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1.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 207: 114431, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710728

RESUMO

Sinapine thiocyanate (ST) is an index component and pharmacological active component of Semen Sinapis and Semen Raphani, and it is widely used to relieving cough and asthma. This study aimed to obtain the metabolic and pharmacokinetic characterization of ST. The metabolic profiles of ST were obtained from rat plasma, urine, and feces via ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q/TOF-MS). Thirteen metabolites were structurally identified, and the proposed metabolic pathways of ST included deamination, demethylation, hydrogenation, dehydration, and extensive conjugation, including glucuronidation and sulfonation. ST was selected as the plasma marker for the pharmacokinetic study. A simple and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the quantitation of ST in rat plasma. The linear range of ST was 0.1-500 ng/mL (R2 = 0.9976), and the lowest limit of quantification was 0.1 ng/mL. The intra-precision and inter-precision of the assay were 1.31-5.12% and 2.72-7.66%, and the accuracy (RE%) ranged from - 4.88% to 3.82% and - 3.47% to 6.18%. The extraction recovery, matrix effect, and stability of ST were within acceptable limits. The established method was validated and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of ST. For pharmacokinetic experiments, the male Sprague-Dawley rats were administrated with ST solution intravenously (2 mg/kg) or orally (100 mg/kg). The oral absolute bioavailability of ST was calculated as 1.84%, and the apparent volume of distribution of intravenous and intragastric administrations were 107.51 ± 21.16 L/kg and 78.60 ± 14.44 L/kg, respectively. The maximum plasma concentration was 47.82 ± 18.77 nM, and the time to maximum peak was 88.74 ± 20.08 min for the intragastric dosing group. According to the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profiling results, metabolites with high abundance of ST in bio-fluids would be the next object in tissue distribution and pharmacodynamic study.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tiocianatos , Administração Oral , Animais , Colina/análogos & derivados , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
2.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 266: 120423, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637987

RESUMO

Simple colorimetric biosensor was designed for the quantification SCN- ions based on the principle of colorimetric reactions between Co2+ and SCN- ions reaction using synthesized chromophore (2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-5-yl)(phenyl) methanone (HBPM)/Co2+ ions conjugate which was synthesized via greener ultrawave sonication method. The structural characterization of the HBPM chromophore was confirmed by using NMR, ESI-MASS spectral techniques and the photophysical properties, sensor studies were done by using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. Our designed HBPM/Co2+ ions conjugates have selectively detected SCN- ions qualitatively and quantitatively in the presence of other human salivary interferents. As per clinical point of view, three different ranges of SCN- ions from 0.1 to 2 mM for normal, 3 to 10 mM for disease, and 100-600 µM for below normal ranges were tested successfully by our developed sensor and the LoD was calculated as 5.43 nM. The real potent application of the developed biosensor was tested in human salivary samples of both smokers and non-smokers under different ages and obtained results shown good agreement with existing clinical methods.


Assuntos
Colorimetria , Saliva , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Humanos , Íons , Tiocianatos
3.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500622

RESUMO

Glucosinolates (GSLs) from Lepidium graminifolium L. were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by their desulfo-counterparts using UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS technique and by their volatile breakdown products-isothiocyanates (ITCs) using GC-MS analysis. Thirteen GSLs were identified with arylaliphatic as the major ones in the following order: 3-hydroxybenzyl GSL (glucolepigramin, 7), benzyl GSL (glucotropaeolin, 9), 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl GSL (11), 3-methoxybenzyl GSL (glucolimnanthin, 12), 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzyl GSL (3,5-dimethoxysinalbin, 8), 4-hydroxybenzyl GSL (glucosinalbin, 6), 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl GSL (10) and 2-phenylethyl GSL (gluconasturtiin, 13). GSL breakdown products obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) and CH2Cl2 extraction after hydrolysis by myrosinase for 24 h (EXT) as well as benzyl ITC were tested for their cytotoxic activity using MTT assay. Generally, EXT showed noticeable antiproliferative activity against human bladder cancer cell line UM-UC-3 and human glioblastoma cell line LN229, and can be considered as moderately active, while IC50 of benzyl ITC was 12.3 µg/mL, which can be considered as highly active.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosinolatos/química , Glucosinolatos/farmacologia , Lepidium/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hidrólise , Isotiocianatos/química , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Tiocianatos/química , Tiocianatos/farmacologia , Tioglucosídeos/química , Tioglucosídeos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578891

RESUMO

Isothiocyanates, such as sulforaphane and iberin, derived from glucosinolates (GLS) in cruciferous vegetables, are known to prevent and suppress cancer development. GLS can also be converted by bacteria to biologically inert nitriles, such as sulforaphane-nitrile (SFN-NIT) and iberin-nitrile (IBN-NIT), but the role of the gut microbiome in this process is relatively undescribed and SFN-NIT excretion in humans is unknown. An ex vivo fecal incubation model with in vitro digested broccoli sprouts and 16S sequencing was utilized to explore the role of the gut microbiome in SFN- and IBN-NIT production. SFN-NIT excretion was measured among human subjects following broccoli sprout consumption. The fecal culture model showed high inter-individual variability in nitrile production and identified two sub-populations of microbial communities among the fecal cultures, which coincided with a differing abundance of nitriles. The Clostridiaceae family was associated with high levels, while individuals with a low abundance of nitriles were more enriched with taxa from the Enterobacteriaceae family. High levels of inter-individual variation in urine SFN-NIT levels were also observed, with peak excretion of SFN-NIT at 24 h post broccoli sprout consumption. These results suggest that nitrile production from broccoli, as opposed to isothiocyanates, could be influenced by gut microbiome composition, potentially lowering efficacy of cruciferous vegetable interventions.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Isotiocianatos/metabolismo , Nitrilas/metabolismo , Sulfóxidos/metabolismo , Clostridiaceae , Enterobacteriaceae , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Brotos de Planta/química , Tiocianatos/metabolismo
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 798: 149154, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333438

RESUMO

Suppressing the formation of chlorinated aromatics (Cl-aromatics) by chemical inhibitors is an important measure to reduce dioxin emission from the solid waste incineration plants. In this study, we first investigated the reduction effect of a novel inhibitor sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN) on the emission of dioxins in 2 full-scale solid waste incineration systems. Injection of NaSCN solution into the higher temperature flue gas resulted in about 60% reduction in the concentration of total tetra- to octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in stack flue gas. The suppression effect was further verified by a laboratory study on the chlorination of naphthalene over model fly ashes with or without NaSCN addition. By characterizing the reaction products between NaSCN and key catalysts Cu and Fe chlorides, two main suppression mechanisms were proposed: (i) reduction of highly active cupric chloride (CuCl2) and ferric chloride (FeCl3) to less active cuprous chloride (CuCl) and ferrous chloride (FeCl2), (ii) sulfidation of Cu chlorides. The laboratory study indicated that the unreacted NaSCN in the combustion flue gas could be mainly decomposed into Na2S, C3N4, Na2S2O3, NaS2, Na2SO4, CO2, SO2, NO2 and COS. These decomposition products are low toxic or can be effectively removed by the air pollution control devices. CAPSULE: NaSCN suppressed the formation of chlorinated aromatics in combustion flue gas mainly through inducing the reduction of highly active Cu (II) and Fe (III) chlorides.


Assuntos
Incineração , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Dibenzofuranos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Resíduos Sólidos , Tiocianatos
6.
Med Microbiol Immunol ; 210(4): 235-244, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196781

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the acute respiratory disease COVID-19, which has become a global concern due to its rapid spread. Laboratory work with SARS-CoV-2 in a laboratory setting was rated to biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) biocontainment level. However, certain research applications in particular in molecular biology require incomplete denaturation of the proteins, which might cause safety issues handling contaminated samples. In this study, we evaluated lysis buffers that are commonly used in molecular biological laboratories for their ability to inactivate SARS-CoV-2. In addition, viral stability in cell culture media at 4 °C and on display glass and plastic surfaces used in laboratory environment was analyzed. Furthermore, we evaluated chemical and non-chemical inactivation methods including heat inactivation, UV-C light, addition of ethanol, acetone-methanol, and PFA, which might be used as a subsequent inactivation step in the case of insufficient inactivation. We infected susceptible Caco-2 and Vero cells with pre-treated SARS-CoV-2 and determined the tissue culture infection dose 50 (TCID50) using crystal violet staining and microscopy. In addition, lysates of infected cells and virus containing supernatant were subjected to RT-qPCR analysis. We have found that guanidine thiocyanate and most of the tested detergent containing lysis buffers were effective in inactivation of SARS-CoV-2, however, the M-PER lysis buffer containing a proprietary detergent failed to inactivate the virus. In conclusion, careful evaluation of the used inactivation methods is required especially for non-denaturing buffers. Additional inactivation steps might be necessary before removal of lysed viral samples from BSL-3.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Guanidinas/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiocianatos/farmacologia , Inativação de Vírus , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Humanos , RNA Viral , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Células Vero
7.
Indian J Dent Res ; 32(1): 74-78, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269241

RESUMO

Background: It has been speculated that the pathogenesis of diseases prompted by cigarette smoking includes oxidative damage by free radicals. Though, definitive evidence that smoking may cause the oxidative modification of target molecules in vivo is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to estimate and compare the levels of salivary Thiocyanate (SCN) and power of hydrogen (pH) in the saliva of smokers and nonsmokers with chronic periodontitis (ChP). Materials and Methods: A study population consisted of 60 male systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 20-65 years that was further divided into three groups: Group 1: 20 Healthy nonsmokers, who never smoked. Group 2: 20 nonsmokers with chronic periodontitis. Group 3: 20 smokers with chronic periodontitis. Unstimulated saliva was collected for at least 5 mins and clinical parameters; salivary pH and SCN thiocyanate levels were assessed using the spectrophotometric method. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS Inc 21.0, Chicago, II, United States of America. Results: Data showed that the mean salivary SCN level, periodontal parameters were higher in smokers with chronic periodontitis as compared to nonsmokers with chronic periodontitis and healthy subjects (P < 0.05.) Post Hoc tests multiple comparisons Tukey Honest Significant Difference (HSD) among three groups were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Salivary thiocyanate levels remain increased by smoking in addition to the impact of periodontitis, and these results also indicated a significant change in the pH depending on the severity of the periodontal condition in smokers. Thus, the measurement of salivary thiocyanate may prove to be useful in the early detection of periodontal disease. The salivary pH shows significant changes and, consequently, relevant to the severity of the periodontal disease. Salivary pH may thus be used as a quick chairside diagnostic biomarker.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica , Saliva , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Hidrogênio , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes , Fumantes , Tiocianatos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Chemosphere ; 284: 131389, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323803

RESUMO

Various environmental contaminants can find their way to enter plant cells and disturb and/or damage the essential components of PSII repair cycle in chloroplast, thereby resulting in dysfunction of chloroplast. In the current research, a microcosm hydroponic experiment was set up to evaluate the comparative effects of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS)- and proline (Pro)-mediated functional repairing of chloroplast in rice plants under SCN- stress. Our results displayed that when exposed to environmental realistic SCN- concentrations (24-300 mg L-1), foist significant (p < 0.05) gene-dose repercussion on the pathways of photosynthetic reactions and energy metabolism in rice shoots, and a downturn in the level of total soluble starch, sugar, and chlorophyll. Sodium hydrosulfide application effectively mitigated (p < 0.05) the toxic effects of SCN- in rice seedlings by stimulating the processes of phosphorylation, dephosphorylation and new-synthesis of D1 protein in the PSII repair cycle, and increased the turnover of D1 protein to recover CO2 assimilation. Evidently, Pro treatment mainly enhanced (p < 0.05) the expression of magnesium chelatase (MgCh) and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) related genes under simulated SCN- stress, suggesting that the targeted repairing site in chloroplast by Pro was different from NaHS. The outcome of the present research contributes to a better understanding at molecular level for repairing of chloroplast functional disorder by NaHS and Pro at different key nodes under SCN- stress.


Assuntos
Oryza , Clorofila/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Prolina/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Sulfetos , Tiocianatos , Tiorredoxinas/metabolismo
9.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069385

RESUMO

Combination therapy is based on the beneficial effects of pharmacodynamic interaction (synergistic or additive) between combined drugs or substances. A considerable group of candidates for combined treatments are natural compounds (e.g., isothiocyanates) and their analogs, which are tested in combination with anticancer drugs. We tested the anticancer effect of the combined treatment of isothiocyanate 2-oxohexyl isothiocyanate and 5-fluorouracil in colon and prostate cancer cell lines. The type of interaction was described using the Chou-Talalay method. The cytostatic and cytotoxic activities of the most promising combined treatments were investigated. In conclusion, we showed that combined treatment with 5-fluorouracil and 2-oxohexyl isothiocyanate acted synergistically in colon cancer. This activity is dependent on the cytostatic properties of the tested compounds and leads to the intensification of their individual cytotoxic activity. The apoptotic process is considered to be the main mechanism of cytotoxicity in this combined treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Sulfóxidos/farmacologia , Tiocianatos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Isotiocianatos/química , Modelos Biológicos , Sulfóxidos/química , Tiocianatos/química
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12712, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135432

RESUMO

Despite improvements in revascularization after a myocardial infarction, coronary disease remains a major contributor to global mortality. Neutrophil infiltration and activation contributes to tissue damage, via the release of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and formation of the damaging oxidant hypochlorous acid. We hypothesized that elevation of thiocyanate ions (SCN-), a competitive MPO substrate, would modulate tissue damage. Oral dosing of rats with SCN-, before acute ischemia-reperfusion injury (30 min occlusion, 24 h or 4 week recovery), significantly reduced the infarct size as a percentage of the total reperfused area (54% versus 74%), and increased the salvageable area (46% versus 26%) as determined by MRI imaging. No difference was observed in fractional shortening, but supplementation resulted in both left-ventricle end diastolic and left-ventricle end systolic areas returning to control levels, as determined by echocardiography. Supplementation also decreased antibody recognition of HOCl-damaged myocardial proteins. SCN- supplementation did not modulate serum markers of damage/inflammation (ANP, BNP, galectin-3, CRP), but returned metabolomic abnormalities (reductions in histidine, creatine and leucine by 0.83-, 0.84- and 0.89-fold, respectively), determined by NMR, to control levels. These data indicate that elevated levels of the MPO substrate SCN-, which can be readily modulated by dietary means, can protect against acute ischemia-reperfusion injury.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Tiocianatos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Débito Cardíaco , Colágeno/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ecocardiografia , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Metaboloma , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/patologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tiocianatos/metabolismo , Tiocianatos/uso terapêutico
11.
Carbohydr Polym ; 267: 118183, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119151

RESUMO

Fluorescence probing was used to study hydrophobic interactions of galactomannan (GM) obtained from fenugreek gum (FG), guar gum (GG), and locust bean gum (LBG) at different M/G ratios. The I1/I3 ratio of pyrene changed from 1.73 to 1.29, 1.22, and 1.29 for FG, GG and LBG, respectively, as the concentration of GM increased from 0.01 to 8.0 g/L at 30 °C. The critical aggregation concentration of FG, GG, and LBG increased from 1.04 to 3.84 g/L, 1.15 to 3.73 g/L, and 0.94 to 3.63 g/L, respectively, as temperature increased from 10 to 70 °C. Addition of Na2SO4 and NaSCN increased the I1/I3 ratio in dilute solution, but reduced it in semi-dilute solution, whereas adding urea reduced I1/I3 in dilute solution but increased it in semi-dilute solution. These results indicated that the CAC of GM, polarity and number of hydrophobic microdomains were highly dependent on the M/G ratio and galactose distribution.


Assuntos
Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Mananas/química , Sequência de Carboidratos , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Galactanos/química , Gomas Vegetais/química , Pirenos/química , Sulfatos/química , Temperatura , Tiocianatos/química , Trigonella/química , Ureia/química
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12429, 2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127712

RESUMO

Strongly oxidative H2O2 is biologically important, but if uncontrolled, would lead to tissue injuries. Lactoperoxidase (LPO) catalyzes the redox reaction of reducing highly reactive H2O2 to H2O while oxidizing thiocyanate (SCN-) to relatively tissue-innocuous hypothiocyanite (OSCN-). SCN- is the only known natural, effective reducing-substrate of LPO; humans normally derive SCN- solely from food. While its enzymatic mechanism is understood, the actual biological role of the LPO-SCN- system in mammals remains unestablished. Our group previously showed that this system protected cultured human cells from H2O2-caused injuries, a basis for the hypothesis that general deficiency of such an antioxidative mechanism would lead to multisystem inflammation and tumors. To test this hypothesis, we globally deleted the Lpo gene in mice. The mutant mice exhibited inflammation and lesions in the cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive or excretory systems, neuropathology, and tumors, with high incidence. Thus, this understudied LPO-SCN- system is an essential protective mechanism in vivo.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lactoperoxidase/deficiência , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Lactoperoxidase/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Oxirredução , Tiocianatos/metabolismo
13.
Talanta ; 231: 122371, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965036

RESUMO

In this work, a highly sensitive colorimetric paper-based optode for the determination of thiocyanate in urine samples was developed for the first time. The cocktail solution of the optode was composed of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-octyloxyphenyl)porphyrin cobalt(II) complex (L), tridodecylmethylammonium chloride (TDMACl), 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether, and polyvinyl chloride as an ionophore, an ion exchanger, a plasticizer, and a polymer, respectively. The paper-based optode responded to thiocyanate by increasing the blue component in the RGB index and a visible change, with the naked-eye, of the optode color from pink to green was observed. From the central composite design, the optimized conditions that yielded the highest sensitivity were 4.70 mmol/kg TDMACl and 13.75 mmol/kg L. The developed optode sensor was highly selective and responded to thiocyanate over other anions, with a working range of 0.001-5 mM and with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.9915. The limits of detection using naked-eye and camera were determined to be 50.0 µM and 1.26 µM, respectively. In addition, the LOD and LOQ estimated from the standard deviation of the blank were 0.65 and 1.87 µM, respectively. Furthermore, this sensor was successfully applied to the detection of thiocyanate in urine samples from non-smokers and smokers. The results were in good agreement with the standard ion chromatography (IC) technique. This developed paper-based optode sensor was simple, low-cost, portable, and easy to use as a sensing device without any complicated instrument.


Assuntos
Colorimetria , Porfirinas , Cobalto , Ionóforos , Tiocianatos
14.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947165

RESUMO

Dehydroalanine exists natively in certain proteins and can also be chemically made from the protein cysteine. As a strong Michael acceptor, dehydroalanine in proteins has been explored to undergo reactions with different thiolate reagents for making close analogues of post-translational modifications (PTMs), including a variety of lysine PTMs. The chemical reagent 2-nitro-5-thiocyanatobenzoic acid (NTCB) selectively modifies cysteine to form S-cyano-cysteine, in which the S-Cß bond is highly polarized. We explored the labile nature of this bond for triggering E2 elimination to generate dehydroalanine. Our results indicated that when cysteine is at the flexible C-terminal end of a protein, the dehydroalanine formation is highly effective. We produced ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins with a C-terminal dehydroalanine residue with high yields. When cysteine is located at an internal region of a protein, the efficiency of the reaction varies with mainly hydrolysis products observed. Dehydroalanine in proteins such as ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins can serve as probes for studying pathways involving ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins and it is also a starting point to generate proteins with many PTM analogues; therefore, we believe that this NTCB-triggered dehydroalanine formation method will find broad applications in studying ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like protein pathways and the functional annotation of many PTMs in proteins such as histones.


Assuntos
Alanina/análogos & derivados , Cisteína/química , Proteínas/química , Tiocianatos/química , Alanina/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Recombinantes , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Tiocianatos/farmacologia
15.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 67: 126780, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The giant panda belongs to the family Ursidae and, as a species of bear, still retains the simple digestive system of a Carnivoran. However, under the pressure of a specific habitat they had to adapt to a plant mono-diet consisting of bamboo with different species and growth stages around the year. A plant-based diet has relatively low iodine content with risk of iodine deficiency. Furthermore, bamboo contains cyanogenic glycosides releasing cyanide whose detoxification metabolite the thiocyanate acts as antagonist against iodine uptake and storage in the thyroid. To date very little is known about the iodine nutritional status of the giant panda, thus this study was conducted to receive the first information about the iodine nutrition of captive giant panda. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Here we investigated the iodine content of bamboo with different plant parts/vegetation stage and species and further compounds of the captive giant panda diet. Next, the urinary iodine (UI) and urinary thiocyanate (UT) levels of infant, sub-adult, adult and geriatric captive giant pandas was measured during the periods when the pandas consume both bamboo leaves- and culm (bamboo leaf-culm stage). Afterwards, the UI of 19 adult giant pandas was measured again for the different iodine intake during bamboo shoot stage. Finally, in this study part also the fecal iodine concentration was analyzed for calculation of total iodine excretion in relation to the iodine intake. RESULTS: Bamboo leaves had the highest iodine content (453 µg/kg dry matter (DM)), followed by the shoots (84 µg/kg DM, p <  0.05), while bamboo culm had the lowest value (12 µg/kg DM, p <  0.05). During bamboo leaf-culm stage, giant pandas of different age groups had different UI and UT levels (p <  0.05). Furthermore, UI and UT were positively correlated among sub-adult, adult and geriatric giant pandas (p <  0.05). In adult giant pandas during bamboo shoot stage, the iodine excretion in feces was not different from that in urine while their total iodine excretion was less than their iodine intake (p <  0.05). Moreover, during bamboo shoot stage, the UI level of adult giant pandas was much lower than noted during bamboo leaf-culm stage (p <  0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that UI of captive giant pandas was related to their age as well as to the vegetation stage/part of bamboo they consumed reflecting a different periodic iodine supply. Thiocyanate and fecal excretion should be emphasized when considering the iodine nutrition of giant pandas.


Assuntos
Ursidae , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Iodo , Estado Nutricional , Tiocianatos
16.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 86(3): 361-369, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838635

RESUMO

Flavocytochrome c sulfide dehydrogenase (FCC) is one of the central enzymes of the respiratory chain in sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. FCC catalyzes oxidation of sulfide and polysulfide ions to elemental sulfur accompanied by electron transfer to cytochrome c. The catalytically active form of the enzyme is a non-covalently linked heterodimer composed of flavin- and heme-binding subunits. The Thioalkalivibrio paradoxus ARh1 genome contains five copies of genes encoding homologous FCCs with an amino acid sequence identity from 36 to 54%. When growing on thiocyanate or thiosulfate as the main energy source, the bacterium synthesizes products of different copies of FCC genes. In this work, we isolated and characterized FCC synthesized during the growth of Tv. paradoxus on thiocyanate. FCC was shown to oxidize exclusively sulfide but not other reduced sulfur compounds, such as thiosulfate, sulfite, tetrathionate, and sulfur, and it also does not catalyze the reverse reaction of sulfur reduction to sulfide. Kinetic parameters of the sulfide oxidation reaction are characterized.


Assuntos
Grupo dos Citocromos c/metabolismo , Ectothiorhodospiraceae/enzimologia , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Sulfetos/metabolismo , Tiocianatos/metabolismo , Ectothiorhodospiraceae/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons , Cinética , Especificidade por Substrato
17.
Environ Pollut ; 283: 117068, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892368

RESUMO

Allergic diseases have been one of the leading causes of chronic disorders in the United States. Animal studies have suggested that exposures to perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate could induce allergic inflammation. However, the associations have not been examined among general populations. Here, we investigated data of 7030 participants aged ≥6 years from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006. Urinary levels of perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate were measured by ion chromatography combined with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Information on allergic symptoms (hay fever, allergy, rash, sneeze, wheeze, eczema, and current asthma) was collected by questionnaire. Allergic sensitization was defined by a concentration ≥150 kU/L for total immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. The associations were estimated using multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models. A positive association was observed for urinary nitrate and eczema (p < 0.001 for the trend). Compared with quartile 1 (lowest quartile), the odds ratios of eczema with 95% confidence intervals [ORs (95% CIs)] from quartiles 2 to 4 were 1.72 (95% CI, 1.41, 2.09), 1.94 (1.53, 2.47) and 2.10 (1.49, 2.97) for urinary nitrate. In addition, urinary thiocyanate was positively related to sneeze (ORQ4 vs. Q1: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.55; p = 0.015 for the trend). However, urinary perchlorate was not correlated with any allergic-related outcome. Additionally, the associations were different among subgroups in a four-level polytomous model. Thus, our results suggested that exposures to nitrate and thiocyanate may be associated with allergic symptoms. Further investigations are warranted to concentrate on the practical strategies to monitor exposure levels and the latent mechanisms of the relationship between exposure and allergy.


Assuntos
Percloratos , Tiocianatos , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Nitratos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 783: 146805, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866160

RESUMO

Thiocyanate (SCN-) present in irrigation water can have negative effects on plant growth and crop yields. Addition of plant growth regulators (PGRs) can alleviate toxic stress to plants. In the current study, we established a grey situation decision-making model (GSDM) to integrate the data of RT-qPCR analysis for screening the optimal addition of PGRs to minimise pollution stress. The effects of PGRs (i.e., jasmonic acid [JA], indole-3-acetic acid [IAA] and sodium hydrosulfide [NaHS]) on the abundance of IAA oxidation and conjugation-related genes in rice seedlings under potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) exposure was examined. The results obtained from RT-qPCR analysis can roughly present the mitigating effects of IAA, JA, and NaHS on rice seedlings under KSCN stress. Integration of RT-qPCR analysis and GSDM further quantified the regulatory effects of PGRs. Simulation results showed that the effect of NaHS on the gene expression at KSCN exposure is apparently better than that of JA and IAA. Our study provides a new simple, efficient, and cheap approach to identify the optimal plant growth regulators under the stress of environmental pollution.


Assuntos
Oryza , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Expressão Gênica , Oryza/genética , Plântula , Tiocianatos
19.
Blood Cells Mol Dis ; 89: 102564, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839465

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the effect of omega-3 fatty acids and potassium thiocyanate on conditional peak systolic cerebral artery blood velocity in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA). METHODS: Transcranial doppler ultrasonography (TCD) was done on 232 SCA children, and 21 found with conditional peak systolic blood velocity (PSV) of 200-249 cm/s in internal carotid, middle or anterior cerebral arteries. These were randomized to receive omega-3 fatty acids and potassium thiocyanate with standard treatment of SCA (test group, N = 14), or standard treatment only (control group, N = 7). After 3 months of treatment, PSV was measured again. RESULTS: Right middle cerebral artery PSV was significantly reduced in the test relative to the control groups (p = 0.04). PSV returned to normal in 79% of the test versus 43% of the control group; and increased to abnormal in one member of the control group, but none of the test group. CONCLUSIONS: The pilot data suggest that in SCA, omega-3 fatty acids and potassium thiocyanate might reduce conditional blood velocity to normal, or prevent progression to abnormal values. A larger, randomized, clinical trial is required to further address the current gap in management of conditional TCD blood velocity.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/fisiopatologia , Artérias Cerebrais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Tiocianatos/farmacologia , Adolescente , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/efeitos dos fármacos , Artérias Cerebrais/fisiopatologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Tiocianatos/administração & dosagem
20.
Food Chem ; 353: 129213, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774519

RESUMO

Sulforaphane(SFN) and erucin(ERN) are isothiocyanates (ITCs) bearing, respectively, methylsulfinyl and methylsulfanyl groups. Their chemopreventive and anticancer activity is attributed to ability to modulate cellular redox status due to induction of Phase 2 cytoprotective enzymes (indirect antioxidant action) but many attempts to connect the bioactivity of ITCs with their radical trapping activity failed. Both ITCs are evolved from their glucosinolates during food processing of Cruciferous vegetables, therefore, we studied antioxidant behaviour of SFN/ERN at elevated temperature in two lipid systems. Neither ERN nor SFN inhibit the oxidation of bulk linolenic acid (below 100  °C) but both ITCs increase oxidative stability of soy lecithin (above 150 °C). On the basis of GC-MS analysis we verified our preliminary hypothesis (Antioxidants2020, 9, 1090) about participation of sulfenic acids and methylsulfinyl radicals as radical trapping agents responsible for the antioxidant effect of edible ITCs during thermal oxidation of lipids at elevated temperatures (above 140 °C).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Isotiocianatos/química , Succinatos/química , Ácidos Sulfênicos/química , Sulfetos/química , Sulfóxidos/química , Tiocianatos/química , Brassicaceae/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Glucosinolatos/química , Oxirredução
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