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1.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(3): 3313-3327, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although anxiety disorders are one of the most common mental illness in population, antianxiety drugs often only have single action targets, require long-term use, and are associated with many adverse reactions and dependencies. Professor Yan Zhaojun from Shandong Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has applied the modified Renshu Powder, a TCM formula, to treat anxiety disorders, with satisfactory outcomes. Here, we investigated the mechanism of action of two core herbs (prepared Rehmannia root and Chinese arborvitae kernel) in the Renshu Powder in the treatment of anxiety disorders by using network pharmacology approaches. METHODS: Candidate compounds of the herb pair of prepared Rehmannia root-Chinese arborvitae kernel were extracted via the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP) platform. The targets of action of the main compounds were collected using the SwissTargetPrediction database. Targets associated with anxiety disorders were retrieved from DisGeNET, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), DrugBank, GeneCards, and Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) databases. The compound-target interaction network was constructed by Cytoscape 3.7.2 software, and the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) platform. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses the data by using Metascape. RESULTS: The main active compounds of the herb pair included arachidonic acid, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol. The key targets included Nitric Oxide Synthase 3 (NOS3), Epidermal growth factor (EGF), Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 2 (PTGS2), Caspase 3 (CASP3), Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 (MAPK1), Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), RELA Proto-Oncogene, NF-KB Subunit (RELA), Estrogen Receptor 1 (ESR1), Solute Carrier Family 6 Member 4 (SLC6A4), and Phosphatase and Tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN). Anxiety disorder-related GO analysis mainly involved synaptic signaling, neurotransmitter receptor activity, and G protein-coupled neurotransmitter receptor activity. The KEGG pathways involved neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, serotonergic synapse, PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, and MAPK signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS: The mechanism of action of the prepared Rehmannia root-Chinese arborvitae kernel in treating anxiety disorders involves multiple ingredients, multiple targets, and pathways.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Rehmannia , Thuja , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina
2.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(9): 2935-2942, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345494

RESUMO

To evaluate the adaptability of the cyclic heating mode in the thermal diffusion probe method (TDP) in the measurement of trunk sap flow and the accuracy of the measurement of tree transpiration water consumption, we selected Platycladus orientalis as the research object and set three different heating modes: 60 min/0 min (continuous heating mode), 30 min/30 min (cyclic heating mode with 30 min heating and 30 min cooling), 10 min/50 min (cyclic heating mode with 10 min heating and 50 min cooling). Based on the measured value of the whole tree container wei-ghing method, the temperature gradient characteristics of different heating modes were analyzed using the measurement technology of thermal diffusive trunk sap flow. The Granier's corrected formulas of cyclic heating modes were constructed, with its error being analyzed by validity verification. The results showed that sap flow rate calculated by the cyclic heating mode was consistent with the diurnal variation of the transpiration rate measured by the whole tree weighing method. The temperature of cyclic heating mode could quickly rise, fall and performed stably. The sap flow calculated by Granier's original formula was 61.3% lower than that by weighing method. The corrected Granier formula in the mode of 10 min/50 min and 30 min/30 min were Fd=0.0177K0.9457 (R2=0.88) and Fd=0.0378K1.3146(R2=0.85), respectively. The difference of sap flow rate in P. orientalis by the new formula was smaller than that measured by the whole tree weighing method, and the error of transpiration rate calculated by the 10 min/50 min correction formula was the smallest, 5.9% lower than that calculated by the weighing method, and thus could express the real flow rate. The 10 min/50 min cyclic heating mode could be used to reduce the effect of natural temperature difference, cut down power consumption, and accurately reflect the actual sap flow rate of P. orientalis.


Assuntos
Transpiração Vegetal , Thuja , Calefação , Temperatura , Árvores , Água
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370999

RESUMO

Juvenile respiratory laryngeal papillomatosis is a subset of a larger clinical entity of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. It is characterised by the development of recurrent papillomata in the vocal folds. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 has been implicated to be the most common strain of virus associated with the formation of laryngeal papilloma. Clinical diagnosis is based on typical appearance of warty lesion on endoscopy. Surgery is the primary line of management along with adjuvant therapy like antiviral drugs and immunomodulators. Thuja occidentalis is a tree native to North America whose leaves and leaf oil have antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal properties. It has been widely used for the treatment of condylomatous skin lesions and warts. Here we discuss the outcome of thuja as an adjuvant therapy in the treatment of laryngeal papillomatosis in an 8-year-old child.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Laríngeas/terapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Papiloma/terapia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Thuja/química , Traqueostomia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Criança , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Neoplasias Laríngeas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Laríngeas/patologia , Laringoscopia , Laringe/diagnóstico por imagem , Laringe/patologia , Laringe/cirurgia , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Papiloma/diagnóstico , Papiloma/patologia , Reoperação , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 500, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plants are known to emit diverse volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which may function as signaling substances in plant communication with other organisms. Thuja occidentalis, which is widely cultivated throughout China, releases aromatic VOCs into the air in winter and early spring. The relationship of this cultivated plant with its neighboring plants is necessary for the conservation of biodiversity. RESULTS: (-)-α-thujone (60.34 ± 5.58%) was found to be the major component in VOCs from the Shenyang population. The essential oils (EOs) from the Kunming and Shenyang populations included the major components (-)-α-thujone, fenchone, (+)-ß-thujone, and (+)-hibaene, identified using GC-MS analyses. (-)-α-thujone and (+)-hibaene were purified and identified by NMR identification. EOs and (-)-α-thujone exhibited valuable phytotoxic activities against seed germination and seedling growth of the plants Taraxacum mongolicum and Arabidopsis thaliana. Moreover, the EOs displayed potent inhibitory activity against pathogenic fungi of maize, including Fusarium graminearum, Curvularia lunata, and Bipolaris maydis, as well as one human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans. Quantitative analyses revealed high concentrations of (-)-α-thujone in the leaves of T. occidentalis individuals from both the Shenyang and Kunming populations. However, (-)-α-thujone (0.18 ± 0.17 µg/g) was only detected in the rhizosphere soil to a distance of 0.5 m from the plant. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results suggest that the phytotoxic effects and antifungal activities of the EOs and (-)-α-thujone in T. occidentalis certainly increased the adaptability of this plant to the environment. Nevertheless, low concentrations of released (-)-α-thujone indicated that reasonable distance of T. occidentalis with other plant species will impair the effects of allelochemical of T. occidentalis.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Thuja/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/análise , China , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Folhas de Planta/química
5.
Molecules ; 25(22)2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228192

RESUMO

Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae) has its origins in Eastern North America and is cultivated in Europe and Brazil as an ornamental tree, being known as the "tree of life" or "white cedar". In traditional medicine, it is commonly used to treat liver diseases, bullous bronchitis, psoriasis, enuresis, amenorrhea, cystitis, uterine carcinomas, diarrhea, and rheumatism. The chemical constituents of T. occidentalis have been of research interest for decades, due to their contents of essential oil, coumarins, flavonoids, tannins, and proanthocyanidines. Pharmacology includes antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antiviral, protective activity of the gastrointestinal tract, radioprotection, antipyretic, and lipid metabolism regulatory activity. Therefore, the present review represents the synthesis of all the relevant information for T. occidentalis, its ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and a thorough analysis of their pharmacological activities, in order to promote all the biological activities shown so far, rather than the antitumor activity that has promoted it as a medicinal species.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Thuja/química , Animais , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 740: 139992, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927536

RESUMO

Mining activities at Duparquet in Western Quebec (Canada) have significantly affected the local environment and left behind significant amounts of metals. Monitoring this contamination is essential to infer its past and present impacts on environmental quality and to evaluate the resulting human exposure. In that context, we measured long time series of Pb concentrations and their corresponding stable isotope ratios in long-lived white cedars (Thuja occidentalis L.) growing at Duparquet Lake in order to evaluate potential time variations of the Pb environmental contamination as well as to identify the responsible source(s). Results show that before 1950, Pb at Duparquet is mostly terrigenous. Lead concentrations rapidly increase afterwards. A simultaneous shift to lower 206Pb/207Pb ratios identifies the smelting of Abitibi ores as the source of contamination. An isotope mass balance model evaluates at roughly 7.5-20%, 5-40%, 5-9% and <3% the Pb contributions from local smelters at distances of 3.6, 3.9, 7 and 9 km, respectively. The dispersion of the Pb contamination plume is possibly driven by the distance from the Beattie smelter. We finally estimated a delay of at least 13 years between atmospheric emissions from the Beattie smelting activities and the time they are recorded by tree rings. Ultimately, this study demonstrates that white cedar tree rings series provide reliable archives of past and present Pb atmospheric contamination.


Assuntos
Chumbo/análise , Thuja , Canadá , Monitoramento Ambiental , Isótopos/análise , Quebeque
7.
Plant Sci ; 298: 110576, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771138

RESUMO

A trapping-based gas liquid microextraction (GLME) method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was utilized to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize semiochemicals in plants. The main GLME extraction efficiency associated parameters (heating temperature and extraction time) were optimized. The results obtained from GLME process were compared with those of steam distillation and ultrasonic extraction, and the recovery, peak number and reproducibility were evaluated by using Thuja koraiensis Nakai as a representative plant. Furthermore, the quantitative performances of the GLME in terms of sample amount, recoveries of spiked standards and correlation were systematically evaluated using standard addition method, which gave a good quantitative ability for all the compounds with squares of correlation coefficient (r2) of higher than 0.99. Finally, the contents of α-pinene, camphene, linalool, α-terpinenol, ß-caryophyllene, α-caryophyllene, and totarol in Thuja koraiensis Nakai samples were quantified, and their concentrations (SD, n = 3) were; 0.65 (0.06), 0.62 (0.05), 4.12 (0.15), 0.99 (0.08), 1.11 (0.07), 0.63 (0.04), and 21.91 (0.25) µg g-1, respectively. It was demonstrated that GLME is a powerful sample preparation technique for quantitative and qualitative analysis of plant semiochemicals.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Feromônios/análise , Thuja/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/instrumentação , Microextração em Fase Líquida/instrumentação , Feromônios/química
8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 8426287, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32685531

RESUMO

Investigating the biogeographical disjunction of East Asian and North American flora is key to understanding the formation and dynamics of biodiversity in the Northern Hemisphere. The small Cupressaceae genus Thuja, comprising five species, exhibits a typical disjunct distribution in East Asia and North America. Owing to obscure relationships, the biogeographical history of the genus remains controversial. Here, complete plastomes were employed to investigate the plastome evolution, phylogenetic relationships, and biogeographic history of Thuja. All plastomes of Thuja share the same gene content arranged in the same order. The loss of an IR was evident in all Thuja plastomes, and the B-arrangement as previously recognized was detected. Phylogenomic analyses resolved two sister pairs, T. standishii-T. koraiensis and T. occidentalis-T. sutchuenensis, with T. plicata sister to T. occidentalis-T. sutchuenensis. Molecular dating and biogeographic results suggest the diversification of Thuja occurred in the Middle Miocene, and the ancestral area of extant species was located in northern East Asia. Incorporating the fossil record, we inferred that Thuja likely originated from the high-latitude areas of North America in the Paleocene with a second diversification center in northern East Asia. The current geographical distribution of Thuja was likely shaped by dispersal events attributed to the Bering Land Bridge in the Miocene and subsequent vicariance events accompanying climate cooling. The potential effect of extinction may have profound influence on the biogeographical history of Thuja.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Thuja/genética , Filogeografia
9.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 33(2): 627-630, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276908

RESUMO

The present research was carried out at the Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, KPK Pakistan. In this study crude methanolic extracts from Thuja occidentalis were tested for their antimicrobial activity against five different bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Xanthomonas sp. and Staphylococcus aureus) at two different concentrations (10 and 20 mg/ml) using disc diffusion assay. The results showed that Klebsiella pneumoniae was most sensitive to crude extracted sample from leaves at both low and high concentrations measuring 37 and 57% zone of inhibition respectively and Xanthomonas and Staphylococcus aureus was found to be more resistant to the crude extracted samples from leaves at both concentrations. Similarly, Klebsiella pneumoniae was most sensitive to crude extracted samples from seeds at high concentration followed by E. coli at both concentrations. Staphylococcus aureus on the other hand was found to be more resistant to the crude extracted samples at low and high concentrations. These results suggested that extracts prepared from the leaves and seeds of Thuja occidentalis can be used as natural remedy for the treatment of various bacterial infections.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Thuja , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/fisiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia
10.
Bioorg Chem ; 96: 103645, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036166

RESUMO

Eight new sesquiterpenes with diverse skeletons involving four cuparenes, denominated thujasutchins F-I (1-4), one eudesmane and one cedrol, named thujasutchin J (5) and thujasutchin K (6), as well as two thujopsenes thujasutchins L-M (7-8) together with three known congener compounds (9-11) were isolated from EtOAc soluble fraction of ethanolic extract of the stems and roots of Thuja sutchuenensis. Their structures including absolute configurations were unambiguously established by extensive interpretation of the NMR and mass spectroscopic data, X-ray diffractions, and ECD measurements powered by molecular calculations. The biological assays disclosed that 5 and 9 displayed potent inhibitory effect against Staphylococcus. aureus (CMCC 26003), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (JCSC 4744), Bacillus cereus (ATCC 10876), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228) with MICs ranging from 6.25 to 25 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/química , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Thuja/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Moleculares , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(6): 1817-1826, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494732

RESUMO

Plants could maintain growth by foliar water uptake and reverse sap flow under certain conditions, particularly in regions with seasonal drought. This physiological activity is often overlooked, however, leaving a gap in quantitatively understanding the processes and mechanisms underlying water utilization of forest vegetation under drought stress. In this study, with both field comparison experiments and pot experiments, we used heat ratio method with stable isotope technique to monitor a typical plantation tree species, Platycladus orientalis, in the Beijing mountainous area. We aimed to analyze the patterns and the influencing factors of the reverse sap flow occurrence in P. orientalis, to quantify the amount and the replenishment rate of reverse sap flow, and to examine the characteristics and processes of reverse sap flow at different parts of plants. In the field comparison experiment, reverse sap flow was detected at the breast height of stem and in the root in the controlled plot (drought plot) after rainfall. The reverse sap flow of root system was detected later than that in the stem. By contrast, no reverse sap flow was observed in the natural plot. In the pot experiments, the recharge rate of all the groups reached the peak value two hours after the rainfall treatment. Except for the groups of severe and moderate drought, recovery of δD to the original level was observed eight hours after rainfall, and the reverse sap flow on plants generally lasted no more than 24 h. The amount of foliar water uptake and the reverse sap flow to the branches and rhizosphere soil had a negative relationship with the initial soil moisture. The maximum recharge rates for leaves, branches, and rhizosphere soil were (9.5±0.1)%, (5.9±0.3)% and (5.7%±0.6)%, respectively. Different rates and timing of the reverse sap flow were observed at different parts of P. orientalis. Under complex and variable conditions of water supply, it is of great significance to examine the process and mechanism of reverse water movement of plants to better understand its survival and competitive strategies.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Thuja , Isótopos , Solo , Árvores
12.
São Paulo; s.n; 2020. 47 p.
Tese em Português | HomeoIndex - Homeopatia | ID: biblio-1123121

RESUMO

Relato de caso de uma paciente de 36 anos de idade, atendida em clínica particular, Itu-SP, diagnosticada com condiloma acuminado vulvar em maio de 2018. A paciente foi tratada inicialmente com imiquimode e ácido tricloroacético a 80% (ATA) sem melhora das manifestações clínicas, sendo posteriormente introduzido o medicamento homeopático Thuja occidentalis sem tratamento tópico concomitante, havendo completa remissão do quadro em 4 semanas. No segmento foi mantido o medicamento por mais 3 meses, tendo em vista o impacto positivo causado pela Thuja occidentalis, no quadro associado de miomatose uterina, também apresentado pela paciente.(AU)


Relato de caso de uma paciente de 36 anos de idade, atendida em clínica particular, Itu-SP, diagnosticada com condiloma acuminado vulvar em maio de 2018. A paciente foi tratada inicialmente com imiquimode e ácido tricloroacético a 80% (ATA) sem melhora das manifestações clínicas, sendo posteriormente introduzido o medicamento homeopático Thuja occidentalis sem tratamento tópico concomitante, havendo completa remissão do quadro em 4 semanas. No segmento foi mantido o medicamento por mais 3 meses, tendo em vista o impacto positivo causado pela Thuja occidentalis, no quadro associado de miomatose uterina, também apresentado pela paciente.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Condiloma Acuminado/terapia , Thuja , Homeopatia
13.
Molecules ; 24(24)2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847159

RESUMO

In this study, we determined the antimicrobial activity of ten essential oils (EOs)-oregano, thyme, clove, arborvitae, cassia, lemongrass, melaleuca, eucalyptus, lavender, and clary sage-against drug-resistant microorganisms previously isolated from patients with skin infections. The essential oil compositions were determined using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The assayed bacteria included Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Citrobacter koseri, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Two drug-resistant yeasts (Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis) were also involved in our survey. Oregano, thyme, cassia, lemongrass and arborvitae showed very strong antibacterial and antifungal activity against all tested strains. These results show that these essential oils may be effective in preventing the growth of the drug-resistant microorganisms responsible for wound infections. In this study, the genotoxic effects of tested essential oils on healthy human keratinocytes HaCaT were evaluated using the comet assay for the first time. These results revealed that none of the essential oils induced significant DNA damage in vitro after 24 h. Moreover, the treatment of HaCaT cells with essential oils increased the total antioxidant status (TAS) level. The obtained results indicate that EOs could be used as a potential source of safe and potent natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents in the pharmaceutical and food industries.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/microbiologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida parapsilosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Cassia/química , Linhagem Celular , Citrobacter koseri/efeitos dos fármacos , Cymbopogon/química , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Origanum/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteus vulgaris/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Thuja/química , Thymus (Planta)/química
14.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 694, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653222

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Design polymorphic microsatellite loci that will be useful for studies of the genetic diversity, gene-flow and reproduction in the Japanese endemic conifer Thuja standishii and test the transferability of these loci to the two other East Asian species, T. sutchuenensis and T. koraiensis. RESULTS: Fifteen loci were developed which displayed 3 to 21 alleles per locus (average = 9.2) among 97 samples from three populations of T. standishii. Observed heterozygosity for all samples varied between 0.33 and 0.75 (average = 0.54) while expected heterozygosity values were higher with an average over the 15 loci of 0.62 (0.37-0.91). Low multi-locus probability of identity values (< 0.00002) indicate that these markers will be effective for identifying individuals derived from clonal reproduction. All 15 loci amplified in 13 samples of T. sutchuenensis, the sister species of T. standishii, with 1 to 11 alleles per locus (average = 4.33) while 13 loci amplified in four samples of the more distantly related T. koraiensis with 1 to 5 alleles per locus (average = 2.15).


Assuntos
DNA de Plantas/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Thuja/genética , Traqueófitas/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Fluxo Gênico , Loci Gênicos , Genótipo , Humanos , Japão , Especificidade da Espécie , Thuja/classificação , Thuja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Traqueófitas/classificação , Traqueófitas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 247, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the current concern caused by drug resistant microorganisms, alternatives to traditional antimicrobials are increasingly necessary. Historical holistic treatments involving natural approaches are now of interest as a potential alternative. Many essential oils have antimicrobial properties with the ability to modify bacterial and fungal population dynamics in low concentrations. METHODS: In this study, bacterial and fungal growth in response to varying concentrations of arborvitae oil was assessed using spectrophotometric methods to obtain estimates of population growth parameters including carrying capacity (K) and intrinsic rate of growth (r). Estimates of these parameters were compared among doses within strains using general linear modeling. RESULTS: Results suggest the active component of the essential oil arborvitae is likely of hydrophilic nature and demonstrates the ability to influence both K and r during bacterial and fungal growth in a dose-dependent manner. Highly concentrated doses of arborvitae completely kill Escherichia coli and significantly inhibit Staphylococcus aureus, however these same doses have no effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Accordingly, microdoses of arborvitae demonstrated the ability to inhibit population growth parameters in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Specifically, K of E. coli, r of Candida auris, and both K and r of Candida albicans were significantly reduced in the presence of microdoses of arborvitae. CONCLUSIONS: Microdoses of essential oils have the ability to inhibit one or both population parameters in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Some microorganisms appear to be more susceptible to this essential oil arborvitae than other microorganisms. The use of essential oils, such as arborvitae, as novel antimicrobials may prove useful when contending with the current epidemic of multidrug resistant pathogens.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Thuja/química , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(16)2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398898

RESUMO

Platycladus orientalis (i.e., Chinese thuja) is famous for its lifespan spanning hundreds, and even thousands, of years. Most ancient P. orientalis populations are widely distributed in China, with accessible historical records, making them valuable genetic resources. In this study, the distribution pattern of ancient P. orientalis in China was analyzed based on 13 bioclimatic factors. Additionally, a specific-locus amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing method was applied to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genomes of 100 accessions from 13 populations. The resulting data revealed that the suitable areas for the distribution of ancient P. orientalis populations were accurately predicted with four main climatic factors. A total of 81,722 SNPs were identified from 461,867 SLAFs for 100 individuals, with an average sequencing depth of 10.11-fold and a Q30 value of 82.75%. The pair-wise genetic distance and genetic differentiation of 13 populations indicated that the BT-T population exhibited the largest divergence from the other populations. A neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree suggested the relationship between many individuals was inconsistent with the geographical location, possibly indicative of a history of transplantation and cultivation. All individuals were clustered into nine genotypes according to a structural analysis and the relationships between individuals were clarified in phylogenetic trees. This study highlights the importance of the de novo genome sequencing of ancient P. orientalis and may provide the basis for the conservation of P. orientalis genetic resources, the identification of supergene families, and the evaluation of related genetic resources.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Filogeografia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Thuja/classificação , Thuja/genética , China , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Planta , Genômica/métodos , Geografia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Curva ROC , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Mycologia ; 111(5): 703-718, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348726

RESUMO

Timber durability is often assessed using small wood stakes exposed in direct soil contact, and the assessment generally emphasizes effects on wood rather than organisms involved. Understanding fungal colonization patterns can help identify key decay agents under varying conditions and use these patterns to improve wood protection strategies. Fungal colonization of red alder (Alnus rubra), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) heartwood/sapwood, and western redcedar (Thuja plicata) field stakes was assessed over 2 y in western Oregon. Spatiotemporal fungal community variations were identified via culturing and DNA sequencing, where 814 isolates were identified from 84 stakes. Forty-six ascomycete genera were identified, with Phialophora, Trichoderma, and Epicoccum species occurring most frequently. Twenty-three basidiomycete genera were identified, with Trametes and Phanerochaete being the most common. Douglas-fir and western redcedar stakes contained the highest and lowest diversity levels, respectively, reflecting natural durability differences of these species. Fungal species abundance was higher below ground than in the above ground and groundline zones, likely reflecting more stable moisture regimes, proximity to soil-based fungi, and potential nutrient migration into wood beneath the soil surface. Ascomycetes were proportionally more abundant early in the exposure period, but basidiomycetes were also observed early in the process, and there appeared to be no consistent colonization pattern.


Assuntos
Alnus/microbiologia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Micobioma , Pseudotsuga/microbiologia , Thuja/microbiologia , Madeira/microbiologia , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Técnicas Microbiológicas , Oregon , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise Espaço-Temporal
18.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 35(10): 1711-1719, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074674

RESUMO

Background: The unique extract of a mixture of Baptisiae tinctoriae radix, Echinaceae pallidae/purpureae radix and Thujae occidentalis herba alleviates the typical symptoms of the common cold and shortens the duration of the disease. Purpose: The risk-benefit ratio of a concentrated formulation of this herbal extract was investigated under everyday conditions. Study design: Pharmacy-based, non-interventional, multicenter, open, uncontrolled study registered at DRKS00011068. Methods: For 10 days, patients completed a diary questionnaire rating the severity of each common cold symptom on a 10-point scale. For evaluation, symptoms were combined into the scores "overall severity", "rhinitis", "bronchitis" and "general symptoms". Cox models were used to evaluate the influence of covariates on the time of stable improvement. Results: In total 955 patients (12 to 90 years) were analyzed; 85% assessed the efficacy as good or very good. Response (improvement of the overall severity by at least 50%) was reached at median day 5 (95% CImedian 5-5). General symptoms abated faster than the other complaints. The percentage of predominantly moderate or severe symptoms to predominantly mild or absent symptoms reversed on day 3.9 (interpolation). Results of adolescents and adults did not differ (p = .6013; HR = 0.918). Concomitant medication did not boost the effect of the herbal remedy. Early start of treatment of the cold accelerated the recovery (p = .0486; HR = 0.814). Thirty-four cases of adverse events were self-recorded in the diaries; none of them were serious. The tolerability was assessed as "good or very good" by 98% of the patients. Conclusion: The benefit-risk assessment of this herbal extract clearly remains positive. This non-interventional study accords with and shows transferability of the results of previous placebo-controlled studies with this extract in a real-life setting.


Assuntos
Resfriado Comum/tratamento farmacológico , Echinacea , Fabaceae , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Medição de Risco , Thuja , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Adulto Jovem
19.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(5): 1563-1570, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107012

RESUMO

Thuja koraiensis, a second-class nationally protected plant species, is a unique endangered tree species in Changbai Mountain, with important economic and ornamental value. In this study, the age structure, static life table, and survival function of T. koraiensis were established by using individual root diameter and age data based on investigation of wild resources in the main distribution areas of T. koraiensis. The population development trend was predicted by dynamic index and time series analysis. The results showed that the age-class structure of T. koraiensis population was in the shape of "∩", which was a decline type. The survival curve of T. koraiensis population under the dark coniferous forest was the Deevey-3 type, and was Deevey-2 type in pure forest community. Population survival analysis showed that the survival function of T. koraiensis appeared irregular fluctuation under the dark coniferous forest. The population distribution showed dynamic features of sharp drop in early age period, stable in middle age period, and decline in old age pe-riod. In the pure forest community, the dynamic pattern was characterized by the stability in early age period, growth in middle age period, and recession in old age period. Dynamic index and time series analysis showed that the decline rate of dark coniferous forest community was slightly higher than that of pure forest community. Our results showed that T. koraiensis had some recovery ability and that artificial tending should be used to promote its normal regeneration.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Pinus , Thuja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florestas , Dinâmica Populacional , Árvores
20.
Food Funct ; 10(5): 2691-2700, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026007

RESUMO

ß-Thujaplicin, a natural monoterpenoid, has been demonstrated to exert health beneficial activities in chronic diseases. However, it has not been studied in regulating estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer. Here, we investigated the effect of ß-thujaplicin on inhibiting ER-negative basal-like breast cancer and the underlying mechanism of action using an in vitro and in vivo xenograft animal model. ß-Thujaplicin induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and regulated cell cycle mediators, cyclin D1, cyclin E, and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK 4), leading to the inhibition of the proliferation of ER-negative basal-like MCF10DCIS.com human breast cancer cells. It also modulated the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3ß) and the protein level of ß-catenin. In an MCF10DCIS.com xenograft animal model, ß-thujaplicin significantly inhibited tumor growth, reduced tumor weight, and regulated the expression of cell cycle proteins, phosphorylation of AKT and GSK-3ß, and protein level of ß-catenin in the tumor tissues. These results demonstrate that ß-thujaplicin can suppress basal-like mammary tumor growth by regulating GSK-3ß/ß-catenin signaling, suggesting that ß-thujaplicin may be a potent chemopreventive agent against the basal-like subtype of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/administração & dosagem , Tropolona/análogos & derivados , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/fisiopatologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Chamaecyparis/química , Ciclina D1/genética , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Feminino , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Thuja/química , Tropolona/administração & dosagem , beta Catenina/genética
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