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1.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 76(1)2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36688786

RESUMO

Essential oils (EOs) and their components extracted from medicinal and aromatic plants are used in several areas, such as perfumery and chemical, cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Considering the different applications of EOs, this work aimed to screen the composition and the bioactivities properties of the EOs of Foeniculum vulgare, Helichrysum stoechas, Mentha pulegium, Pinus pinaster, Ruta graveolens, and Thymus mastichina. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of different compounds in EOs F. vulgare (12), H. stoechas (27), M. pulegium (8), P. pinaster (24), R. graveolens (8), and T. mastichina (16). All the EOs showed antioxidant activity acting through inhibition of lipid peroxidation, while only two EOs (H. stoechas and M. pulegium) scavenged the free radicals of DPPH. Mentha pulegium and T. mastichina EOs showed the strongest antimicrobial activity. Also, the effect on the fibroblast's viability was directly proportional to the EOs concentration, and the highest cytotoxic effect was registered with R. graveolens EO. The present study revealed significant bioactive properties of different EOs, highlighting M. pulegium and T. mastichina EOs to be considered in further studies for potential use in the food and pharmaceutical industries, due to their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Óleos Voláteis , Thymus (Planta) , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Thymus (Planta)/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
2.
Food Funct ; 14(2): 1113-1132, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36594593

RESUMO

Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) is an important medicinal and edible homologous plant, and the composition and bioactivity of its polyphenol extracts have attracted widespread attention from researchers. In this study, the polyphenols in thyme were separated and identified by UPLC/MS-MS and UPLC-DAD, and the intervention effect and mechanism of thyme polyphenols (TP) on ulcerative colitis (UC) were analyzed in combination with dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS)-induced mice colitis model. It was found that the main substances of TP were scutellarin (160.68 ± 2.09 mg g-1), rosmarinic acid (80.33 ± 1.74 mg g-1), scutellarein (56.53 ± 1.32 mg g-1), apigenin-7-O-glucuronide (21.06 ± 0.68 mg g-1), gallic acid (13.80 ± 0.73 mg g-1), and ferulic acid (12.00 ± 0.20 mg g-1). TP and sulfasalazine, which were respectively supplemented to these experimental mice at 200 mg per kg bw and 100 mg per kg bw, showed similar effects on alleviating intestinal inflammation, as indicated by the consistency of the decreased NLRP3 and TLR4 proteins and inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in NF-κB inflammatory signaling pathway. Furthermore, the treatment with TP at doses of 200 and 400 mg per kg bw both effectively upregulated tight junction protein expression and enhanced intestinal epithelial cell integrity. Consistently, the abundany of probiotics including Blautia, Bacteroides, Romboutsia, and Faecalibaculum associated with the synthesis of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were elevated, whereas harmful bacteria including Escherichia Shigella, Muribaculum, and Clostridium sensu stricto 1 associated with the inflammatory process were significantly inhibited. Notably, TP supplemented at the dose of 100 mg per kg bw showed weak mitigated effects on the above symptoms, while the other two TP experimental groups showed similar promising therapeutic potential, suggesting that such beneficial effects required a certain dose of TP to be achieved. These results indicated that TP could suppress the TLR4/NLRP3-NF-κB inflammasome pathways, protect the intestinal epithelial barrier, and remodel the disordered gut microbiota, which suggested that TP might be a promising dietary strategy for UC.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Colite , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Thymus (Planta) , Animais , Camundongos , NF-kappa B , Inflamassomos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Cloreto de Sódio , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Sulfato de Dextrana , Colo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais de Doenças
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36675206

RESUMO

Natural products used for their health-promoting properties have accompanied the evolution of humanity. Nowadays, as an effort to scientifically validate the health-promoting effects described by traditional medicine, an ever-growing number of bioactivities are being described for natural products and the phytochemicals that constitute them. Among them, medicinal plants and more specifically the Thymus genus spp., arise as products already present in the diet and with high acceptance, that are a source of phytochemicals with high pharmacological value. Phenolic acids, flavonoid glycoside derivatives, and terpenoids from Thymus spp. have been described for their ability to modulate cell death and survival pathways, much-valued bioactivities in the pharmaceutical industry, that continually sought-after new formulations to prevent undesired cell death or to control cell proliferation. Among these, wound treatment, protection from endogenous/exogenous toxic molecules, or the induction of selective cell death, such as the search for new anti-tumoral agents, arise as main objectives. This review summarizes and discusses studies on Thymus spp., as well as on compounds present in their extracts, with regard to their health-promoting effects involving the modulation of cell death or survival signaling pathways. In addition, studies regarding the main bioactive molecules and their cellular molecular targets were also reviewed. Concerning cell survival and proliferation, Thymus spp. present themselves as an option for new formulations designed for wound healing and protection against chemicals-induced toxicity. However, Thymus spp. extracts and some of their compounds regulate cell death, presenting anti-tumoral activity. Therefore Thymus spp. is a rich source of compounds with nutraceutical and pharmaceutical value.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Thymus (Planta) , Fitoterapia , Medicina Tradicional , Extratos Vegetais/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Morte Celular
4.
Food Res Int ; 163: 112213, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596143

RESUMO

Essential oils (EOs) are natural and effective agents for controlling microorganisms which cause biodeterioration and disease. However, their application is hampered/restricted due to hydrophobicity and rapid vaporization of these compounds. Encapsulation technology provides an effective approach to maintain EO stabilization and prevent the loss of volatile ingredients. Meanwhile, using a synthetic surfactant is seen as counter-productive; therefore, a natural biosurfactant is more reasonable and can potentially increase activity due to its other biological proprieties. This work aims to evaluate the mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL) biosurfactant combined with Thymus vulgaris, Lippia sidoides, and Cymbopogon citratus essential oil emulsions (O/W) and evaluate its antimicrobial and antioxidant capacity. The biosurfactant MEL demonstrated activity against Bacillus subtilis and Penicillium sp. After emulsification, the antimicrobial activity of Thymus vulgaris and Lippia sidoides was increased against Escherichia coli (500 µg/mL), Staphylococcus aureus (600 µg/mL), Bacillus subtilis (120 µg/mL), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1500 µg/mL), Penicillium sp. (62.25 µg/mL), Aspergillus flavus (250 µg/mL), Fusarium oxysporum (100 and 250 µg/mL), and Candida albicans (125 and 250 µg/mL). We report that emulsions prepared with MEL have high inhibitory activity, maintain the active concentration, and increase antioxidant capacity by 7.33% (Thymus vulgaris), 13.71% (Lippia sidoides), and 3.15% (Cymbopogon citratus).


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Cymbopogon , Lippia , Óleos Voláteis , Thymus (Planta) , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Emulsões , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 23(1): 13, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thyme derived essential oil and its components have numerous applications in pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries, owing to their antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties. To obtain thyme essential oil with different terpene composition, we developed new germplasm resources using the conventional hybridization approach. RESULTS: Phenotypic characteristics, including essential oil yield and composition, glandular trichome density, plant type, and fertility, of three wild Chinese and seven European thyme species were evaluated. Male-sterile and male-fertile thyme species were crossed in different combinations, and two F1 populations derived from Thymus longicaulis (Tl) × T. vulgaris 'Fragrantissimus' (Tvf) and T. vulgaris 'Elsbeth' (Tve) × T. quinquecostatus (Tq) crosses were selected, with essential oil yield and terpene content as the main breeding goals. Simultaneously, simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers were developed based on the whole-genome sequence of T. quinquecostatus to authenticate the F1 hybrids. A total of 300 primer pairs were selected, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out on the parents of the two hybrid populations (Tl, Tvf, Tve, and Tq). Based on the chemotype of the parents and their F1 progenies, we examined the expression of genes encoding two γ-terpinene synthases, one α-terpineol synthase, and maybe one geraniol synthase in all genotypes by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). CONCLUSION: We used hybridization to create new germplasm resources of thyme, developed SSR markers based on the whole-genome sequence of T. quinquecostatus, and screened the expression of monoterpene synthase genes in thyme. The results of this study provide a strong foundation for the creation of new germplasm resources, construction of the genetic linkage maps, and identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), and help gain insight into the mechanism of monoterpenoids biosynthesis in thyme.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis , Thymus (Planta) , Thymus (Planta)/genética , Thymus (Planta)/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Timol/metabolismo , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244675, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339348

RESUMO

Abstract Several species of thymus have therapeutic properties, so they are used in traditional medicine. In this work was carried out to synthesize Thymus vulgalis silver nanoparticles (TSNPS) and evaluate antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of TSNPS and T. vulgalis essential oil extract (TEOE). The essential oils analyzed by GC-MS and were characterized. Major compounds of phenol, 2 methyl 5 (1 methylethyle) (CAS), thymol and 1,2 Benzene dicarboxylic acid, 3 nitro (CAS) (48.75%, 32.42% and 8.12%, respectively) were detected. Results demonstrated that the TSNPS gave a highest DPPH radical scavenging activity, it was obtained 97.2 at 1000 ug/ml. TSNPS, Thymus + Hexane (T+H), Thymus + Ethanol (T+E) gave the greatest antimicrobial activity than amoxicillin (AM) and ciprofloxacin (CIP). In conclusion: The essential oil of thymus (Vulgaris) and thymus (Vulgaris) silver nanoparticles can be a good source of natural preservatives as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for increasing the shelf life of foodstuffs.


Resumo Diversas espécies de timo possuem propriedades terapêuticas, por isso são utilizadas na medicina tradicional. Neste trabalho foi realizado para sintetizar nanopartículas de prata Thymus vulgalis (TSNPS) e avaliar as atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana de TSNPS e extrato de óleo essencial de T. vulgalis (TEOE). Os óleos essenciais analisados por GC-MS e foram caracterizados. Os principais compostos de fenol, 2 metil 5 (1 metiletilo) (CAS), timol e ácido 1,2 Benzenodicarboxílico, 3 nitro (CAS) (48,75%, 32,42% e 8,12%, respectivamente) foram detectados. Os resultados demonstraram que o TSNPS deu uma maior atividade de eliminação do radical DPPH , foi obtido 97,2 a 1000 ug / ml. TSNPS, Timo + Hexano (T + H), Timo + Etanol (T + E) deu a maior atividade antimicrobiana do que amoxicilina (AM) e ciprofloxacina (CIP). Em conclusão: O óleo essencial de nanopartículas de prata do timo (Vulgaris) e do timo (Vulgaris) pode ser uma boa fonte de conservantes naturais como agentes antioxidantes e antimicrobianos para aumentar a vida útil de alimentos.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Thymus (Planta) , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Prata , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 227: 405-415, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36563800

RESUMO

In this study, thyme essential oil (TEO) nanoemulsion was immobilized within composite films based on almond gum (AG), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and chitosan (CS). The physical, mechanical, water barrier, microstructural and antimicrobial properties of composite films were assessed. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the intermolecular interactions in the composite film matrix. The results indicated that the incorporation of TEO into the composite films increased thickness, moisture content, and water vapor permeability, while it reduced light transmittance and transparency value. The antimicrobial activity of films against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria was tested using a disc diffusion method. The effect of composite on the microbiological properties of chicken breast fillets was investigated during refrigerated storage for 21 days. The microbial populations of total mesophilic, psychrotrophic, and lactic acid bacteria of the samples that were coated with the composite containing TEO were lower than the permitted limit after 21 days while for blank samples they were higher than 7 log CFU/g after 7 days which is considered as the maximum acceptable total count limit. Results disclosed that AG/PVA/CS composite films containing TEO nanoemulsion can be applied as eco-friendly active food packaging to enhance the shelf-life of food products.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Quitosana , Óleos Voláteis , Prunus dulcis , Thymus (Planta) , Animais , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Thymus (Planta)/química , Álcool de Polivinil/química , Quitosana/farmacologia , Quitosana/química , Galinhas , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos
8.
Food Chem ; 407: 135123, 2023 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36493482

RESUMO

The metabolic composition of thyme, one of the most used aromatic herbs, is influenced by environmental and post-harvest processing factors, presenting the possibility of exploiting thyme fingerprint to assess its authenticity. In this study, a comprehensive UHPLC-QTOF-HRMS fingerprinting approach was applied with a dual objective: (1) tracing thyme from three regions of production (Spain, Morocco, and Poland) and (2) evaluating the metabolic differences in response to processing, considering sterilized thyme samples. Multivariate statistics reveal 37 and 33 key origin and processing differentiation compounds, respectively. The findings highlighted the remarkable "terroir" influence on thyme fingerprint, noticing flavonoids, amino acids, and peptides among the most discriminant chemical classes. Thyme sterilization led to an overall metabolite enrichment, most likely due to the facilitated compound accessibility as a result of processing. The findings provide a comprehensive metabolomics insight into the origin and processing effect on thyme composition for product traceability and quality assessment.


Assuntos
Thymus (Planta) , Análise Discriminante , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Quimiometria , Metabolômica
9.
Food Res Int ; 162(Pt B): 112081, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36461395

RESUMO

Thyme is one of Europe's most consumed aromatic herbs and represents a matrix susceptible to intentional mislabelling and food frauds. In this study, a phenolic profiling approach based on UHPLC-QTOF-HRMS untargeted metabolomics was used to trace its geographical origin, as well as to assess the effect of post-harvest processing by comparing sterilized vs non-sterilized thyme. Both unsupervised and supervised statistics led to reliable sample clustering, high-quality model parameters, as well as the identification of a total of 45 differential compounds (markers) for discrimination purposes. The phenolic signature was markedly affected by environmental conditions related to the region of production, leading to an overall higher abundance of flavonoids in Moroccan thyme (from Fez), flavanols in Polish one (from Lublin), and tyrosols and other phenolics in thyme cultivated in Spain (from Castilla-La Mancha). The processing was also shown to play an important role in phenolic profiling, noticing not only the decrease of thermolabile phenolics (such as flavonoids) but also the enhancement of other phenolic subfamilies in response to sterilization. This study opens the path to novel metabolomics-based strategies to support the integrity of thyme and possibly other spices, scarcely studied so far.


Assuntos
Thymus (Planta) , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Metabolômica , Biomarcadores , Fenóis , Flavonoides , Especiarias
10.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 188: 105220, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36464385

RESUMO

Extensive usage of synthetic pesticides has proved to be destructive to all living being and the resurgence of pest resistance. Compounds derived from certain plants are usually safer compared to chemical control of pest. The present study thus intended to use Thymus vulgaris essential oil (EO) and two of its derivatives including thymol and carvacrol in order to see their deleterious effects on Glyphodes pyloalis (Walker). We also studied the oil components. This pest has recently become a serious concern for the silk industry. Our results showed that the thyme EO contain several components including thymol (26.9%), ρ-Cymene (14.54%), linalool (13.39%) and carvacrol (5.7%). Our toxicity tests revealed an estimated LD50 values for thyme EO, thymol and carvacrol 2.82, 32.18 and 56.54 µg/larva, respectively. However, the thyme EO was more toxic than its two tested compounds. The activity of certain detoxifying enzymes such as α- and ß-esterase, glutathione S-transferase and cytochrome P450 were significantly inhibited by thymol-treated larvae compared to the control group. Similarly, the activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatases enzymes in thymol-treated larvae decreased while the activity of acid phosphatases increased. Our results suggest that thyme EO and its components have potential for the control of G. pyloalis larvae in mulberry orchards, where no synthetic chemicals are allowed.


Assuntos
Morus , Óleos Voláteis , Thymus (Planta) , Animais , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Timol/toxicidade , Larva , Fosfatase Alcalina
11.
Molecules ; 27(24)2022 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36558163

RESUMO

In this study, the methanolic and infusion extracts of two species, Thymbra capitata and Thymus sipyleus subsp. rosulans, were tested for their chemical composition and biological abilities (antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory and anti-inflammatory effects). The extracts yielded total phenolic and flavonoid contents in the range of 83.43-127.52 mg GAE/g and 9.41-46.34 mg RE/g, respectively. HPLC analysis revealed rosmarinic acid to be a major component of the studied extracts (15.85-26.43%). The best ABTS radical scavenging ability was observed in the methanol extract of T. capitata with 379.11 mg TE/g, followed by in the methanol extract of T. sipylus (360.93 mg TE/g). In the CUPRAC assay, the highest reducing ability was also found in the methanol extract of T. capitata with 802.22 mg TE/g. The phosphomolybdenum ability ranged from 2.39 to 3.61 mmol TE/g. In terms of tyrosinase inhibitory effects, the tested methanol extracts (83.18-89.66 mg KAE/g) were higher than the tested water extracts (18.74-19.11 mg KAE/g). Regarding the BChE inhibitory effects, the methanol extracts were active on the enzyme while the water extracts showed no inhibitory effect on it. Overall, the methanolic extracts showed better enzyme inhibition compared to the infusion extracts. Molecular docking also showed the selected exhibited potential binding affinities with all enzymes, with a preference for cholinesterases. Additionally, the extracts were effective in attenuating the LPS-induced increase in COX-2 and IL-6 gene expression in isolated colon, thus indicating promising anti-inflammatory effects. The preliminary results of this study suggest that these species are good natural sources of antioxidants and also provide some scope as enzyme inhibitors, most likely due to their bioactive contents such as phenolic acids, and thus can be exploited for different applications related to health promotion and disease prevention.


Assuntos
Lamiaceae , Thymus (Planta) , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Metanol/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/química , Água , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia
12.
Molecules ; 27(24)2022 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36557924

RESUMO

During the last decade there has been growing interest in the formulation of new cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical products containing natural compounds with antioxidant activity and other beneficial properties. Aromatic and medicinal plants have always been the major source of bioactive compounds, especially, wild thyme (Thymbra capitata L.), which has been used since ancient times for its valuable health benefits that could be attributed to the richness of polyphenolic compounds. This study was undertaken with the following aims: to estimate the total polyphenolic content (TPC); to evaluate the antioxidant activity; to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds of post-distilled residues of Tunisian thyme, and their contribution to the antioxidant activity. The TPC, as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, was found to reach the values of 126.7 and 107.84 mg gallic acid equivalent/g plant dry weight (mg GAE/g PDW). The antioxidant activity, which is assessed by DPPH and FRAP assays, reached the values of 42.97-45.64 µg/mL and 42.22-50.21 mMFe2+/mg PDW, respectively. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of fourteen polyphenolic compounds, of which diosmin and rosmarinic acid were found to be the most abundant (24.26 to 33.80 and 22.0.1 to 26.29 mg/g PDW, respectively). An important correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and several identified phenolic compounds (p < 0.05). The findings revealed that thyme post-distilled residues have an effective natural antioxidant potential due to their high concentration of bioactive molecules, and they appear to be useful in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries, with beneficial effects on human health. Therefore, supplementing a balanced diet with herbs may have beneficial health effects.


Assuntos
Lamiaceae , Plantas Medicinais , Thymus (Planta) , Humanos , Antioxidantes/química , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ácido Gálico/análise , Plantas Medicinais/química , Lamiaceae/química
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36554850

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to validate the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and preventive potential against benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)-induced DNA damage of nine samples of thyme and chestnut honeys enriched with bee products (royal jelly and propolis, 2-10%). Cell viability was determined by the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay (0-250 mg/mL) to select nontoxic concentrations, and DNA damage (0.1-10 µg/mL) was evaluated by the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis or comet assay. Treatment with honey samples or royal jelly and propolis did not affect the viability of HepG2 cells up to 100 and 50 mg/mL, respectively. Treatment with 100 µM BaP significantly increased (p ≤ 0.001) the levels of the DNA strand breaks. None of the tested concentrations (0.1-10 µg/mL) of the honey samples (thyme and chestnut), royal jelly, and propolis caused DNA damage per se. All tested samples at all the concentrations used decreased the genotoxic effect of BaP. In addition, all mixtures of thyme or chestnut honeys with royal jelly or propolis showed a greater protective effect against BaP than the samples alone, being the thyme and chestnut honey samples enriched with 10% royal jelly and 10% propolis the most effective (70.4% and 69.4%, respectively). The observed protective effect may be associated with the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the studied samples. In conclusion, the thyme and chestnut honey samples enriched with bee products present potential as natural chemoprotective agents against the chemical carcinogen BaP.


Assuntos
Mel , Própole , Thymus (Planta) , Mel/análise , Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Própole/farmacologia , Dano ao DNA
14.
Molecules ; 27(23)2022 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36500601

RESUMO

Medicinal plants have played an essential role in the treatment of various diseases. Thymus vulgaris, a medicinal plant, has been extensively used for biological and pharmaceutical potential. The current study was performed to check the biopotential of active biological compounds. The GC-MS analysis identified 31 compounds in methanolic crude extract, among which thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene, and eugenol are the main phytoconstituents present in T. vulgaris. The HPLC analysis quantified that flavonoids and phenolic acids are present in a good concentration in the active fraction of ethyl acetate and n-butanol. FTIR confirmed the presence of functional groups such as phenols, a carboxylic group, hydroxy group, alcohols, and a benzene ring. Among both fractions, ethyl acetate showed high antioxidant activity in the DPPH (84.1 0.88) and ABTS (87.1 0.89) assays, respectively. The anti-inflammatory activity of the fractions was done in vitro and in vivo by using a carrageenan-induced paw edema assay, while the hexane-based extract showed high anti-inflammatory activity (57.1 0.54) in a dose-response manner. Furthermore, the lead compound responsible for inhibition in the denaturation of proteins is thymol, which exhibits the highest binding affinity with COX1 (-6.4 KJ/mol) and COX2 (-6.3 KJ/mol) inflammatory proteins. The hepatotoxicity analysis showed that plant-based phytoconstituents are safe to use and have no toxicity, with no necrosis, fibrosis, and vacuolar degeneration, even at a high concentration of 800 mg/kg body weight. Furthermore, the in silico analysis of HPLC phytochemical compounds against gastric cancer genes showed that chlorogenic acid exhibited anticancer activity and showed good drug-designing characteristics. Thrombolysis and hemolysis are the major concerns of individuals suffering from gastric cancer. However, the T. vulgaris fractions showed thrombolysis from 17.6 to 5.4%; similarly, hemolysis ranged from 9.73 to 7.1% at a concentration of 12 mg/mL. The phytoconstituents present in T. vulgaris have the potential for multiple pharmacological applications. This should be further investigated to isolate bioactive compounds that can be used for the treatment of different ailments.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Neoplasias Gástricas , Thymus (Planta) , Humanos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2
15.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364030

RESUMO

The genus Thymus (Lamiaceae) contains numerous medicinally important species. Among them, Thymus quinquecostatus Celak. has been extensively utilized as a traditional medicine and a food flavoring agent in the Korean peninsula, owing to its unique aroma. In particular, T. quinquecostatus has been used for the treatment of gastroenteritis, inflammation, stomach problems, liver disease, arthritis, arteriosclerosis, and menstrual problems. This study aimed to investigate the chemical diversity of essential oils among 103 Korean native populations of T. quinquecostatus. For this purpose, seedlings of T. quinquecostatus populations were purchased from different regions in the Korean Peninsula, and seedlings were grown in the experimental field under the same environmental conditions. The chemical compositions of steam-distilled essential oils were determined using GC-MS. In total, 212 components were identified from 103 populations of T. quinquecostatus. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed in order to understand variations in the essential oil compositions among 103 Korean native populations of T. quinquecostatus. According to the essential oil compositions, 30 components were selected for PCA. Based on the most abundant essential oil components, four chemotypes were identified in T. quinquecostatus populations. PCA and cluster analyses revealed that 103 individuals of T. quinquecostatus could be classified into four clusters, such as thymol, geraniol, geranyl acetate, and linalool. Furthermore, dendrogram construction demonstrated that geraniol and geranyl acetate, as well as linalool and thymol groups, were closely related. This study suggested the significant chemical polymorphism of essential oils in local populations of T. quinquecostatus in Korea. It could be concluded that the intraspecific variations in the essential oil compositions may be associated with genetic diversity among the individuals.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis , Thymus (Planta) , Humanos , Thymus (Planta)/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Timol/química
16.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364161

RESUMO

This manuscript aimed to optimise the encapsulation of Thymus capitatus essential oil into nanoemulsion. Response Surface Methodology results were best fitted into polynomial models with regression coefficient values of more than 0.95. The optimal nanoemulsion showed nanometer-sized droplets (380 nm), a polydispersity index less than 0.5, and a suitable Zeta potential (-10.3 mV). Stability results showed that nanoemulsions stored at 4 °C were stable with the lowest d3,2, PolyDispersity Index (PDI), and pH (day 11). Significant ameliorations in the capacity to neutralise DPPH radical after the encapsulation of the antimicrobial efficacy of thyme essential oil were recorded. S. typhimurium growth inhibition generated by nanoencapsulated thyme essential oil was 17 times higher than by bulk essential oil. The sensory analysis highlighted that the encapsulation of thyme essential oil improved enriched milk's sensory appreciation. Indeed, 20% of the total population attributed a score of 4 and 5 on the scale used for milk enriched with nanoemulsion. In comparison, only 11% attributed the same score to milk enriched with bulk essential oil. The novel nanometric delivery system presents significant interest for agroalimentary industries.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Óleos Voláteis , Thymus (Planta) , Animais , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Emulsões , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Leite/microbiologia
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 2988334, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36337844

RESUMO

Liver damage occurs following renal ischemia-reperfusion (RIR) that can cause inflammation and inflammatory cytokines activated after kidney injury. In this study, thyme essential oil (TE) with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties was used to reduce liver damage induced by renal IR. 32 male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups: (1) control, (2) RIR, (3) RIR+TE, and (4) TE. Rats received TE as a pretreatment at a dose of 0.5 ml/kg for one week. Then, under anesthesia for 45 minutes for ischemia, the kidneys of the animals were closed with clamps, and reperfusion was performed for 24 hours. Animal serum was isolated to evaluate alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) parameters. The liver of rats was examined for the measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), and expression of genes such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and caspase-3. ALP, AST, ALT, MDA, NO, IL-6, TNF-α, and caspase-3 increased significantly in the RIR group compared to the control group (p < 0.05). GSH, GPX, and CAT decreased significantly in the RIR group compared to the control group (p < 0.05). TE caused a decrease in ALP, AST, ALT, MDA, NO, IL-6, and TNF-α compared to the RIR group and caused an increase in the amount of GSH, GPX, and CAT in the RIR group (p < 0.05). This study showed that TE has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that reduce liver damage induced by RIR.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias , Óleos Voláteis , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Thymus (Planta) , Ratos , Animais , Masculino , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/patologia , Isquemia/patologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Reperfusão , Estresse Oxidativo
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16923, 2022 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36209294

RESUMO

In the present study, chitosan (CH) based biodegradable films were developed enriched with thyme essential oil (TEO) incorporated with different additives including zinc oxide (ZnO), polyethylene glycol (PEG), nano clay (NC), and calcium chloride (CaCl2) and characterize the postharvest quality of 'collard greens' during refrigerated storage. The results indicated that the incorporation of ZnO/PEG/NC/CaCl2 in CH-based films significantly decreased water vapor transmission rate, increased tensile strength, and were water soluble and biodegradable in nature. Moreover, CH-TEO based films incorporated with ZnO/PEG/NC/CaCl2 were significantly effective in reducing physiological weight loss, retained total soluble solids, titratable acidity, and preserved chlorophyll contents as well as showed lesser a* values, suppressed microbial growth, and preserving appearance/sensory quality of collard greens for 24 days than LDPE and other biodegradable films. Our results suggest that CH-based films enriched with TEO and additives such as ZnO/CaCl2/NC/PEG are an ecological, environmental friendly, and effective alternative approach to retain shelf life of collard greens during refrigerated storage.


Assuntos
Brassica , Quitosana , Óleos Voláteis , Thymus (Planta) , Óxido de Zinco , Cloreto de Cálcio , Clorofila , Argila , Escherichia coli , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Polietileno , Polietilenoglicóis , Vapor
19.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 383: 109960, 2022 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36209539

RESUMO

In this work, the chemical composition of Thymus zygis subsp. gracilis collected from Ifrane, Morocco, along with the evaluation of the antibacterial, anti-biofilm of Listeria monocytogenes activities, larvicidal effect against L3 larvae of Anisakis, and antioxidant properties of its essential oil (TZG-EO), are reported. GC-MS and GC-FID analyses highlighted the presence of 84 volatile components and strong bactericidal and anti-biofilm activities against L. monocytogenes at a concentration of 0.02 % were demonstrated. Also, larvicidal effect against Anisakis larvae at concentrations of 0.01 and 0.005 % was attained leading to the death of all tested larvae within 4 h. The in situ antibacterial activity of TZG-EO (0.01 and 0.005 %) in smoked fish showed high efficiency against L. monocytogenes growth. TZG-EO could be used as potential antibacterial and larvicidal agents for fighting against foodborne pathogens and extending shelf life of food products.


Assuntos
Lamiaceae , Listeria monocytogenes , Óleos Voláteis , Thymus (Planta) , Animais , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Thymus (Planta)/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
20.
Int J Pharm ; 628: 122280, 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36243326

RESUMO

Essential oils, derived from aromatic plants, exhibit various pharmacological properties. Nevertheless, their clinical applications are confronted by various limitations, such as chemical instability, low aqueous solubility, and poor bioavailability. Nanoencapsulation is one of the approaches that may circumvent these restraints. Accordingly, the present study encapsulated thyme essential oil (TEO) in sodium caseinate (Na CAS) nanomicelles and formulated a gelatin nanocomposite hydrogel, which was investigated as a drug delivery platform for in vitro antibacterial and in vivo wound healing potential. TEO loaded Na CAS nanomicelles showed particle size of 336 ± 17.35 nm, zeta potential of -44.0 mV and EE% of 75 ± 5%. The release profile of TEO loaded nanocomposite hydrogel revealed a sustained release pattern compared to TEO loaded micelles and free oil. The TEO loaded nanomicelles exhibited a significantly higher antibacterial effect than free TEO, as denoted by leakage of alkaline phosphatase and cell membrane disruptions. Furthermore, the TEO loaded nanocomposite hydrogel significantly promoted wound contraction, reduced interleukin-6, and increased transforming growth factor-ß1and vascular endothelial growth factor levels, versus control or blank hydrogel group. Hence, the present study is putting forth the fabricated nanocomposite hydrogel as a multifunctional delivery system for TEO in wound healing applications.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis , Thymus (Planta) , Gelatina/química , Thymus (Planta)/química , Nanogéis , Caseínas , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Cicatrização , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Hidrogéis/química
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