Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.016
Filtrar
1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(32): e2203121119, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914124

RESUMO

Animals maintain the ability to survive and reproduce by acclimating to environmental temperatures. We showed here that Caenorhabditis elegans exhibited temperature acclimation plasticity, which was regulated by a head-tail-head neural circuitry coupled with gut fat storage. After experiencing cold, C. elegans individuals memorized the experience and were prepared against subsequent cold stimuli. The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element-binding protein (CREB) regulated temperature acclimation in the ASJ thermosensory neurons and RMG head interneurons, where it modulated ASJ thermosensitivity in response to past cultivation temperature. The PVQ tail interneurons mediated the communication between ASJ and RMG via glutamatergic signaling. Temperature acclimation occurred via gut fat storage regulation by the triglyceride lipase ATGL-1, which was activated by a neuropeptide, FLP-7, downstream of CREB. Thus, a head-tail-head neural circuit coordinated with gut fat influenced experience-dependent temperature acclimation.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Tecido Adiposo , Caenorhabditis elegans , Temperatura Baixa , Sistema Digestório , Cabeça , Vias Neurais , Cauda , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/anatomia & histologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Sistema Digestório/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Cabeça/inervação , Interneurônios/metabolismo , Lipase/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Cauda/inervação , Sensação Térmica
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742537

RESUMO

Traditional heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) control systems rely mostly on static models, such as Fanger's predicted mean vote (PMV) to predict human thermal comfort in indoor environments. Such models consider environmental parameters, such as room temperature, humidity, etc., and indirect human factors, such as metabolic rate, clothing, etc., which do not necessarily reflect the actual human thermal comfort. Therefore, as electronic sensor devices have become widely used, we propose to develop a thermal sensation (TS) model that takes in humans' physiological signals for consideration in addition to the environment parameters. We conduct climate chamber experiments to collect physiological signals and personal TS under different environments. The collected physiological signals are ECG, EEG, EMG, GSR, and body temperatures. As a preliminary study, we conducted experiments on young subjects under static behaviors by controlling the room temperature, fan speed, and humidity. The results show that our physiological-signal-based TS model performs much better than the PMV model, with average RMSEs 0.75 vs. 1.07 (lower is better) and R2 0.77 vs. 0.43 (higher is better), respectively, meaning that our model prediction has higher accuracy and better explainability. The experiments also ranked the importance of physiological signals (as EMG, body temperature, ECG, and EEG, in descending order) so they can be selectively adopted according to the feasibility of signal collection in different application scenarios. This study demonstrates the usefulness of physiological signals in TS prediction and motivates further thorough research on wider scenarios, such as ages, health condition, static/motion/sports behaviors, etc.


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado , Sensação Térmica , Ar Condicionado/métodos , Calefação , Humanos , Umidade , Temperatura , Sensação Térmica/fisiologia , Ventilação
3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3113, 2022 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35662242

RESUMO

Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) channel is a Ca2+-permeable non-selective cation channel that acts as the primary cold sensor in humans. TRPM8 is also activated by ligands such as menthol, icilin, and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), and desensitized by Ca2+. Here we have determined electron cryo-microscopy structures of mouse TRPM8 in the absence of ligand, and in the presence of Ca2+ and icilin at 2.5-3.2 Å resolution. The ligand-free state TRPM8 structure represents the full-length structure of mammalian TRPM8 channels with a canonical S4-S5 linker and the clearly resolved selectivity filter and outer pore loop. TRPM8 has a short but wide selectivity filter which may account for its permeability to hydrated Ca2+. Ca2+ and icilin bind in the cytosolic-facing cavity of the voltage-sensing-like domain of TRPM8 but induce little conformational change. All the ligand-bound TRPM8 structures adopt the same closed conformation as the ligand-free structure. This study reveals the overall architecture of mouse TRPM8 and the structural basis for its ligand recognition.


Assuntos
Canais de Cátion TRPM , Canais de Potencial de Receptor Transitório , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Ligantes , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Mentol/farmacologia , Camundongos , Canais de Cátion TRPM/metabolismo , Sensação Térmica , Canais de Potencial de Receptor Transitório/metabolismo
4.
Curr Opin Neurobiol ; 75: 102571, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679808

RESUMO

Cold sensation is initiated in the periphery by a specialized population of cold-sensitive neurons, referred to as cold receptors, who transmit decreases in temperature with sub-degree resolution using a diverse assortment of ion channels and receptors. It is largely accepted that normal cold signaling is initiated through activation of transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) expressing neurons. Conversely, the mechanisms underlying cold-induced pain signaling are not as well defined. Interestingly, mounting evidence demonstrates functional interplay between cold signaling and other somatic sensations, such as itch and warmth; thus, cold-sensing pathways also engage in sensory crosstalk and population coding mechanisms. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in our understanding of cold sensation and address major gaps in knowledge that require more investigation.


Assuntos
Canais de Cátion TRPM , Temperatura Baixa , Humanos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Dor , Canais de Cátion TRPM/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPM/metabolismo , Sensação Térmica/fisiologia
5.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 30(7): 1345-1350, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35746863

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study was undertaken to show the magnitude of interindividual differences in energy expenditure (i.e., heat production) under normal living conditions with the aim of providing physiological evidence to support the advancement of a personalized thermal conditioning approach. METHODS: Three sets of experimental protocols with six participants were conducted at neutral and mild cold temperatures. Energy expenditure, local skin temperatures, and core body temperature were measured continuously, while cognitive performance and thermal sensation were surveyed intermittently. The protocols were designed to study the effects of several normal day activities, low-level physical activity and eating a meal, on metabolic and physiological parameters. RESULTS: Large interindividual differences among the subjects were demonstrated using non-normalized data by design. The resting metabolic rate difference was 58%, the percentage change in energy expenditure during standing compared to sitting was up to 31%, and the difference in mechanical work efficiency between the least and the most efficient individual was 39.1%. Energy expenditure increase due to the meal effect was 11.2% to 23.3% at neutral and 9.9% to 33.9% at mild cold temperatures across individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Large interindividual differences in metabolic rate under typical everyday living and office activities suggest facilitating personalized thermal conditioning instead of providing uniform temperature. Therefore, it is necessary to find noninvasive markers that can be easily measured and used as surrogates for human heat production to individualize the climate control of buildings.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Temperatura Cutânea , Ar Condicionado , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Ergonomia , Humanos , Sensação Térmica
6.
J Therm Biol ; 107: 103272, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701028

RESUMO

Outdoor thermal comfort has been studied globally in recent years to understand thermal perceptions of the local people. It was usually indicated by neutral temperature (NT). However, the findings of studies vary slightly for different areas, a factor which is rarely considered. This article reviewed the results (NTs) of some previous studies with the aim to find the causes of their differences. The calculated NTs (indicated by the physiological equivalent temperature, PET; universal thermal climate index, UTCI; and standard effective temperature*, SET*) in two extreme seasons were associated with the local climate factors (latitude & annual mean temperature, AMT) through linear regression. It was found that NTs decreased with the increase of latitude and the reduction of local AMT, and showed a more significant correlation with latitude than local AMT during summer seasons. This phenomenon occurred for all thermal indices. Increasing the latitude by 10° caused summer NT decreases of 0.23 °C (PET, R2 = 0.5505), 0.22 °C (UTCI, R2 = 0.5781), and 0.33 °C (SET*, R2 = 0.2952), thus proving the impacts of local climatic factors on residents' thermal feelings. This effect may be the result of subjective adaptation towards local permanent thermal conditions. The findings of this study provide directions for further thermal services against people from different climatic zones.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Sensação Térmica , Cidades , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 841: 156720, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35716739

RESUMO

Urban geometry is known to be one of the major factors in explaining the intra-urban temperature variations. A commonly used indicator to describe the urban geometry is the sky view factor. However, the existing studies have shown that the relationship between SVF and urban temperature is quite contradictory. This suggests that a single SVF cannot accurately quantify the urban geometry. For comparison, we here propose to use view factors, including sky, building and tree view factors (SVF, BVF, and TVF, respectively), to accurately quantify the three-dimensional urban geometry. Based on microclimate measurements conducted in Beijing Olympic Park and its surrounding urban environment in Beijing, China, the impact of view factors on intra-urban air temperature and thermal comfort was evaluated. Measurements were conducted along a selected path during hot summer days with clear skies and light winds by mobile traverses. The obtained results showed that SVF was positively correlated with air temperature during the day but negatively correlated with air temperature at night. BVF mainly played a warming role in both daytime and nighttime. Especially at night, BVF was the main geometric warming factor. TVF had a significant cooling effect during the day but did not have a negative effect at night due to reduced SVF. There was a strong point-to-point correlation between SVF and outdoor thermal comfort in the daytime. The mean differences in Mean Radiant Temperature and Physiologically Equivalent Temperature between shaded and unshaded sites were 12.0 °C and 6.8 °C, respectively, which suggested that providing effective shading is extremely important for improving outdoor daytime thermal comfort.


Assuntos
Microclima , Sensação Térmica , Cidades , Temperatura Alta , Temperatura , Vento
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(9)2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35591009

RESUMO

Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) has been widely used since the end of the 20th century, with various industrial, Earth sciences, and research applications. To obtain precise thermal measurements, it is important to extend the currently available DTS calibration methods, considering that environmental and deployment factors can strongly impact these measurements. In this work, a laboratory experiment was performed to assess a currently available duplexed single-ended DTS calibration algorithm and to extend it in case no temperature information is available at the end of the cables, which is extremely important in geothermal applications. The extended calibration algorithms were tested in different boreholes located in the Atacama Desert and in the Central Andes Mountains to estimate the geothermal gradient in these regions. The best algorithm found achieved a root mean square error of 0.31 ± 0.07 °C at the far end of a ~1.1-km cable, which is much smaller than that obtained using the manufacturer algorithm (2.17 ± 0.35 °C). Moreover, temperature differences between single- and double-ended measurements were less than 0.3 °C at the far end of the cable, which results in differences of ~0.5 °C km-1 when determining the geothermal gradient. This improvement in the geothermal gradient is relevant, as it can reduce the drilling depth by at least 700 m in the study area. Future work should investigate new extensions of the algorithms for other DTS configurations and determining the flow rate of the Central Andes Mountains artesian well using the geothermal profile provided by the DTS measurements and the available data of the borehole.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica , Sensação Térmica , Algoritmos , Calibragem , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica/métodos , Temperatura
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(21): e2201349119, 2022 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594403

RESUMO

To cope with temperature fluctuations, molecular thermosensors in animals play a pivotal role in accurately sensing ambient temperature. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is the most established cold sensor. In order to understand how the evolutionary forces bestowed TRPM8 with cold sensitivity, insights into both emergence of cold sensing during evolution and the thermodynamic basis of cold activation are needed. Here, we show that the trpm8 gene evolved by forming and regulating two domains (MHR1-3 and pore domains), thus determining distinct cold-sensitive properties among vertebrate TRPM8 orthologs. The young trpm8 gene without function can be observed in the closest living relatives of tetrapods (lobe-finned fishes), while the mature MHR1-3 domain with independent cold sensitivity has formed in TRPM8s of amphibians and reptiles to enable channel activation by cold. Furthermore, positive selection in the TRPM8 pore domain that tuned the efficacy of cold activation appeared late among more advanced terrestrial tetrapods. Interestingly, the mature MHR1-3 domain is necessary for the regulatory mechanism of the pore domain in TRPM8 cold activation. Our results reveal the domain-based evolution for TRPM8 functions and suggest that the acquisition of cold sensitivity in TRPM8 facilitated terrestrial adaptation during the water-to-land transition.


Assuntos
Canais de Cátion TRPM , Canais de Potencial de Receptor Transitório , Temperatura Baixa , Canais de Cátion TRPM/química , Canais de Cátion TRPM/genética , Sensação Térmica/fisiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35565078

RESUMO

Research on urban thermal environments based on thermal comfort can help formulate effective measures to improve urban thermal and human settlement environments, which is of great significance for improving urban quality, urban climate change adaptation, and sustainable development. Taking 344 municipal administrative districts in China as study areas, the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) of each city in the last 20 years was calculated to evaluate thermal comfort. We then analyzed the thermal comfort and spatiotemporal heterogeneity of each city during a typical heat wave. Finally, the driving forces of the potential socioeconomic, natural, and landscape factors influencing thermal comfort were analyzed using geographic detectors. The results show that the thermal comfort index had similar spatial patterns and differentiation characteristics in different years, and the interannual variation was not obvious. Cities in the typical heat wave period were mainly distributed in East and Northwest China. The driving factor in the contribution rate of the same index in different years was basically the same and was not affected by the change in years, and the highest contribution rate was the natural factor.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Sensação Térmica , China , Cidades , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
11.
Neuron ; 110(14): 2315-2333.e6, 2022 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35561677

RESUMO

Heat perception enables acute avoidance responses to prevent tissue damage and maintain body thermal homeostasis. Unlike other modalities, how heat signals are processed in the spinal cord remains unclear. By single-cell gene profiling, we identified ErbB4, a transmembrane tyrosine kinase, as a novel marker of heat-sensitive spinal neurons in mice. Ablating spinal ErbB4+ neurons attenuates heat sensation. These neurons receive monosynaptic inputs from TRPV1+ nociceptors and form excitatory synapses onto target neurons. Activation of ErbB4+ neurons enhances the heat response, while inhibition reduces the heat response. We showed that heat sensation is regulated by NRG1, an activator of ErbB4, and it involves dynamic activity of the tyrosine kinase that promotes glutamatergic transmission. Evidence indicates that the NRG1-ErbB4 signaling is also engaged in hypersensitivity of pathological pain. Together, these results identify a spinal neuron connection consisting of ErbB4+ neurons for heat sensation and reveal a regulatory mechanism by the NRG1-ErbB4 signaling.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Neuregulina-1 , Neurônios , Sensação Térmica , Animais , Camundongos , Neuregulina-1/farmacologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Receptor ErbB-4/genética
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 839: 155979, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35580671

RESUMO

Over the last few decades, increase in global temperatures have led to a deterioration in the quality of open spaces, urban vitality, and public health. Strenuous physical training under hot conditions outdoors increases the potential for developing heat illnesses. It is therefore necessary to examine the relationships between human physiological indices, psychological responses, and outdoor thermal indices to predict and evaluate human thermal safety in hot environments. A 9-day experiment was conducted in September 2019, which tested the thermal comfort and cognitive ability of 1102 students. Their physiological parameters (Heart rate, Auditory canal temperature) were recorded before and after physical training. Results showed that there were significant differences in the thermal sensation vote before and after physical training. The classification of heat stress was modified based on the MTSV regression model and PET. The maximum acceptable PET was 23.0 °C before physical training and 21.7 °C after physical training. When PET ≥ 40.1 °C, a reduction in physical training intensity is recommended. When PET ≥ 45.7 °C, cessation of physical training should take place and sun exposure should be reduced to avoid health hazards. It is important to use the auditory canal temperature instead of the core temperature to calculate the physiological strain index (PSI). More than 15% of the subjects had a PSI ≥ 7.0 during the test. When the body is in a thermally neutral state (MTSV = -0.5- 0.5), PSI ≤ 2.0. When the MTSV ≥3.2, PSI ≥ 7.0, physical training intensity should be reduced, and warning information should be provided. According to the expected distribution of physical training time and rest time, it is recommended that the time of each physical training session should be within 30 min, with a resting period of more than 30 min in hot environments.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Sensação Térmica , Exercício Físico , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estudantes , Temperatura
13.
J Therm Biol ; 106: 103254, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35636890

RESUMO

Skin temperature is an important physiological parameter that reflects human thermal sensation. However, it is uncertain whether it can evaluate overall thermal sensation in non-uniform thermal environments. This study aims to explore the feasibility of using skin temperature to predict overall thermal sensation in non-uniform environments. The overall thermal sensation votes and skin temperatures were obtained in a non-uniform thermal environment with local cooling on the chest in a climate chamber. The predictive power of the representative skin temperature (RST) estimated from five different methods was examined by analysing its sensitivity and the correlation between the overall thermal sensation and the RST. The RSTs estimated from the 7-point method with the measurement site of trunk assigned on the chest and the 1-point method with a measurement site at the centre of the chest had high sensitivity and coefficients of determination. They could reflect overall thermal sensation in the non-uniform environments with local cooling on the chest. The results imply that skin temperature could be used to evaluate overall thermal sensation in non-uniform environments. The overall thermal sensation in non-uniform environments can be evaluated by the RST if, when determining the RST, the measuring site exposed to local cooling is involved and given a high weight.


Assuntos
Temperatura Cutânea , Sensação Térmica , Temperatura Baixa , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Transição de Fase
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 833: 155128, 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35405233

RESUMO

Since the early 2000's, much attention has been paid to human thermal assessment in urban outdoor environments in different climatic zones. Some previous studies have argued that an absence of an agreed protocol for outdoor human bio-meteorological research causes complexity in comparing the studies' results for several reasons: An abundance of human thermal indices, a variety of interpretations of bio-meteorological terms, an array of procedures for data collection and a lack of agreed methods in determining thermal comfort ranges and index modifications. This study aims to review strategies and methods for human bio-meteorological research and to examine their suitability for thermal perception assessment. From 2001 to 2021, 254 case studies assessed human thermal perception by investigating in-situ thermal conditions versus subjective thermal perception, relying on protocols such as ASHRAE Standard 55 and EN ISO 10551 that were originally developed for indoor environments. Fifty-four cases determined different ranges for thermal comfort. Although 43 studies tried to modify indices to various climatic zones, only 13 studies modified the nine PET physiological stress categories and 4 studies modified the ten UTCI stress categories). Thus, comparisons between the studies' results become complicated. Our review points to three main reasons for the complexity: first, the 7-point TSV scales, does not always fit the scales of the applied thermal index; second, measurement procedures do not always represent the local climate conditions; third, certain methods for modifying thermal index scale thresholds are not capable of modifying the entire index scale. On the basis of our findings, we suggest a framework for bio-meteorological research, with attention to measurement procedure, appropriate questionnaire design, careful data control and suitable methods to enable modification of thermal indices. This study recommends applying systematic and objective statistical methods like linear regression and discriminant analysis in order to successfully modify the entire index scale.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Sensação Térmica , Humanos , Meteorologia , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Curr Opin Neurobiol ; 74: 102541, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35447377

RESUMO

Thermotaxis behavior of Caenorhabditis elegans is robust and highly plastic. A pair of sensory neurons, AFD, memorize environmental/cultivation temperature and communicate with a downstream neural circuit to adjust the temperature preference of the animal. This results in a behavioral bias where worms will move toward their cultivation temperature on a thermal gradient. Thermotaxis of C. elegans is also affected by the internal state and is temporarily abolished when worms are starved. Here I will discuss how C. elegans is able to modulate its behavior based on temperature by integrating environmental and internal information. Recent studies show that some parasitic nematodes have a similar thermosensory mechanism to C. elegans and exhibit cultivation-temperature-dependent thermotaxis. I will also discuss the common neural mechanisms that regulate thermosensation and thermotaxis in C. elegans and Strongyloides stercoralis.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans , Resposta Táctica , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/fisiologia , Resposta Táctica/fisiologia , Temperatura , Sensação Térmica/fisiologia
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 834: 155294, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35447174

RESUMO

Designing cities for thermal comfort is an important priority in a warming and urbanizing world. As temperatures in cities continue to break extreme heat records, it is necessary to develop and test new approaches capable of tracking human thermal sensations influenced by microclimate conditions, complex urban geometries, and individual characteristics in dynamic settings. Thermal walks are a promising novel research method to address this gap. During a thermal walk in Phoenix, Arizona, USA, we examined relationships between the built environment, microclimate, and subjective thermal judgments across a downtown city neighborhood slated for redevelopment. Subjects equipped with GPS devices participated in a 1-hour walk on a hot sunny day and recorded their experience in a field guide. Microclimate measurements were simultaneously collected using the mobile human-biometeorological instrument platform MaRTy. Results revealed significant differences in physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and modified physiologically equivalent temperature (mPET) and between street segments with more than 18 °C (25 °C mPET) between the maximum and minimum values. Wider range of mPET values reflected the inclusion of individual level data into the model. Streets with higher sky view factor (SVF) and east-west orientation showed a higher PET and mPET overall. Furthermore, we showed evidence of thermal alliesthesia, the pleasure resulting from slight changes in microclimate conditions. Participants' sense of pleasure was related to the mean PET of the segment they just walked, with linear regression explaining over 60% of the variability. We also showed that estimated percent shade was significantly correlated with SVF, PET, mPET, and pleasure, indicating that participants could sense minor changes in microclimate and perceived shade as pleasant. Although generalization of results is limited by a low sample size, findings of this study improve the understanding of dynamic thermal comfort in complex urban environments and highlight the value of thermal walks as a robust research method.


Assuntos
Interocepção , Cidades , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Microclima , Temperatura , Sensação Térmica
17.
Int J Biometeorol ; 66(6): 1095-1107, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35244763

RESUMO

People perceive thermal sensation differently despite the same temperature value of thermal comfort index depending on various factors such as climate, culture, and physiological characteristics. The use of the thermal comfort index without optimization may lead to biases in assessment of thermal stress and sensation. This study aims to derive the perceived temperature (PT) ranges of thermal sensation levels related to heat stress for Koreans. The experiments were designed using a controlled environmental chamber to derive the PT ranges and were performed with subjects who are residents of Seoul, South Korea. The experiments were carried out in the summers of 2017 and 2018, and the thermal sensation votes were surveyed from 19 subjects whose mean age, height, weight, and body mass index were 22.5 years, 171 cm, 72 kg, and 23 kg⋅m-2, respectively. The derived PT ranges for Koreans led to a better performance than the reference PT ranges for Germans based on the results of validation. The thresholds of 'Warm,' 'Hot,' and 'Very hot' thermal sensation classes for Koreans were 28 °C, 36 °C, and 43 °C, respectively: higher than those for Germans. The results indicate that Koreans may have higher heat resistance or lower heat sensitivity than Germans.


Assuntos
Clima , Sensação Térmica , Adulto , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Inquéritos e Questionários , Temperatura , Adulto Jovem
18.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(17): e2104801, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347889

RESUMO

The Internet of Things (IoT) fosters the development of smart city systems for sustainable living and increases comfort for people. One of the current challenges for sustainable buildings is the optimization of energy management. Temperature monitoring in buildings is of prime importance, as heating account for a great part of the total energy consumption. Here, a solar optical temperature sensor is presented with a thermal sensitivity of up to 1.23% °C-1 based on sustainable aqueous solutions of enhanced green fluorescent protein and C-phycocyanin from biological feedstocks. These photonic sensors are presented under the configuration of luminescent solar concentrators widely proposed as a solution to integrate energy-generating devices in buildings, as windows or façades. The developed mobile sensor is inserted in IoT context through the development of a self-powered system able to measure, record, and send data to a user-friendly website.


Assuntos
Energia Solar , Cidades , Calefação , Humanos , Temperatura , Sensação Térmica
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(5)2022 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35270974

RESUMO

The MoBiMet (Mobile Biometeorology System) is a low-cost device for thermal comfort monitoring, designed for long-term deployment in indoor or semi-outdoor occupational contexts. It measures air temperature, humidity, globe temperature, brightness temperature, light intensity, and wind, and is capable of calculating thermal indices (e.g., physiologically equivalent temperature (PET)) on site. It visualizes its data on an integrated display and sends them continuously to a server, where web-based visualizations are available in real-time. Data from many MoBiMets deployed in real occupational settings were used to demonstrate their suitability for large-scale and continued monitoring of thermal comfort in various contexts (industrial, commercial, offices, agricultural). This article describes the design and the performance of the MoBiMet. Alternative methods to determine mean radiant temperature (Tmrt) using a light intensity sensor and a contactless infrared thermopile were tested next to a custom-made black globe thermometer. Performance was assessed by comparing the MoBiMet to an independent mid-cost thermal comfort sensor. It was demonstrated that networked MoBiMets can detect differences of thermal comfort at different workplaces within the same building, and between workplaces in different companies in the same city. The MoBiMets can capture spatial and temporal differences of thermal comfort over the diurnal cycle, as demonstrated in offices with different stories and with different solar irradiances in a single high-rise building. The strongest sustained heat stress was recorded at industrial workplaces with heavy machinery.


Assuntos
Sensação Térmica , Vento , Cidades , Comunicação , Umidade
20.
Indoor Air ; 32(3): e13018, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347785

RESUMO

The adaptive thermal heat balance (ATHB) framework introduced a method to account for the three adaptive principals, namely physiological, behavioral, and psychological adaptation, individually within existing heat balance models. This work presents a more detailed theoretical framework together with a theory-driven empirical determination toward a new formulation of the ATHBPMV . The empirical development followed a rigor statistical process known from machine learning approaches including training, validation, and test phase and makes use of a subset (N = 57 084 records) of the ASHRAE Global Thermal Comfort Database. Results show an increased predictive performance among a wide range of outdoor climates, building types, and cooling strategies of the buildings. Furthermore, individual findings question the common believe that psychological adaptation is highest in naturally ventilated buildings. The framework offers further opportunities to include a variety of context-related variables as well as personal characteristics into thermal prediction models, while keeping mathematical equations limited and enabling further advancements related to the understanding of influences on thermal perception.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Temperatura Alta , Clima , Aprendizado de Máquina , Sensação Térmica/fisiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...