área Sob a Curva , Cetuximab/administração & dosagem , Cetuximab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/secundário , Simulação por Computador , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Humanos , Oncologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/patologia , Mal-Entendido Terapêutico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239278, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Education on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) practices is usually given in the form of health talks by health workers (HWs). The need for HWs to be well-informed about cultural practices and misconceptions that act as barriers to EBF has been documented in literature. This information can guide HWs in developing interventions such as health talks which are culturally sensitive. However, this has not been explored from the perspectives of HWs in Ghana. In this paper, we report mothers' and grandmothers' misconceptions and cultural practices that are barriers to EBF in two rural districts in Ghana from the perspectives of Community Health Workers and Community Health Volunteers. METHODS: We used qualitative data collected in the Kwahu Afram Plains South and North Districts of Ghana through nine focus group discussions (FGDs) among HWs and followed the data saturation principle. All FGDs were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and translated from local dialects to English. The emerging themes were used in writing a narrative account, guided by the principles of the thematic analysis. RESULTS: Our main findings included mothers' and grandmothers' perceptions that HWs themselves do not practice EBF. Mothers had the perception that grandmothers did not practice EBF but their children grew well, and gestures of babies suggested their readiness to start eating. Misconceptions revealed included beliefs that breastmilk is watery in nature and does not satisfy infants. Another misconception was that babies gain weight faster when not exclusively breastfed but fed on infant formulas. A custom of giving corn flour mixed with water or light porridge during the first few days after birth to welcome newborns was also reported. CONCLUSIONS: The reports of the HWs revealed that several socio-cultural factors and misconceptions of mothers and grandmothers negatively influence EBF practices of mothers. Findings from this study highlight the need for HWs to provide culturally appropriate counselling services on breastfeeding not only to mothers but also to grandmothers and fathers in order to promote EBF and reap its benefits.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Avós/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Mães/psicologia , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Características Culturais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Mal-Entendido Terapêutico
15.
Presse Med ; 49(4): 104050, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768613

RESUMO

Since 2002, it has been unclear whether epidural analgesia (EA) could safe through a lower back tattoo. Theoretical risks of pigment tissue coring have led to precautionary measures and misconception that EA should be excluded. We reviewed chronologically the 18 years of medical literature summarizing the so-called risks of EA through lower back tattoo in parturient women. To date, no convincing complication has been ever reported after an EA through a tattoo. We hope this review will bring a closure to a 18-year-old "non-issue" that has poisoned and stressed unnecessarily a generation of parturient.


Assuntos
Analgesia Epidural , Tatuagem , Analgesia Epidural/efeitos adversos , Analgesia Epidural/história , Analgesia Epidural/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Mitologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/história , Gravidez , Tatuagem/efeitos adversos , Tatuagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Mal-Entendido Terapêutico
16.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 108(4): 867-875, 2020 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454191

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Therapeutic misconception is the tendency for a clinical trial participant to overlook the scientific objective of a clinical trial and instead believe that an experimental intervention is intended for personal therapeutic benefit. We sought to evaluate this tendency in the setting of a clinical trial of a new radiation therapy technology. METHODS: Patients with left-sided, node positive breast cancer enrolled in a randomized clinical trial evaluating intensity modulated radiation therapy with deep inspiration breath hold (IMRT-DIBH) versus 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT). Patients who enrolled completed surveys at baseline, after randomization, and upon completion of radiation therapy to evaluate expectations, satisfaction, and experiences. RESULTS: Forty women participated in the survey study, with 20 in each arm. Most participants endorsed the perception that participation in the trial might result in better treatment than the current standard treatment (77%) and more medical attention than being off trial (54%). At baseline, most women (74%) believed that a new treatment technology is superior than an established one. Before randomization, 43% of participants believed IMRT-DIBH would be more effective than standard treatment with 3DCRT, none believed that 3DCRT would be more effective, 23% believed that they would be the same, and 34% did not know. None believed that IMRT-DIBH would cause worse long-term side effects, whereas 37% thought that 3DCRT would. Most (71%) reported that they would choose to be treated with IMRT-DIBH; none would have elected 3DCRT if given a choice. Nearly half (44%) in the 3DCRT arm wished that they had been assigned to the IMRT-DIBH arm; none in the IMRT-DIBH arm expressed a wish for crossover. CONCLUSIONS: Most participants reported the perception that trial participation would result in better treatment and more medical attention than off trial, hallmarks of therapeutic misconception. Our observations provide empirical evidence of a fixed belief in the superiority of new technology and highlight the importance of adjusting expectations through informed consent to mitigate therapeutic misconception.


Assuntos
Preferência do Paciente/psicologia , Radioterapia Conformacional/psicologia , Mal-Entendido Terapêutico/psicologia , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama/psicologia , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama/radioterapia , Suspensão da Respiração , Compreensão , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Percepção , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Radioterapia Conformacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/psicologia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
BMJ Open ; 10(5): e034545, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404389

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the acceptability of bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) and low-flow oxygen among mothers of children who had received either therapy. SETTING: A district hospital in Salima, Malawi. PARTICIPANTS: We conducted eight focus group discussions (FGDs) with a total of 54 participants. Eligible participants were mothers of children 1 to 59 months of age with severe pneumonia and a comorbidity (HIV-infection, HIV-exposure, malnutrition or hypoxaemia) who, with informed consent, had been enrolled in a randomised clinical trial, CPAP IMPACT (Improving Mortality for Pneumonia in African Children Trial), comparing low-flow oxygen and bCPAP treatments (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02484183). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: FGDs assessed mothers' attitudes and feelings towards oxygen and bCPAP before and after therapy along with general community perceptions of respiratory therapies. Data was analysed using inductive thematic analysis to assess themes and subthemes of the transcripts. RESULTS: Community perceptions of oxygen and bCPAP were widely negative. Mothers recounted that they are told that 'oxygen kills babies'. They are often fearful of allowing their child to receive oxygen therapy and will delay treatment or seek alternative therapies. Mothers report limiting oxygen and bCPAP by intermittently removing the nasal cannulas or mask. After oxygen or bCPAP treatment, regardless of patient outcome, mothers were supportive of the treatment their child received and would recommend it to other mothers. CONCLUSION: There are significant community misconceptions around oxygen and bCPAP causing mothers to be fearful of either treatment. In order for low-flow oxygen treatment and bCPAP implementation to be effective, widespread community education is necessary.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Mães/psicologia , Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia/terapia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Malaui/epidemiologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Percepção , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Mal-Entendido Terapêutico/psicologia
18.
Stem Cell Reports ; 14(4): 530-537, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294411

RESUMO

In the event that human embryo genome editing is considered safe enough for the clinic, researchers will need to consider how to administer consent so that would-be recipients of edited embryos can make an informed decision. Informed consent will require truthfulness, sensitivity, regulatory compliance, and attention to the highest ethical standards.


Assuntos
Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Edição de Genes , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Pesquisas com Embriões/ética , Edição de Genes/ética , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Mal-Entendido Terapêutico
19.
AJOB Empir Bioeth ; 11(2): 114-124, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32175821

RESUMO

Background: Informed consent (IC) is critical to performing ethical research. Unfortunately, the IC process and supporting IC forms are frequently burdensome and do not necessarily meet the informational needs of participants. The intersecting legal and ethical challenges of obtaining IC from individuals with memory or cognitive deficits further exacerbate existing IC shortcomings. For this reason, study coordinators play a critical role in facilitating the IC process in Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. To identify opportunities to improve how IC is obtained in AD research, we examined the IC process from the perspectives of study coordinators at two Alzheimer's Disease Research Centers (ADRC). Methods: We performed semi-structured interviews with 15 study coordinators from two ADRC sites detailing their experience obtaining IC. Interviews were conducted in private, recorded, transcribed, and independently coded using the constant comparative method of grounded theory. Key themes were explored as they emerged. Results: Coordinators reported overall satisfaction with the IC process. However, many reported difficulties maintaining participant attention, explaining complex procedures, and addressing medical misinformation. Although the centers use site-specific consent forms, coordinators at both centers stressed that their IC is too long and the supporting IC forms are too complicated. Coordinators indicated modifying the IC process to the perceived needs of individual participants. Adaptations reported include altering the cadence and vocabulary they employ, using supplemental materials, varying the order of IC topics, and limiting the depth of information presented. Conclusion: A qualitative analysis of interviews with study coordinators reveals opportunities to improve how we obtain IC in AD research. These insights will be used to create an electronic informed consent (eConsent) designed to boost engagement, enhance trust, and improve understanding by supporting participants' direct agency in the IC process.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Comunicação , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Pesquisadores , Sujeitos da Pesquisa , Adulto , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Atenção , Compreensão , Termos de Consentimento , Ética em Pesquisa , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Mal-Entendido Terapêutico
20.
Perspect Biol Med ; 63(2): 359-373, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416658

RESUMO

The Belmont Report attested to the cardinal importance of informed consent for ethical research on human subjects. Important challenges to securing informed consent have emerged since its publication more than 40 years ago. Among some of the most significant of these challenges are those that highlight social psychological factors that have the potential to impair the appreciation of relevant information disclosed in the informed consent process. Responding to these challenges requires us to think harder about the content of the principle of informed consent and the demands that it imposes on investigators. This article focuses on two challenges in particular, that presented by the so-called therapeutic misconception, and that presented by the psychological bias of unrealistic optimism. After outlining an account of the principle of informed consent as it applies to the research context, the article briefly reviews the empirical literature on the therapeutic misconception and the bias of unrealistic optimism. It then relates these phenomena to the principle of informed consent, paying special attention to the ethical demands they impose on investigators. The article concludes by considering how recent trends to integrate research and clinical care affect the main points it has advanced.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/normas , Otimismo/psicologia , Sujeitos da Pesquisa/psicologia , Mal-Entendido Terapêutico/psicologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Compreensão , Ética em Pesquisa , Experimentação Humana/ética , Experimentação Humana/normas , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Mal-Entendido Terapêutico/ética
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