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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5111, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433825

RESUMO

Mutational outcomes following CRISPR-Cas9-nuclease cutting in mammalian cells have recently been shown to be predictable and, in certain cases, skewed toward single genotypes. However, the ability to control these outcomes remains limited, especially for 1-bp insertions, a common and therapeutically relevant class of repair outcomes. Here, through a small molecule screen, we identify the ATM kinase inhibitor KU-60019 as a compound capable of reproducibly increasing the fraction of 1-bp insertions relative to other Cas9 repair outcomes. Small molecule or genetic ATM inhibition increases 1-bp insertion outcome fraction across three human and mouse cell lines, two Cas9 species, and dozens of target sites, although concomitantly reducing the fraction of edited alleles. Notably, KU-60019 increases the relative frequency of 1-bp insertions to over 80% of edited alleles at several native human genomic loci and improves the efficiency of correction for pathogenic 1-bp deletion variants. The ability to increase 1-bp insertion frequency adds another dimension to precise template-free Cas9-nuclease genome editing.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/efeitos dos fármacos , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Mutagênese Insercional/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Tioxantenos/farmacologia , Animais , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Linhagem Celular , Edição de Genes , Humanos , Deleção de Sequência/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073048

RESUMO

Thioxanthones are bioisosteres of the naturally occurring xanthones. They have been described for multiple activities, including antitumor. As such, the synthesis of a library of thioxanthones was pursued, but unexpectedly, four tetracyclic thioxanthenes with a quinazoline-chromene scaffold were obtained. These compounds were studied for their human tumor cell growth inhibition activity, in the cell lines A375-C5, MCF-7 and NCI-H460. Photophysical studies were also performed. Two of the compounds displayed GI50 values below 10 µM for the three tested cell lines, and structure-activity relationship studies were established. Three compounds presented similar wavelengths of absorption and emission, characteristic of dyes with a push-pull character. The structures of two compounds were elucidated by X-ray crystallography. Two tetracyclic thioxanthenes emerged as hit compounds. One of the two compounds accumulated intracellularly as a bright fluorescent dye in the green channel, as analyzed by both fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, making it a promising theranostic cancer drug candidate.


Assuntos
Tioxantenos/química , Tioxantenos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Fluorescência , Inibidores do Crescimento/farmacologia , Humanos , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Xantonas/química , Xantonas/farmacologia
3.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673146

RESUMO

9H-Xanthenes, 9H-thioxanthenes and 9,10-dihydroacridines can be easily oxidized to the corresponding xanthones, thioxanthones and acridones, respectively, by a simple photo-oxidation procedure carried out using molecular oxygen as oxidant under the irradiation of visible blue light and in the presence of riboflavin tetraacetate as a metal-free photocatalyst. The obtained yields are high or quantitative.


Assuntos
Acridonas/síntese química , Oxigênio/química , Tioxantenos/síntese química , Xantonas/síntese química , Acridonas/química , Acridonas/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Metais/química , Oxidantes Fotoquímicos/química , Oxidantes Fotoquímicos/farmacologia , Oxirredução/efeitos da radiação , Tioxantenos/química , Tioxantenos/efeitos da radiação , Xantonas/química , Xantonas/efeitos da radiação
4.
J Chromatogr A ; 1643: 462079, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780878

RESUMO

In the present study, a comprehensive and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of 21 PIs (nine benzophenones, eight amine co-initiators, and four thioxanthones) in human plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated. Two different pre-treatment approaches (liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and LLE coupled with solid-phase extraction (SPE)) and eight extraction solvents were studied to optimize sample treatment to obtain good recoveries and reduce any matrix effects. The procedure of LLE+SPE was selected as final sample treatment procedure because it obtained higher recoveries as well as lower matrix effects than that performed by LLE alone. The recoveries of 21 target analytes at three spiked concentrations (0.05, 0.5, and 5 ng/mL) ranged from 81% to 109%. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were between 2.5% and 13%. Accuracy and precision data indicated that the detection method was accurate and precise for most of the PIs. The linearities of the labeled dilution calibration curves at 10 concentration levels (iLOQ to 100 ng/mL or iLOQ to 200 ng/mL) were good with correlation coefficients ranged from 0.995 to 0.999. The method quantification limits were in the range of 1.7-16 pg/mL. The analytical method was applied to the analysis of PIs in 14 human plasma samples collected from pregnant women in Guangdong Province, China. Fifteen PIs were detected with total concentrations ranging from 318 to 2772 pg/mL. The ubiquitous contamination of human plasma with PIs suggests that there is widespread exposure to these compounds. Consequently, there should be increased awareness of these pollutants in the environment.


Assuntos
Benzofenonas/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Xantonas/sangue , Adulto , Benzofenonas/isolamento & purificação , Benzofenonas/normas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/normas , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Gravidez , Controle de Qualidade , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/normas , Tioxantenos/sangue , Tioxantenos/isolamento & purificação , Tioxantenos/normas , Xantonas/isolamento & purificação , Xantonas/normas
5.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 72: 105103, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516932

RESUMO

Photoinitiators (PIs) are widely used for photopolymerization in industrial area and recently paid close attention to in biomedical field. However, there are few reports on their toxicity to human health. Here we explored cytotoxicity and cytocompatibilty of seven commercial and industrial-used PIs for developing their potential clinical application. Phenylbis(acyl) phosphine oxides (BAPO), 2-Benzyl-2-(dimethylamino)-4'-morpholinobutyrophenone (369), 4,4'-Bis(diethylamino) benzophenone (EMK), Diphenyl (2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl) phosphine oxide (TPO), and 2-Isopropylthioxanthone (ITX) caused different extent cytotoxicities to four tissue types of cells at the concentrations of 1 to 50 µM under a non-irradiation condition, of which the BAPO cytotoxicity was the highest, whereas Ethyl (2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl) phenylphosphinate (TPOL) and Methyl benzoylformate (MBF) displayed the lowest cellular toxicity. The cell lines and primary cells appeared highly sensitive to BAPO toxicity, the primary lymphocytes relatively to photoinitiator 369 (369) and EMK toxicities, LO2 cells to EMK and TPO toxicities, the primary lymphocytes and HUVEC-12 cells to MBF toxicity, but only HEK293T cells not to 369 toxicity. Furthermore, these PIs led to increasing cytotoxicity to different extents after exposure to 455 nm blue light, which is consistent with non-irradiation tendency. All the cells presented low sensitivity to TPOL and MBF, of which TPOL-triggered polymer is dramatically superior in its cytocompatibility to MBF, and in its transparency to clinically exclusively-used camphorquinone (CQ). The novel findings indicate that BAPO is the most toxic among the seven PIs, but TPOL and MBF are the least toxic, directing their development and application. Combined their triggered polymer cytocompatibility and color with reported deep curing efficiency, TPOL is more promising to be applied especially to clinical practice.


Assuntos
Benzofenonas/toxicidade , Butirofenonas/toxicidade , Óxidos N-Cíclicos/toxicidade , Luz , Fosfinas/toxicidade , Fotoiniciadores Dentários/toxicidade , Polímeros/toxicidade , Tioxantenos/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Polimerização
6.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; 51(4): 361-374, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935651

RESUMO

2-thioxanthone thioacetic acid (TXSCH2COOH, T), which has a fluorometric character, was used for new fluorometric system upon Fe(II) analysis in biological samples as the main target. T-BSA binary complex was firstly consisted with non-covalent interactions between T and BSA at the equilibrium concentration as 1.77 × 10-4.M. T-BSA binary complex emission was increased at the ratio of 24.40% due to stabilization property of BSA (pH:7), compared with T emission intensity. Fluorescence emission spectroscopy was used for the all measurements because of an economic, a sensitive and a practical method compared with other spectroscopic analysis. T-BSA-Fe(II) triple complex was also obtained by adding Fe(II) ion to T-BSA binary complex solution. Its characterization was performed to be investigated with optimum excitation wavelength, buffer concentration, pH and temperature as 297 nm, 10-3 M Tris HCl (10-2M NaCI), pH:7.2 at 25 °C, respectively. The results of Fe(II) analysis in serum showed a certain response in fluorometric T-BSA-Fe(II) triple complex measurement system as 50.42 ± 5.8 µg/dL. The analyses of our fluorometric triple complex system were compared with the reference electrochemiluminescence method and similar results were obtained. Fluorometric measurements of T-BSA-Fe(II) triple complex, its characterization and Fe(II) analysis in this system have not been investigated in literature gives originality to our study.


Assuntos
Fluorometria/métodos , Íons/análise , Íons/metabolismo , Ferro/análise , Ferro/metabolismo , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo , Xantonas/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Soro/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Temperatura , Tioxantenos/química , Tioxantenos/metabolismo , Xantonas/química
7.
Molecules ; 27(1)2021 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35011432

RESUMO

The rising tide of antibacterial drug resistance has given rise to the virtual elimination of numerous erstwhile antibiotics, intensifying the urgent demand for novel agents. A number of drugs have been found to possess potent antimicrobial action during the past several years and have the potential to supplement or even replace the antibiotics. Many of these 'non-antibiotics', as they are referred to, belong to the widely used class of neuroleptics, the phenothiazines. Another chemically and pharmacologically related class is the thioxanthenes, differing in that the aromatic N of the central phenothiazine ring has been replaced by a C atom. Such "carbon-analogues" were primarily synthesized with the hope that these would be devoid of some of the toxic effects of phenothiazines. Intensive studies on syntheses, as well as chemical and pharmacological properties of thioxanthenes, were initiated in the late 1950s. Although a rather close parallelism with respect to structure activity relationships could be observed between phenothiazines and thioxanthenes; several thioxanthenes were synthesized in pharmaceutical industries and applied for human use as neuroleptics. Antibacterial activities of thioxanthenes came to be recognized in the early 1980s in Europe. During the following years, many of these drugs were found not only to be antibacterial agents but also to possess anti-mycobacterial, antiviral (including anti-HIV and anti-SARS-CoV-2) and anti-parasitic properties. Thus, this group of drugs, which has an inhibitory effect on the growth of a wide variety of microorganisms, needs to be explored for syntheses of novel antimicrobial agents. The purpose of this review is to summarize the neuroleptic and antimicrobial properties of this exciting group of bioactive molecules with a goal of identifying potential structures worthy of future exploration.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Tioxantenos/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Microbiota
8.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 239: 118491, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485605

RESUMO

In this study, a thioxanthone derivative, 2-Thioxanthone Thioacetic Acid (TXSCH2COOH) was used to analyze the type of binding to calf thymus DNA in a physiological buffer (Tris-HCl buffer solution, pH:7.0). Several spectroscopic techniques were employed including UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence emission spectroscopy and viscosity measurements were also used to clarify the binding mode of TXSCH2COOH to ct-DNA. The intrinsic binding constant Kb of TXSCH2COOH-ct-DNA was found as 2.5 × 103 M-1 from the absorption studies. Increasing of fluorescence emission intensity was found approximately 74.4% by adding ct-DNA to the TXSCH2COOH solution. Fluorescence microscopy was employed to display imaging of the TXSCH2COOH-ct-DNA solution. Increasing of the iodide quenching effect was observed when TXSCH2COOH was added to the double stranded DNA and the calculated quenching constants of TXSCH2COOH and TXSCH2COOH-ct-DNA were found to be 1.89 × 103 M-1 and 1.19 × 104 M-1, respectively. Additionally, the iodide quenching experiment was conducted with single stranded DNA which led to a high Ksv value. All the experimental results including the viscosity values of ct-DNA with TXSCH2COOH demonstrated that the binding of TXSCH2COOH to ct-DNA was most likely groove binding. Furthermore, TXSCH2COOH was found to be an A-T rich minor groove binder. This was confirmed by the displacement assays with Hoechst 33258 compared to Ethidium Bromide. The in vitro cytotoxic activity measurements were performed by MTT assay on HT29 cell line for 72 h. TXSCH2COOH exhibited notable cytotoxic activities compared to the standard chemotherapy drugs, fluorouracil (5-FU), cisplatin in tumorigenic HT29 cell line. The 50% growth-inhibitory concentration (IC50) for TXSCH2COOH was 19,8 µg/mL while 5-FU and cisplatin were 28.9 µg/mL, 20 µg/mL, respectively. The increase in cytotoxic effect when TXSCH2COOH is activated by light indicates the potential of being theranostic cancer drug candidate.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Medicina de Precisão , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Dicroísmo Circular , DNA , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Compostos de Sulfidrila , Termodinâmica , Tioxantenos , Viscosidade , Xantonas
9.
Molecules ; 25(9)2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354136

RESUMO

In this study, eight coumarins (coumarins 1-8) are proposed as near-UV and blue light sensitive photoinitiators/photosensitizers for the cationic polymerization (CP) of epoxysilicones when combined with 4-isopropyl-4'-methyldiphenyliodonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate (IOD). Among these coumarins, four of them (coumarins 1, 2, 6 and 8) have never been reported in the literature, i.e., these structures have been specifically designed to act as photoinitiators for silicones upon near UV and visible irradiation. Good final reactive epoxy function conversions (FCs) and also high rates of polymerization (Rp) were achieved in the presence of the newly proposed coumarin-based systems. The polymers generated from the photopolymerization of epoxysilicones can be considered as attractive candidates for several applications such as: elastomers, coatings, adhesives, and so on. The goal of this study focuses also on the comparison of the new proposed coumarins with well-established photosensitizers i.e., 1-chloro-4-propoxythioxanthone (CPTX), 9,10-dibutoxyanthracene (DBA) or some commercial coumarins (Com. Coum). As example of their high performance, the new proposed coumarins were also used for laser write experiments upon irradiation with a laser diode at 405 nm in order to develop new cationic 3D printing systems.


Assuntos
Cátions , Cumarínicos/química , Compostos de Epóxi/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Impressão Tridimensional , Silicones/química , Algoritmos , Antracenos/análise , Resinas Epóxi , Lasers , Luz , Oxirredução , Polimerização , Polímeros/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Tioxantenos/análise , Raios Ultravioleta , Xantonas/análise
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(6)2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192183

RESUMO

DNA glycosylases are emerging as relevant pharmacological targets in inflammation, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Consequently, the search for inhibitors of these enzymes has become a very active research field. As a continuation of previous work that showed that 2-thioxanthine (2TX) is an irreversible inhibitor of zinc finger (ZnF)-containing Fpg/Nei DNA glycosylases, we designed and synthesized a mini-library of 2TX-derivatives (TXn) and evaluated their ability to inhibit Fpg/Nei enzymes. Among forty compounds, four TXn were better inhibitors than 2TX for Fpg. Unexpectedly, but very interestingly, two dithiolated derivatives more selectively and efficiently inhibit the zincless finger (ZnLF)-containing enzymes (human and mimivirus Neil1 DNA glycosylases hNeil1 and MvNei1, respectively). By combining chemistry, biochemistry, mass spectrometry, blind and flexible docking and X-ray structure analysis, we localized new TXn binding sites on Fpg/Nei enzymes. This endeavor allowed us to decipher at the atomic level the mode of action for the best TXn inhibitors on the ZnF-containing enzymes. We discovered an original inhibition mechanism for the ZnLF-containing Fpg/Nei DNA glycosylases by disulfide cyclic trimeric forms of dithiopurines. This work paves the way for the design and synthesis of a new structural class of inhibitors for selective pharmacological targeting of hNeil1 in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
DNA Glicosilases/antagonistas & inibidores , DNA Glicosilases/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Purinas/química , Purinas/farmacologia , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/farmacologia , Bactérias/enzimologia , Sítios de Ligação , Cristalografia por Raios X , Reparo do DNA , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tioxantenos/química , Tioxantenos/farmacologia
11.
J Mater Chem B ; 8(11): 2269-2274, 2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100785

RESUMO

Cysteine (Cys) is one of the most important essential biothiols in lysosomes. Highly selective probes for specific detection and imaging of lysosomal Cys over other biological thiols are rare. Herein, we developed a lysosome-targeted near-infrared fluorescent probe SHCy-C based on a novel NIR-emitting thioxanthene-indolium dye. Due to the turn-on fluorescence response elicited by the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) processes before and after the reaction with Cys, probe SHCy-C exhibits high selectivity and sensitivity (16 nM) for the detection of Cys. More importantly, probe SHCy-C is found to precisely target lysosomes and achieves the "turn-on" detection and imaging of endogenous Cys in lysosomes.


Assuntos
Carbocianinas/química , Cisteína/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Carbocianinas/metabolismo , Corantes Fluorescentes/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Raios Infravermelhos , Limite de Detecção , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Imagem Óptica , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tioxantenos/química
12.
Org Biomol Chem ; 18(6): 1148-1154, 2020 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971197

RESUMO

Fluorescent probes for the detection of acid phosphatases (ACP) are important in the investigation of the pathology and diagnosis of diseases. We reported a lysosome-targeted near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probe SHCy-P based on a novel NIR-emitting thioxanthene-indolium dye for the detection of ACP. The probe showed a long wavelength fluorescence emission at λem = 765 nm. Due to the ACP-catalyzed cleavage of the phosphate group in SHCy-P, the probe exhibited high selectivity and sensitivity for the 'turn-on' detection of ACP with a limit of detection as low as 0.48 U L-1. The probe SHCy-P could also be used to detect and image endogenous ACP in lysosomes. In light of these prominent properties, we envision that SHCy-P will be an efficient optical imaging approach for investigating the ACP activity in disease diagnosis.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Ácida/análise , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Lisossomos/enzimologia , Imagem Óptica , Fosfatase Ácida/metabolismo , Biocatálise , Células HeLa , Humanos , Indóis/química , Raios Infravermelhos , Estrutura Molecular , Tioxantenos/química
13.
Bioorg Chem ; 94: 103347, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810757

RESUMO

Original 1-amino substituted thioxanthone derivatives were easily prepared from the bare heterocycle by a deprotometalation-iodolysis-copper-catalyzed CN bond formation sequence. This last reaction delivered mono- or/and diarylated products depending on the aniline involved. 1-Amino-9-thioxanthone was also prepared and reacted with 2-iodoheterocycles. Interestingly, while 1-(arylamino)-9-thioxanthones could be isolated, their subsequent cyclization was found to deliver original hexacyclic derivatives of helicoidal nature. Evaluation of their photophysical properties revealed high fluorescence in polar media, indicating potential applications for biological imaging. These compounds being able to inhibit PIM1 kinase, their putative binding mode was examined through molecular modeling experiments. Altogether, these results tend to suggest the discovery of a new family of fluorescent PIM inhibitors and pave the way for their future rational optimization.


Assuntos
Aminas/química , Quinolinas/química , Xantonas/química , Estrutura Molecular , Tioxantenos/química , Tioxantenos/farmacologia , Xantonas/farmacologia
14.
J Appl Toxicol ; 40(2): 234-244, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633820

RESUMO

Thioxanthone and its analogues, 2- or 4-isopropylthioxanthone, 2-chlorothioxanthone, 2,4-diethylthioxanthone (DETX) and xanthone, are used as photoinitiators of ultraviolet (UV) light-initiated curable inks. As these photoinitiators were found in numerous food/beverage products packaged in cartons printed with UV-cured inks, the cytotoxic effects and mechanisms of these compounds were studied in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. The toxicity of DETX was greater than that of other compounds. DETX elicited not only concentration (0-2.0 mm)- and time (0-3 hours)-dependent cell death accompanied by the depletion of cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and reduced glutathione (GSH) and protein thiol levels, but also the accumulation of GSH disulfide and malondialdehyde. Pretreatment of hepatocytes with either fructose at a concentration of 10 mm or N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) at a concentration of 5.0 mm ameliorated DETX (1 mm)-induced cytotoxicity. Further, the exposure of hepatocytes to DETX resulted in the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, both of which were partially prevented by the addition of NAC. These results indicate that: (1) DETX-induced cytotoxicity is linked to mitochondrial failure and depletion of cellular GSH; (2) insufficient cellular ATP levels derived from mitochondrial dysfunction were, at least in part, ameliorated by the addition of fructose; and (3) GSH loss and/or ROS formation was prevented by NAC. Taken collectively, these results suggest that the onset of toxic effects caused by DETX may be partially attributable to cellular energy stress as well as oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Luz , Tioxantenos/toxicidade , Xantonas/toxicidade , Animais , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344
15.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 386: 114832, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756430

RESUMO

In vitro studies showed that 1-(propan-2-ylamino)-4-propoxy-9H-thioxanthen-9-one (TX5) increases P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression and activity in Caco-2 cells, preventing xenobiotic toxicity. The present study aimed at investigating TX5 effects on P-gp expression/activity using Wistar Han rats: a) in vivo, evaluating intestinal P-gp activity; b) ex vivo, evaluating P-gp expression in ileum brush border membranes (BBM) and P-gp activity in everted intestinal sacs; c) ex vivo, evaluating P-gp activity in everted intestinal sacs of the distal and proximal ileum. TX5 (30 mg/kg, b.w.), gavage, activated P-gp in vivo, given the significant decrease in the AUC of digoxin (0.25 mg/kg, b.w.). The efflux of rhodamine 123 (300 µM), a P-gp fluorescent substrate, significantly increased in TX5-treated everted sacs from the distal portion of the rat ileum, when P-gp activity was evaluated in the presence of TX5 (20 µM), an effect abolished by the P-gp inhibitor verapamil (100 µM). No increases on P-gp expression or activity were found in TX5-treated BBM of the distal ileum and everted distal sacs, respectively, 24 h after TX5 (10 mg/kg, b.w.) administration. In vivo, no differences were found on digoxin portal concentration between control (digoxin 0.025 mg/kg, b.w., intraduodenal) and TX5-treated (digoxin+TX5 20 µM, intraduodenal) rats. The observed discrepancies in digoxin results can be related to differences in TX5 dose administered and used methodologies. Thus, the results show that TX5 activates P-gp at the distal portion of the rat ileum, and, at the higher dose tested (30 mg/kg, b.w.), seems to modulate in vivo the AUC of P-gp substrates.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tioxantenos/farmacologia , Animais , Western Blotting , Íleo/metabolismo , Masculino , Microvilosidades/efeitos dos fármacos , Microvilosidades/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18765, 2019 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822739

RESUMO

Lifestyle factors are important drivers of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular syndromes, with low grade inflammation as a central player. Attenuating myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, an inflammatory enzyme associated with obesity, hypertension and heart failure, could have protective effects on multiple organs. Herein, the effects of the novel oral available MPO inhibitor AZM198 were studied in an obese/hypertensive mouse model which displays a cardiac phenotype. Eight week old male C57BL6/J mice received 16 weeks of high fat diet (HFD) combined with angiotensin II (AngII) infusion during the last 4 weeks, with low fat diet and saline infusion as control. Treated animals showed therapeutic AZM198 levels (2.1 µM), corresponding to 95% MPO inhibition. AZM198 reduced elevated circulating MPO levels in HFD/AngII mice to normal values. Independent of food intake, bodyweight increase and fat accumulation were attenuated by AZM198, alongside with reduced visceral adipose tissue (VAT) inflammation and attenuated severity of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. The HFD/AngII perturbation caused impaired cardiac relaxation and contraction, and increased cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. AZM198 treatment did, however, not improve these cardiac parameters. Thus, AZM198 had positive effects on the main lipid controlling tissues in the body, namely adipose tissue and liver. This did, however, not directly result in improved cardiac function.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Peroxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Tioxantenos/administração & dosagem , Angiotensina II/administração & dosagem , Angiotensina II/toxicidade , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ventrículos do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Ventrículos do Coração/imunologia , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/sangue , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/efeitos dos fármacos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/imunologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/etiologia , Peroxidase/sangue , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Ventricular/imunologia
17.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci ; 1130-1131: 121788, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670109

RESUMO

Multilayer print designs are commonly used in commercial food packaging to attract consumers. UV-curable ink is generally used in this type of printing due to its ease of application, space saving, and rapid drying; however, there have been a number of health alerts related to the contamination of food by photoinitiators in UV-curable ink. In this study, we established a multi-analyte method by which to detect 30 photoinitiators simultaneously. We then applied this method to the analysis of five breakfast cereals and ten types of packaged juice to detect the presence of photoinitiator contamination. Sample treatment was performed using the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method for the extraction of photoinitiators. Chromatographic separation of two isomers, methylbenzophenone (MBP) and isopropylthioxanthone (ITX), was achieved using a pentafluorophenyl propyl (PFP) column (1.7 µm, 100 × 2.1 mm i.d.) and MeOH: 5 mM formic acid-ammonium formate (pH 4.0) in gradient elution. The average recovery of photoinitiators from cereal was between 62.0 and 120.3%, with a coefficient of variation between 0.4 and 14.4%. The average recovery of photoinitiators from packaged juices was between 84.4 and 122.9% with a coefficient of variation between 0.5 and 9.5%. The contamination results were as follows: 13.1 ng/g triphenyl phosphate (TPP) was detected in one breakfast cereal, and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzophenone (BP-3), 1-hydroxycyclohexyl phenyl-ketone (Irgacure 184), methyl-2-benzoylbenzoate (MOBB), and 2,4-diethyl-9H-thioxanthen-9-one (DETX) were detected in one of the packaged juices at levels ranging from 2.2 to 152.9 ng/g.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Tinta , Benzofenonas/análise , Desjejum , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Grão Comestível/normas , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/normas , Modelos Lineares , Fotoquímica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tioxantenos/análise , Xantonas/análise
18.
Biosci Rep ; 39(9)2019 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471531

RESUMO

Resistance to radiotherapy is one of the main causes of treatment failure in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is an important factor in the pathogenesis of NPC, and EBV-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) promote NPC progression. However, the role of EBV-encoded miRNAs in the radiosensitivity of NPC remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of EBV-miR-BART8-3p on radiotherapy resistance in NPC cells in vitro and in vivo, and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. Inhibitors of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)/ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) (KU60019 and AZD6738, respectively) were used to examine radiotherapy resistance. We proved that EBV-miR-BART8-3p promoted NPC cell proliferation in response to irradiation in vitro and associated with the induction of cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, which was a positive factor for the DNA repair after radiation treatment. Besides, EBV-miR-BART8-3p could increase the size of xenograft tumors significantly in nude mice. Treatment with KU60019 or AZD6738 increased the radiosensitivity of NPC by suppressing the expression of p-ATM and p-ATR. The present results indicate that EBV-miR-BART8-3p promotes radioresistance in NPC by modulating the activity of ATM/ATR signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/antagonistas & inibidores , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/radioterapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/radioterapia , Tolerância a Radiação/genética , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Proliferação de Células/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Reparo do DNA/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 4/metabolismo , Humanos , Indóis , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/genética , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/virologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/genética , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/virologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas , Sulfóxidos/farmacologia , Tioxantenos/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
19.
J Neurosci ; 39(32): 6378-6394, 2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189575

RESUMO

ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) is a PI3K-like kinase best known for its role in the DNA damage response (DDR), especially after double-strand breaks. Mutations in the ATM gene result in a condition known as ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) that is characterized by cancer predisposition, radiosensitivity, neurodegeneration, sterility, and acquired immune deficiency. We show here that the innate immune system is not spared in A-T. ATM-deficient microglia adopt an active phenotype that includes the overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines that are toxic to cultured neurons and likely contribute to A-T neurodegeneration. Causatively, ATM dysfunction results in the accumulation of DNA in the cytoplasm of microglia as well as a variety of other cell types. In microglia, cytoplasmic DNA primes an antiviral response via the DNA sensor, STING (stimulator of interferon genes). The importance of this response pathway is supported by our finding that inhibition of STING blocks the overproduction of neurotoxic cytokines. Cytosolic DNA also activates the AIM2 (absent in melanoma 2) containing inflammasome and induces proteolytic processing of cytokine precursors such as pro-IL-1ß. Our study furthers our understanding of neurodegeneration in A-T and highlights the role of cytosolic DNA in the innate immune response.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Conventionally, the immune deficiencies found in ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) patients are viewed as defects of the B and T cells of the acquired immune system. In this study, we demonstrate the microglia of the innate immune system are also affected and uncover the mechanism by which this occurs. Loss of ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) activity leads to a slowing of DNA repair and an accumulation of cytoplasmic fragments of genomic DNA. This ectopic DNA induces the antivirus response, which triggers the production of neurotoxic cytokines. This expands our understanding of the neurodegeneration found in A-T and offers potentially new therapeutic options.


Assuntos
Citocinas/biossíntese , Dano ao DNA , DNA/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Microglia/fisiologia , Animais , Apoptose , Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Ataxia Telangiectasia/imunologia , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/deficiência , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Córtex Cerebral/embriologia , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Citocinas/genética , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/fisiologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Tioxantenos/farmacologia , Transcriptoma
20.
Mol Cancer ; 18(1): 11, 2019 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MYCN amplification or N-Myc overexpression is found in approximately 40% NEPC and up to 20% CRPC patients. N-Myc has been demonstrated to drive disease progression and hormonal therapeutic resistance of NEPC/CRPC. Here, we aim to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the N-Myc-driven therapeutic resistance and provide new therapeutic targets for those N-Myc overexpressed NEPC/CRPC. METHODS: N-Myc overexpressing stable cell lines for LNCaP and C4-2 were generated by lentivirus infection. ADT-induced senescence was measured by SA-ß-gal staining in LNCaP cells in vitro and in LNCaP xenograft tumors in vivo. Migration, cell proliferation and colony formation assays were used to measure the cellular response after overexpressing N-Myc or perturbing the miR-421/ATM pathway. CRISPR-Cas9 was used to knock out ATM in C4-2 cells and MTS cell viability assay was used to evaluate the drug sensitivity of N-Myc overexpressing C4-2 cells in response to Enzalutamide and ATM inhibitor Ku60019 respectively or in combination. RESULTS: N-Myc overexpression suppressed ATM expression through upregulating miR-421 in LNCaP cells. This suppression alleviated the ADT-induced senescence in vitro and in vivo. Surprisingly, N-Myc overexpression upregulated ATM expression in C4-2 cells and this upregulation promoted migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells. Further, the N-Myc-induced ATM upregulation in C4-2 cells rendered the cells resistance to Enzalutamide, and inhibition of ATM by CRISPR-Cas9 knockout or ATM inhibitor Ku60019 re-sensitized them to Enzalutamide. CONCLUSIONS: N-Myc differentially regulating miR-421/ATM pathway contributes to ADT resistance and Enzalutamide resistance development respectively. Combination treatment with ATM inhibitor re-sensitizes N-Myc overexpressed CRPC cells to Enzalutamide. Our findings would offer a potential combination therapeutic strategy using ATM kinase inhibitor and Enzalutamide for the treatment of a subset of mCRPC with N-Myc overexpression that accounts for up to 20% CRPC patients.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/biossíntese , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Animais , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Benzamidas , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/genética , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/metabolismo , Nitrilas , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Feniltioidantoína/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Tioxantenos/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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