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1.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 6(5): 630-643, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35332281

RESUMO

Primates have adapted to numerous environments and lifestyles but very few species are native to high elevations. Here we investigated high-altitude adaptations in the gelada (Theropithecus gelada), a monkey endemic to the Ethiopian Plateau. We examined genome-wide variation in conjunction with measurements of haematological and morphological traits. Our new gelada reference genome is highly intact and assembled at chromosome-length levels. Unexpectedly, we identified a chromosomal polymorphism in geladas that could potentially contribute to reproductive barriers between populations. Compared with baboons at low altitude, we found that high-altitude geladas exhibit significantly expanded chest circumferences, potentially allowing for greater lung surface area for increased oxygen diffusion. We identified gelada-specific amino acid substitutions in the alpha-chain subunit of adult haemoglobin but found that gelada haemoglobin does not exhibit markedly altered oxygenation properties compared with lowland primates. We also found that geladas at high altitude do not exhibit elevated blood haemoglobin concentrations, in contrast to the normal acclimatization response to hypoxia in lowland primates. The absence of altitude-related polycythaemia suggests that geladas are able to sustain adequate tissue-oxygen delivery despite environmental hypoxia. Finally, we identified numerous genes and genomic regions exhibiting accelerated rates of evolution, as well as gene families exhibiting expansions in the gelada lineage, potentially reflecting altitude-related selection. Our findings lend insight into putative mechanisms of high-altitude adaptation while suggesting promising avenues for functional hypoxia research.


Assuntos
Theropithecus , Altitude , Animais , Cromossomos , Genômica , Hipóxia , Oxigênio , Theropithecus/fisiologia
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17957, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504125

RESUMO

Yawn contagion occurs when individuals yawn in response to the yawn of others (triggers). This is the first account of yawn contagion in wild geladas (Theropithecus gelada), a monkey species that shows yawn contagion in captivity and is organized in core units (one-male/bachelor groups) forming multilevel associations. In a population of geladas from the Kundi plateau (Ethiopia) we found that the yawning response was highest when geladas could perceive a triggering yawn, which confirms that yawn contagion is present in the wild. Yawn duration, mouth-opening degree and presence/absence of vocalisation (possibly modulating yawn detectability) did not affect the likelihood of contagion. Males and females, known to be both implicated in movement initiation within groups, were similarly powerful as yawn triggers. Instead, group membership and responder sex had a significant role in shaping the phenomenon. Yawn contagion was highest between individuals belonging to different core units and males were most likely to respond to others' yawns. Because males have a non-negligible role in inter-group coordination, our results suggest that yawn contagion may have a communicative function that goes beyond the basic unit level.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento Imitativo/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Theropithecus/fisiologia , Bocejo/fisiologia , Animais , Etiópia , Feminino , Masculino , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia
3.
Behav Processes ; 192: 104501, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517089

RESUMO

Infant handling - involving affiliative behavior from non-mothers to infants - is a phenomenon that is variably present in Old World monkeys and can be granted by mothers to obtain social services, such as grooming. Here we investigated for the first time whether infant handling could influence grooming exchange in wild geladas. We gathered data on the population of Kundi highland (Ethiopia) in 2019/2020. Via sampling on 15 focal mothers from eight different One-Male Units, we video-recorded 55 grooming sessions between focal mothers and non-focal females (mothers or non-mothers). We also recorded the possible occurrence of infant handling performed by non-focal females. We found that grooming sessions were longer between mother and non-mothers and in the presence than in the absence of infant handling. Hence, our results show that infant handling can influence the grooming exchange between wild gelada females. Because grooming is used to establish and reinforce social bonds in primates, infant handling may act as a 'social bridge' in a female bonded society. From an evolutionary perspective, infant handling strategies might represent the stepping stone to more complex forms of infant care, such as allomaternal care and cooperative breeding.


Assuntos
Theropithecus , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Etiópia , Feminino , Asseio Animal , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Comportamento Social
4.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1952): 20210820, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074124

RESUMO

The cost-benefit ratio of group living is thought to vary with group size: individuals in 'optimally sized' groups should have higher fitness than individuals in groups that are either too large or too small. However, the relationship between group size and individual fitness has been difficult to establish for long-lived species where the number of groups studied is typically quite low. Here, we present evidence for optimal group size that maximizes female fitness in a population of geladas (Theropithecus gelada). Drawing on 14 years of demographic data, we found that females in small groups experienced the highest death rates, while females in mid-sized groups exhibited the highest reproductive performance. This group size effect on female reproductive performance was largely explained by variation in infant mortality (and, in particular, by infanticide from immigrant males) but not by variation in reproductive rates. Taken together, females in mid-sized groups are projected to attain optimal fitness due to conspecific infanticide and, potentially, predation. Our findings provide insight into how and why group size shapes fitness in long-lived species.


Assuntos
Theropithecus , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Predatório , Reprodução
5.
Primates ; 62(4): 571-584, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061281

RESUMO

Human-primate interfaces are expanding and, despite recent studies on primates from peri-urban environments, little research exists on the impact of agriculture and/or pasture areas on primate social behavior and health. We assessed how crop/pasture areas potentially alter social behavior and health of wild geladas (Theropithecus gelada) frequenting the unprotected area of Kundi (Ethiopia). We predicted that compared to pasture areas, crop areas (i) would be more challenging for geladas (prediction 1) and (ii) would have a greater impact on both aggressive and affiliative behavior, by reducing grooming time and enhancing competition (prediction 2). During January-May 2019 and December 2019-February 2020, we collected data (via scan, focal animal sampling, and video analyses) on direct human disturbance, external signs of pathologies and social behavior of 140 individuals from 14 one-male units and two all-male units. Animals experienced the highest level of human disturbance in crop areas (in line with prediction 1). Individuals from the groups preferentially frequenting crop areas showed the highest prevalence of external signs of pathologies consistent with chemical and biological contamination (alopecia/abnormally swollen parts). We collected 48 fecal samples. Samples from frequent crop users contained the highest rates of parasitic elements/gram (egg/larva/oocyst/cyst) from Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, a parasite common in human settlements of the Amhara region. In crop areas, subjects spent less time grooming but engaged in lower rates of intense aggression (in partial agreement with prediction 2). We speculate that the reduction in social behavior may be a tactic adopted by geladas to minimize the likelihood of detection and maximize food intake while foraging in crops.


Assuntos
Agressão , Interação Humano-Animal , Theropithecus/fisiologia , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas , Etiópia , Fezes/química , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Asseio Animal , Masculino , Comportamento Social
6.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 26, 2021 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adaptive shifts in gut microbiome composition are one route by which animals adapt to seasonal changes in food availability and diet. However, outside of dietary shifts, other potential environmental drivers of gut microbial composition have rarely been investigated, particularly in organisms living in their natural environments. RESULTS: Here, we generated the largest wild nonhuman primate gut microbiome dataset to date to identify the environmental drivers of gut microbial diversity and function in 758 samples collected from wild Ethiopian geladas (Theropithecus gelada). Because geladas live in a cold, high-altitude environment and have a low-quality grass-based diet, they face extreme thermoregulatory and energetic constraints. We tested how proxies of food availability (rainfall) and thermoregulatory stress (temperature) predicted gut microbiome composition of geladas. The gelada gut microbiome composition covaried with rainfall and temperature in a pattern that suggests distinct responses to dietary and thermoregulatory challenges. Microbial changes were driven by differences in the main components of the diet across seasons: in rainier periods, the gut was dominated by cellulolytic/fermentative bacteria that specialized in digesting grass, while during dry periods the gut was dominated by bacteria that break down starches found in underground plant parts. Temperature had a comparatively smaller, but detectable, effect on the gut microbiome. During cold and dry periods, bacterial genes involved in energy, amino acid, and lipid metabolism increased, suggesting a stimulation of fermentation activity in the gut when thermoregulatory and nutritional stress co-occurred, and potentially helping geladas to maintain energy balance during challenging periods. CONCLUSION: Together, these results shed light on the extent to which gut microbiota plasticity provides dietary and metabolic flexibility to the host, and might be a key factor to thriving in changing environments. On a longer evolutionary timescale, such metabolic flexibility provided by the gut microbiome may have also allowed members of Theropithecus to adopt a specialized diet, and colonize new high-altitude grassland habitats in East Africa. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Theropithecus/microbiologia , África Oriental , Animais , Feminino , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino
7.
Curr Biol ; 31(1): R11-R13, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434476

RESUMO

In species with intense male competition, reproducing at the wrong time can have dire consequences for females. A new study of wild gelada monkeys finds that females delay or accelerate puberty to moderate the risks of inbreeding and infanticide.


Assuntos
Reprodução , Theropithecus , Animais , Feminino , Endogamia , Masculino , Primatas
8.
Behav Processes ; 184: 104338, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513433

RESUMO

Two of the main hypotheses put forth to explain the function of immature social play are the Social Skill Hypothesis and the Motor Training Hypothesis focussing on whether play can improve social competence to develop cooperative social networks or physical abilities to outcompete others, respectively. Here, we tested these hypotheses on a monkey species, the wild gelada (Theropithecus gelada) from the Kundi plateau, Ethiopia. This species is organized in bands divided in One-Male Units (OMUs), united only via social play. Immatures form 'play units' in which individuals from the same and different OMUs interact. We analysed the potential differences between inter- and intra-OMU play to verify which of the two hypotheses (Social Skill or Motor Training Hypothesis) best explains the function of play in geladas. We analysed 527 video-recorded social play sessions and found mixed support for both hypotheses. In agreement with the Social Skill Hypothesis, we found that play in geladas shows scarce social canalization being similarly distributed across age, sex and group membership. In line with the Motor Training Hypothesis, we detected higher levels of competition (shorter and more unbalanced sessions) in inter-OMU compared to intra-OMU play. Hence, in geladas play can be a tool for both the development of social relationships and the improvement of the physical skills necessary to cope with either future mates or competitors. In conclusion, neither hypothesis can be discarded and both hypotheses concur in explaining why immature geladas peculiarly form 'play units' embracing both ingroup and outgroup members.


Assuntos
Theropithecus , Adaptação Psicológica , Animais , Etiópia , Processos Grupais , Comportamento Social
9.
Curr Biol ; 31(1): 214-219.e2, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157017

RESUMO

The timing of female maturation in wild mammals is often constrained by ecological variables that relate to food acquisition. However, maturational timing in female mammals can also respond to social variables. Specifically, the arrival of novel males can accelerate maturation while the presence of related males can inhibit it. Despite studies on more than two dozen mammalian taxa in captivity, evidence for male-mediated maturation has not been systematically demonstrated in any wild population. Here, we report the first evidence of male-mediated maturation in a wild primate, the gelada (Theropithecus gelada). After the arrival of a new breeding male in the group (a male takeover), young females were three times more likely to mature. We then examined these takeover-associated maturations in more detail: some were earlier than expected (a presumptive "Vandenbergh effect," or male-accelerated maturation), some were at the expected age for the average female gelada, and some were later than expected (a presumptive "inbreeding avoidance delay," or father-induced reproductive suppression). An examination of fecal estrogens, which rise just before visible signs of maturation in this species, revealed that male takeovers induced a surge in estrogens for immature females of all ages-even females that did not mature. These are the first data to demonstrate that specific males are associated with the onset of maturation in a wild primate and to provide a possible mechanism for this change. These results suggest that all male-mediated maturation (whether accelerated, on-time, or delayed) may be governed by similar neuroendocrine processes.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Theropithecus/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Cruzamento , Estrogênios/análise , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Pai , Fezes/química , Feminino , Masculino , Sistemas Neurossecretores/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais
10.
Behav Processes ; 180: 104253, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971221

RESUMO

Stone Handling (SH) is a solitary object play behaviour that can vary from simple exploratory actions to more complex manipulations. So far, among primates, this behaviour has been exclusively reported in macaques. We collected data on 62 geladas (Theropithecus gelada) housed at the NaturZoo (Rheine, Germany). We found that about 70% of subjects belonging to all age- and sex-classes engaged in SH. Due to their exceptional manipulative skills (the highest opposability index among nonhuman primates) and propensity to play, geladas are a good model species to test hypotheses on the function of this form of object play. While the frequency of SH tended to decrease with age of the player, the duration of each session and its complexity tended to increase in juveniles/subadults and adults compared to infants. This age-related variation in terms of frequency, duration and complexity suggests that, in agreement with the motor training hypothesis, SH could have a role in the neural-motor development of immature subjects and a basic function in stimulating neurogenesis and maintaining the psychological well-being of adults. In all age classes, the frequency of SH did not vary across pre-feeding, feeding and non-feeding conditions. Hence, our data do not support the misdirected foraging hypothesis, which predicts that animals engage in SH to anticipate food provisioning. In conclusion, our study reveals, for the first time, the presence of SH outside the genus Macaca and attempts to delineate possible functions of the behaviour in geladas. Since the hypotheses tested cannot be mutually exclusive, long-term studies of SH across individuals' lifetimes in both captive and wild groups of geladas are needed to clarify the proximate and ultimate functions of the behaviour in this species of Papionini. Finally, long-term studies could also provide some important indications about the cultural nature and social transmission of SH in a taxonomic group outside the Macaca genus.


Assuntos
Theropithecus/fisiologia , Animais , Macaca
11.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2020: 9829834, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952457

RESUMO

Geladas are the most distinctive of Ethiopian endemic mammals, representing the last extant species of primate genus that have a very restricted distribution in the northern Ethiopian plateau. The activity budget and feeding ecology of geladas (Theropithecus gelada obscurus) were studied around Abogedam Church, Ethiopia, from May to October 2014, encompassing dry and wet seasons. The scan sampling method was applied to collect behavioural data on the identified band. Activity scans were collected at 15-minute intervals for up to five minutes duration from 0700 to 1730 h. The activity recorded for each individual was the first activity that lasts for five seconds. During each scan, individuals were recorded as performing activities: feeding, moving, resting, playing, aggression, grooming, sexual activity, and others. On average, geladas devoted 57.19% feeding, 14.82% resting, 14.92% moving, 4.83% playing, 2.53% aggression, 4.14% grooming, 1.23% sexual activity, and 0.34% other activities such as vocalization, defecation, and urination. Forty-one plant species were consumed by geladas that belonged to 18 families of which 53.66% were grasses. This study provides basic information on further studies and motivates conservationists to plan the management of unprotected areas at the vicinity of agricultural lands where such endemic animals dwell.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Theropithecus , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Clima , Etiópia , Geografia , Estações do Ano
12.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 293: 113494, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333913

RESUMO

Integrative behavioral ecology requires accurate and non-invasive measures of hormone mediators for the study of wild animal populations. Biologically sensitive assay systems for the measurement of hormones and their metabolites need to be validated for the species and sample medium (e.g. urine, feces, saliva) of interest. Where more than one assay is available for hormone (metabolite) measurement, antibody selection is useful in identifying the assay that tracks changes in an individuals endocrine activity best, i.e., the most biologically sensitive assay. This is particularly important when measuring how glucocorticoids (GCs) respond to the subtle, additive effects of acute stressors during a predictable metabolic challenge, such as gestation. Here, we validate a group-specific enzyme immunoassay, measuring immunoreactive 11ß-hydroxyetiocholanolone, for use in a wild primate, geladas (Theropithecus gelada). This group-specific assay produced values correlated with those from a previously validated double-antibody, corticosterone 125I radioimmunoassay. However, the results with the group-specific assay showed a stronger response to an ACTH challenge and identified greater variation in gelada immunoreactive fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (iGCMs) compared with the corticosterone assay, indicating a higher biological sensitivity for assessing adrenocortical activity. We then used the group-specific assay to: (1) determine the normative pattern of iGCM levels across gelada gestation, and (2) identify the ecological, social, and individual factors that influence GC output for pregnant females. Using a general additive mixed model, we found that higher iGCM levels were associated with low rank (compared to high rank) and first time mothers (compared to multiparous mothers). This study highlights the importance of assay selection and the efficacy of group-specific assays for hormonal research in non-invasively collected samples. Additionally, in geladas, our results identify some of the factors that increase GC output over and above the already-elevated GC concentrations associated with gestation. In the burgeoning field of maternal stress, these factors can be examined to identify the effects that GC elevations may have on offspring development.


Assuntos
Fezes/química , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Paridade , Theropithecus/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Selvagens/metabolismo , Corticosterona/metabolismo , Feminino , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Gravidez , Radioimunoensaio , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
J Hum Evol ; 142: 102736, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193025

RESUMO

Despite the scarcity of fossil specimens of Theropithecus oswaldi in Eurasia, its presence out of Africa attests to the great dispersal of this Papionini genus during the Early Pleistocene. In the present study, we analyze the buccal dental microwear of T. oswaldi (T. o. leakeyi) fossil specimens from Cueva Victoria (Southeastern Spain). This analysis is the first characterization of the feeding ecology of T. oswaldi in Europe. The buccal microwear pattern of the molar and premolar teeth of T. oswaldi from Cueva Victoria shows great similarities to that observed for the extant frugivorous forest-dwelling Mandrillus sphinx and mangabeys (Cercocebus sp.)-both species adapted to durophagous dietary habits-while significantly different from that observed for the gramnivorous Theropithecus gelada. These results suggest that T. oswaldi from Cueva Victoria could have exploited both hard-shelled fruits or seeds and succulent fruits from open and forested Mediterranean ecosystems.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Theropithecus/fisiologia , Desgaste dos Dentes/veterinária , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Espanha , Desgaste dos Dentes/patologia
14.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 172(2): 280-290, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100880

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Human language represents an extreme form of communicative complexity. Primate facial display complexity, which depends upon facial mobility, can be used as a model for the study of the evolution of communicative complexity. The gelada (Theropithecus gelada) is the only primate that can produce a lip-flip eversion. This study investigates the role of the lip-flip relative to the bared-teeth display to understand its role in generating communicative complexity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed videos of gelada social interactions. We utilized the facial action coding system (FACS) to define structural component action units (AUs) of each display. We inferred display motivation from the behaviors of the display sender. RESULTS: The lip-flip was used only in combination with the essential AUs of the bared-teeth display, serving as an optional structural element added to produce a structural variant. Both the bared-teeth display with and without a lip-flip occurred most frequently with nonaggressive, submissive behaviors. The lip-flip was more frequently preceded by approach than the bared-teeth display, especially in males. The lip-flip was also present in the majority of structurally blended facial displays though the motivation of the non-lip-flip parent display often dominated. DISCUSSION: The lip-flip may potentially function as an indicator of benign intent after an approach or as an intensifying component of nonaggressive intent. Adaptations to increase facial mobility in geladas via facilitating the lip-flip may promote increased communicative complexity through increased conspicuousness and motivational signaling specification or intensification.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Expressão Facial , Lábio/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Theropithecus/fisiologia , Animais , Antropologia Física , Feminino , Masculino , Comportamento Social , Dente/fisiologia
15.
Am J Primatol ; 82(2): e23098, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994756

RESUMO

Predation is widely believed to exert strong selective pressure on primate behavior and ecology but is difficult to study and rarely observed. In this study, we describe seven encounters between lone wild leopards (Panthera pardus) and herds of geladas (Theropithecus gelada) over a 6-year period in an intact Afroalpine grassland ecosystem at the Guassa Community Conservation Area, Ethiopia. Three encounters consisted of attempted predation on geladas by leopards, one of which was successful. All three attacks occurred in low-visibility microhabitats (dominated by tussock graminoids, mima mounds, or tall shrubs) that provided leopards with hidden viewsheds from which to ambush geladas. An additional four encounters did not result in an attempted attack but still document the consistently fearful responses of geladas to leopards. In encounters with leopards, geladas typically gave alarm calls (n = 7 of 7 encounters), reduced interindividual distances (n = 5), and collectively fled towards or remained at their sleeping cliffs (n = 7), the only significant refugia in the open-country habitat at Guassa. Geladas did not engage in mobbing behavior towards leopards. Encounters with leopards tended to occur on days when gelada herd sizes were small, raising the possibility that leopards, as ambush hunters, might stalk geladas on days when fewer eyes and ears make them less likely to be detected. We compare the behavioral responses of geladas to leopards at Guassa with those previously reported at Arsi and the Simien Mountains and discuss how gelada vulnerability and responses to leopards compare with those of other primate species living in habitats containing more refugia. Lastly, we briefly consider how living in multilevel societies may represent an adaptive response by geladas and other open-country primates to predation pressure from leopards and other large carnivores.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Panthera , Comportamento Predatório , Theropithecus , Animais , Etiópia , Masculino
16.
Environ Manage ; 65(3): 399-409, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884563

RESUMO

Understanding the extent of human-primate conflict in areas where habitat overlap reaches at maximum level between local farmers and primates is crucial to developing conservation and management strategies. One of the threats of southern geladas (Theropithecus gelada obscurus) is conflict with the local farmers due to cereal crop raiding. This study was carried out to compare the intensity of human-gelada conflicts and the attitude of local farmers toward the conservation of geladas among local communities neighboring Borena Sayint National Park (BSNP) and an unprotected site far from the BSNP. Data from 356 randomly selected respondents were collected using questionnaire interview method. Overall, 92.13% of the respondents considered southern geladas as cereal crop pests. Those major complaints against geladas did not differ significantly between the two study sites: crop raiding (p = 0.435) and competition with livestock for pasture (p = 0.990). Overall, 61.78% of the respondents surrounding the Park had positive attitude while 60.00% from the unprotected villages had negative attitude toward geladas, and the difference was significant (p < 0.001). Most of the respondents from both sites had labor bottleneck and station themselves in the sites to guard their cereal crops from being raided by southern geladas. Respondents from the Park boundaries had more interest on the conservation of geladas than those respondents from the unprotected site (p < 0.001). Conservation education program and better human-gelada conflict mitigation measures should be taken to change the negative conservation attitude of local famers toward the southern geladas.


Assuntos
Theropithecus , Animais , Atitude , Ecossistema , Etiópia , Humanos , Parques Recreativos
17.
J Hum Evol ; 138: 102686, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759254

RESUMO

We describe here several specimens of the genus Theropithecus from the southern shore of Lake Assal in the Republic of Djibouti; they are the first record of the genus from this country. We assign them to a derived stage of T. oswaldi. This identification has implications for the age of the informal 'Formation 1' from this area, which should probably be assigned to the Middle Pleistocene. In addition, the presence of T. oswaldi close to the Bab el Mandeb Strait strongly suggests that the species followed this route to India, rather than a more northern one.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Theropithecus/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Djibuti , Masculino , Theropithecus/fisiologia
18.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(10): 3041-3048, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395120

RESUMO

A novel irregularly shaped and slightly curved rod bacterial strain, GLDI4/2T, showing activity of fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase was isolated from a faecal sample of an adult gelada baboon (Theropithecus gelada). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA genes as well as multilocus sequences (representing fusA, gyrB and xfp genes) and the core genome revealed that GLDI4/2T exhibited phylogenetic relatedness to Alloscardovia omnicolens DSM 21503T and to Alloscardovia macacae DSM 24762T. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed the phylogenetic results showing the highest gene sequence identity with strain A. omnicolens DSM 21503T (96.0 %). Activities of α- and ß-gluco(galacto)sidases were detected in strain GLDI4/2T, which is characteristic for almost all members of the family Bifidobacteriaceae. Compared to other Alloscardovia species its DNA G+C content (43.8 mol%) was very low. Phylogenetic studies and the evaluation of phenotypic characteristics, including the results of biochemical, physiological and chemotaxonomic analyses, confirmed the novel species status for strain GLDI4/2T, for which the name Alloscardoviatheropitheci sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GLDI4/2T (=DSM 106019T=JCM 32430T).


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/classificação , Filogenia , Theropithecus/microbiologia , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Aldeído Liases , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Itália , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
J Comp Psychol ; 133(4): 442-451, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907610

RESUMO

[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported online in Journal of Comparative Psychology on May 9 2019 (see record 2019-25503-001). In the article "Embracing in a Female-Bonded Monkey Species (Theropithecus gelada)" by Virginia Pallante, Pier Francesco Ferrari, Marco Gamba, and Elisabetta Palagi (Journal of Comparative Psychology, Advance online publication. March 25, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ com0000173), the title incorrectly read "Embracing in a Female-Bonded Monkey Specie (Theropithecus gelada)" All versions of this article have been corrected.] In several primate species, including humans, embracing predicts the level of affiliation between subjects. To explore the functional meaning of embracing, we selected Theropithecus gelada as a model species. The basic level of the gelada society is the 1-male unit, and the integrity of the group is maintained by the strong bonds between females. In our study group, we observed 3 different kinds of embracing: the frontal and side embraces involving a face-to-face and chest-to-chest interaction and the posterior embrace that consists in putting the arms around conspecifics' back and posing a cheek on it. We verified that the quality of relationships between subjects predicts the type of embracing. Frontal and side embraces were more frequent between females sharing strong bonds. Posterior embracing was randomly distributed. We found a high level of female embracing among the mothers during the first months of lactation. This may improve female cohesiveness against males, thus reducing the risk of infanticide, which is particularly high in geladas. Embracing seems also to act as an ice-breaker favoring grooming. Female embracing could be an affiliative strategy that has evolved to maintain group integrity and high social cohesion among females, especially mothers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Asseio Animal/fisiologia , Haplorrinos/fisiologia , Apego ao Objeto , Comportamento Social , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Theropithecus/fisiologia
20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 15291, 2018 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30327491

RESUMO

Post-conflict affiliation is a mechanism favored by natural selection to manage conflicts in animal groups thus avoiding group disruption. Triadic affiliation towards the victim can reduce the likelihood of redirection (benefits to third-parties) and protect and provide comfort to the victim by reducing its post-conflict anxiety (benefits to victims). Here, we test specific hypotheses on the potential functions of triadic affiliation in Theropithecus gelada, a primate species living in complex multi-level societies. Our results show that higher-ranking geladas provided more spontaneous triadic affiliation than lower-ranking subjects and that these contacts significantly reduced the likelihood of further aggression on the victim. Spontaneous triadic affiliation significantly reduced the victim's anxiety (measured by scratching), although it was not biased towards kin or friends. In conclusion, triadic affiliation in geladas seems to be a strategy available to high-ranking subjects to reduce the social tension generated by a conflict. Although this interpretation is the most parsimonious one, it cannot be totally excluded that third parties could also be affected by the negative emotional state of the victim thus increasing a third party's motivation to provide comfort. Therefore, the debate on the linkage between third-party affiliation and emotional contagion in monkeys remains to be resolved.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Conflito Psicológico , Comportamento Social , Theropithecus/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Animais , Ansiedade/psicologia , Feminino , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino
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