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1.
Rev. psiquiatr. Urug ; 85(1): 28-42, oct. 2021. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1343130

RESUMO

El tratamiento farmacológico de demostrada eficacia en la esquizofrenia es el antipsicótico. Sin embargo, en muchas ocasiones se requiere medicación concomitante que depende de comorbilidades y efectos adversos. Se realizó un estudio cuantitativo, longitudinal, retrospectivo, considerando el año 2006 y 2016, en una población de usuarios con esquizofrenia de la Policlínica del Hospital Vilardebó, analizando los tratamientos con psicofármacos. Se diferenciaron los tratamientos según monoterapia antipsicótica y polifarmacia con 2 antipsicóticos, y polifarmacia con más de 2 antipsicóticos, antidepresivos, estabilizantes del humor, benzodiacepinas y anticolinérgicos. La población inicial en 2006 fue de 621 pacientes y 398 pacientes continuaban en tratamiento en 2016. Mantuvieron el trata-miento con antipsicóticos 377 pacientes; 184 mantuvieron benzodiacepinas; 59 se mantuvieron con anticolinérgicos; 49, con estabilizantes del humor y 47, con antidepresivos. La monoterapia antipsicótica se presentó en torno al 50 % de la población estudiada. Se deberían revisar aquellas prácticas que se infieren a partir de este estudio, como el uso prolongado de anticolinérgicos, benzodiacepinas, y polifarmacia con más de 2 antipsicóticos, que está extendida en los usuarios con esquizofrenia. El tratamiento con clozapina fue el más estable y no parece aumentar la mortalidad en estos pacientes


Antipsychotics are the proved effective therapy for schizophrenia. However, on many occasions, associated drugs are required depending on comorbidities and side effects. A retrospective longitudinal quantitative study of drug prescription for 2006 and 2016 in patients with schizophrenia diagnosis was carried out in an outpatient clinic at Hospital Vilardebó. Treatments were classified as antipsychotic monotherapy, two antipsychotic drugs polypharmacy and polypharmacy with two antipsychotic drugs, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, benzodiazepines and anticholinergic drugs. Initial population in 2006 included 621 patients, 398 were still being treated in 2016. Antipsychotic drugs were still being received in 377 patients, benzodiazepines in 184, anticholinergic drugs in 59, mood stabilizers in 49, and anti-depressants in 47. Antipsychotic monotherapy was 50% of the population. Those practices that can be inferred from this study, with lengthy use of anticholinergic drugs, benzodiazepines, and the use of more than 2 antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia diagnosis should be revised. Clozapine therapy was the most stable and does not seem to increase mortality.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Tratamento Farmacológico/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenotiazinas/uso terapêutico , Clorpromazina/uso terapêutico , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Clozapina/uso terapêutico , Risperidona/uso terapêutico , Polimedicação , Distribuição por Idade e Sexo , Cloridrato de Tiaprida/uso terapêutico , Fumarato de Quetiapina/uso terapêutico , Aripiprazol/uso terapêutico , Olanzapina/uso terapêutico , Haloperidol/uso terapêutico , Metotrimeprazina/uso terapêutico
2.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 77(2): 163-170, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986159

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tiapride is commonly used in Europe for the treatment of tics. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between dose and serum concentrations of tiapride and potential influential pharmacokinetic factors in children and adolescents. In addition, a preliminary therapeutic reference range for children and adolescents with tics treated with tiapride was calculated. METHODS: Children and adolescents treated with tiapride at three university hospitals and two departments of child and adolescents psychiatry in Germany and Austria were included in the study. Patient characteristics, doses, serum concentrations, and therapeutic outcome were assessed during clinical routine care using standardised measures. RESULTS: In the 49 paediatric patients (83.7% male, mean age = 12.5 years), a positive correlation was found between tiapride dose (median 6.9 mg/kg, range 0.97-19.35) and serum concentration with marked inter-individual variability. The variation in dose explained 57% of the inter-patient variability in tiapride serum concentrations; age, gender, and concomitant medication did not contribute to the variability. The symptoms improved in 83.3% of the patients. 27.1% of the patients had mild or moderate ADRs. No patient suffered from severe ADRs. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that tiapride treatment was effective and safe in most patients with tics. Compared with the therapeutic concentration range established for adults with Chorea Huntington, our data hinted at a lower lower limit (560 ng/ml) and similar upper limit (2000 ng/ml).


Assuntos
Antagonistas dos Receptores de Dopamina D2/farmacologia , Cloridrato de Tiaprida/farmacologia , Transtornos de Tique/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Variação Biológica da População , Criança , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Dopamina D2/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Valores de Referência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Cloridrato de Tiaprida/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Tique/sangue , Transtornos de Tique/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Intern Emerg Med ; 14(1): 143-160, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30187438

RESUMO

The chronic use of alcohol can lead to the onset of an alcohol use disorder (AUD). About 50% of subjects with an AUD may develop alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) when they reduce or discontinue their alcohol consumption and, in 3-5% of them, convulsions and delirium tremens (DTs), representing life-threatening complications, may occur. Unfortunately, few physicians are adequately trained in identifying and treating AWS. The Italian Society on Alcohol has, therefore, implemented a task force of specialists to draw up recommendations for the treatment of AWS with the following main results: (1) while mild AWS may not require treatment, moderate and severe AWS need to be pharmacologically treated; (2) out-patient treatment is appropriate in patients with mild or moderate AWS, while patients with severe AWS need to be treated as in-patients; (3) benzodiazepines, BDZs are the "gold standard" for the treatment of AWS and DTs; (4) alpha-2-agonists, beta-blockers, and neuroleptics may be used in association when BDZs do not completely resolve specific persisting symptoms of AWS; (5) in the case of a refractory form of DTs, the use of anaesthetic drugs (propofol and phenobarbital) in an intensive care unit is appropriate; (6) alternatively to BDZs, sodium oxybate, clomethiazole, and tiapride approved in some European Countries for the treatment of AWS may be employed for the treatment of moderate AWS; (7) anti-convulsants are not sufficient to suppress AWS, and they may be used only in association with BDZs for the treatment of refractory forms of convulsions in the course of AWS.


Assuntos
Intoxicação Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Intoxicação Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Clormetiazol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Fenobarbital/uso terapêutico , Propofol/uso terapêutico , Oxibato de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Tiaprida/uso terapêutico
6.
Pharmacopsychiatry ; 52(5): 209-216, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522144

RESUMO

The combination of tiapride (TIA) and carbamazepine (CBZ) as an alternative treatment option to benzodiazepines and clomethiazole has been investigated by several investigations. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to further explore the efficacy of this combination in order to render more definite answers whether this combination can be recommendable in the clinical practice. We systematically searched electronic databases including PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE, OVID, Cochrane, Google Scholar, and Scopus for human studies. Statistical homogeneity was checked by χ2 test and I2 using Cochran heterogeneity statistic. Our analysis showed a significant efficacy of the combination of TIA and CBZ in reducing alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) (p<0.0001, z-value: 4.07). The cumulative analysis illustrated that the favorable efficacy of this combination therapy has been consistent over time. Our study shows that the combination of TIA/CBZ is an effective treatment in management of AWS in patients with alcohol abstinence. However, the safety of this combination could not be proven, so we recommend its prescription after an informed consent.


Assuntos
Carbamazepina/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Cloridrato de Tiaprida/uso terapêutico , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Humanos
8.
Ther Drug Monit ; 39(6): 581-583, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29135905

RESUMO

To the best of our knowledge, no case has been published in the literature that reports an overdose of tiapride, either alone or in combination with other drugs. We report a self-poisoning case in an 18-year-old girl, with approximately 10 times the usual daily dose (ie, 2.5 g). Although the blood concentration was 20/30-fold higher than usually observed after therapeutic drug intakes (17,300 mcg/L), the patient remained almost asymptomatic.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/envenenamento , Tentativa de Suicídio , Cloridrato de Tiaprida/envenenamento , Adolescente , Ansiolíticos/administração & dosagem , Ansiolíticos/envenenamento , Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Antipsicóticos/farmacocinética , Diazepam/administração & dosagem , Diazepam/envenenamento , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Overdose de Drogas , Feminino , Humanos , Cloridrato de Tiaprida/administração & dosagem , Cloridrato de Tiaprida/farmacocinética
9.
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) ; 77(3): 236-243, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29182614

RESUMO

The parabrachial complex has been related to the processing of both rewarding and aversive signals. This pontine area is activated after the gastrointestinal administration of rewarding nutrients, in taste aversion learning, and in response to the reinforcing and aversive effects of some drugs of abuse. Electrical stimulation of this region can induce, in different animals, preference or aversion behaviors towards a place in a rectangular three-chamber maze task. This study examined the effect of tiapride, a D2/D3 receptor antagonist, on the aversive or rewarding effects induced by electrical stimulation of the external lateral parabrachial subnucleus (NLPBe). As previously observed, administration of tiapride interrupted the aversive effect induced by NLPBe electrical stimulation. However, in contrast to the effects of dopamine antagonists on other rewarding systems, tiapride did not impair the place preference induced by NLPBe stimulation, an activation effect that is subject to tolerance. Tiapride administration also appeared to have no effect on the horizontal motor activity (crossings) of the electrically stimulated animals. We discuss the specific relevance of parabrachial reward with respect to other reinforcing brain components or systems, especially in relation to the preference effect of drugs of abuse, such as opiates, after dopamine antagonist administration.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Operante/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleos Parabraquiais/fisiologia , Recompensa , Cloridrato de Tiaprida/farmacologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
10.
Drugs ; 77(1): 29-46, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27988871

RESUMO

There are currently no effective pharmacological agents available to stop or prevent the progression of Huntington's disease (HD), a rare hereditary neurodegenerative disorder. In addition to psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairments, HD causes progressive motor disturbances, in particular choreiform movements, which are characterized by unwanted contractions of the facial muscles, trunk and extremities. Management of choreiform movements is usually advised if chorea interferes with daily functioning, causes social isolation, gait instability, falls, or physical injury. Although drugs to reduce chorea are available, only few randomized controlled studies have assessed the efficacy of these drugs, resulting in a high variety of prescribed drugs in clinical practice. The current pharmacological treatment options to reduce chorea in HD are outlined in this review, including the latest results on deutetrabenazine, a newly developed pharmacological agent similar to tetrabenazine, but with suggested less peak dose side effects. A review of the existing literature was conducted using the PubMed, Cochrane and Medline databases. In conclusion, mainly tetrabenazine, tiapride (in European countries), olanzapine, and risperidone are the preferred first choice drugs to reduce chorea among HD experts. In the existing literature, these drugs also show a beneficial effect on motor symptom severity and improvement of psychiatric symptoms. Generally, it is recommended to start with a low dose and increase the dose with close monitoring of any adverse effects. New interesting agents, such as deutetrabenazine and pridopidine, are currently under development and more randomized controlled trials are warranted to assess the efficacy on chorea severity in HD.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Doença de Huntington/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Huntington/fisiopatologia , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Olanzapina , Risperidona/uso terapêutico , Tetrabenazina/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Tiaprida/uso terapêutico
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 321: 841-858, 2017 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27745957

RESUMO

The photolytic and photocatalytic transformation of tiapride with the use of TiO2 and H2O2 was investigated. A novel micro-scale method for simultaneous irradiation with simulated full solar spectrum of multiple samples in photostability chamber was proposed. RP-UHPLC-DAD coupled with ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometer was used for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the processes. Quantitative method was fully validated, and kinetic parameters of tiapride photodegradation were compared. Structures of twenty-one photoproducts as well as phototransformation pathways were proposed. Based on the elucidated structures, computational toxicity assessment with the use of various software was performed and some of transformation products were found as a potentially highly mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds. The multivariate statistical method (principal component analysis) was used to compare toxicity of phototransformation products as well as toxicity assessment.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/metabolismo , Antipsicóticos/toxicidade , Cloridrato de Tiaprida/metabolismo , Cloridrato de Tiaprida/toxicidade , Animais , Antipsicóticos/química , Organismos Aquáticos , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Catálise , Daphnia , Peixes , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Cinética , Dose Letal Mediana , Camundongos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Fotoquímica , Fotólise , Análise de Componente Principal , Ratos , Padrões de Referência , Luz Solar , Cloridrato de Tiaprida/química , Titânio/química
12.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 20(14): 3119-22, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27460743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We wanted to compare the effects of tiapride and risperidone in treating behavioral and psychological symptoms of senile dementia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 108 patients with senile dementia received respective treatments (54 patients per treatment, either with 100 mg/day risperidone or 2.0 mg tiapride/day) for 2 months. Outcomes included the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) scores, the curative rate of senile dementia, and prevalence of adverse effects (somnolence, headache, loss of weight, extrapyramidal system response, irritation and insomnia). RESULTS: PANSS scores before treatment were comparable between treatment groups. On days 7, 15, 30, and 60 of the treatment, the differences between two treatment groups became evident. Thus, curative rates in patients treated with risperidone were 74.1% and in those treated with tiapride 88.9% (p < 0.05). Prevalence of adverse reactions was significantly lower in the latter group (9.3% vs. 25.9% in patients treated with risperidone; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Tiapride is more effective in improving clinical symptoms of senile dementia and causes fewer adverse effects.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Risperidona/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Tiaprida/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Risperidona/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Tiaprida/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 24(2): 199-207, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24888751

RESUMO

Data on medical treatment of children and adolescents with tic disorders are scarce. This study examined the administrative prevalence of psychopharmacological prescriptions in this patient group in Germany. Data of the largest German health insurance fund were analysed. In outpatients aged 0-19 years with diagnosed tic disorder, psychotropic prescriptions were evaluated for the years 2006 and 2011. In 2011, the percentage of psychotropic prescriptions was slightly higher than in 2006 (21.2 vs. 18.6%). The highest prescription prevalence was found in Tourette syndrome (51.5 and 53.0%, respectively). ADHD drugs were most frequently prescribed, followed by antipsychotics. In 2011, prescriptions of second generation antipsychotics (SGA) were higher and prescriptions of first generation antipsychotics (FGA) lower than in 2006. Concerning prescribed antipsychotic substances, in 2011 risperidone prescriptions were higher and tiapride prescriptions lower. Paediatricians issued 37.4%, and child and adolescent psychiatrists issued 37.1% of psychotropic prescriptions. The FGA/SGA ratio was highest in GPs (1.25) and lowest in child and adolescent psychiatrists (0.96). From 2006 to 2011, there was only a slight increase in psychotropic prescriptions for children and adolescents with a diagnosis of tic disorder in Germany, which stands in contrast towards the significant increase in psychotropic prescriptions in other child and adolescent psychiatric disorders (e.g. ADHD). There were marked differences in treatment patterns by tic disorder subgroups, with Tourette syndrome patients receiving most frequently psychopharmacotherapy. Risperidone prescriptions increased, probably reflecting a switch in prescribing practice towards up-to-date treatment guidelines. In primary care physicians, dissemination of current tic disorder treatment guidelines might constitute an important educational goal.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicofarmacologia/tendências , Risperidona/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Tiaprida/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Tique/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Psiquiatria do Adolescente , Criança , Psiquiatria Infantil , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) ; 74(3): 307-16, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25231850

RESUMO

The parabrachial complex has been related to various rewarding or aversive behavioral processes, including taste aversion learning and conditioned place aversion. This study examined the effect of tiapride, an antagonist of D2/D3 dopaminergic receptors, on place aversion induced by electrical stimulation of the external lateral parabrachial (LPBe) nucleus. Results obtained show that brain-stimulated animals avoid the area of the maze associated with electrical stimulation but show no such behavioral rejection when they receive an injection of 30 mg/kg tiapride. Furthermore, tiapride did not appear to affect the horizontal motor activity (crossing) of the animals. These results are discussed in the context of the different natural and artificial modalities used to induce aversive behavior and their relationship with dopamine systems.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Psicológico/fisiologia , Estimulação Elétrica , Cloridrato de Tiaprida/farmacologia , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/patologia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos Wistar , Recompensa , Cloridrato de Tiaprida/administração & dosagem
16.
Intern Med ; 53(11): 1201-4, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24881749

RESUMO

We herein describe the case of an 81-year-old Japanese woman with neuroleptic malignant syndrome that occurred 36 days after the initiation of combination therapy with tiapride (75 mg/day) and tetrabenazine (12.5 mg/day) for Huntington's disease. The patient had been treated with tiapride or tetrabenazine alone without any adverse effects before the administration of the combination therapy. She also had advanced breast cancer when the combination therapy was initiated. To the best of our knowledge, the occurrence of neuroleptic malignant syndrome due to combination therapy with tetrabenazine and tiapride has not been previously reported. Tetrabenazine should be administered very carefully in combination with other neuroleptic drugs, particularly in patients with a worsening general condition.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Captação Adrenérgica/efeitos adversos , Doença de Huntington/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/etiologia , Tetrabenazina/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Tiaprida/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Antagonistas de Dopamina/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Doença de Huntington/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia
18.
Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr ; 81(6): 337-45, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23612984

RESUMO

We report upon a case of a 55 year old patient with a bipolar affective disorder, presenting herself with a depressive symptomatology in addition to a severe motor perturbation. The main emphasis upon admittance was perfecting and improving her latest medication. Four weeks prior to her stay at our clinic a thorough neurological examination had taken place in terms of an invalidity pension trial which did not result in any diagnostic findings. Therefore a neurological disease seemed at first highly unlikely. Even though the prior testing was negative, the ensuing neurological examination at our clinic resulted in movement disorders very much indicative of Huntington's Disease. A detailed investigation in regards to the particular family history of the patient was positive for Huntington's Disease. However, whether the patient's mother had also been a genetic carrier of Huntington's Disease was still unknown at the time the patient was admitted to our clinic. It was nevertheless discovered that her mother had also suffered from a bipolar affective disorder. A genetic testing that followed the neurological examination of the patient proved positive for Huntington's Disease. Neuro-imaging resulted in a bicaudate-index of 2.4 (the critical value is 1.8). In a clinical psychological test battery the ensuing results were highly uncommon for patients with solely a bipolar affective disorder people. Under the medical regimen of Quetiapine, Citalopram and Tiaprid the patient's mood could be stabilized and there was some improvement of her motor pertubation.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Doença de Huntington/complicações , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Citalopram/uso terapêutico , Dibenzotiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Doença de Huntington/diagnóstico , Doença de Huntington/psicologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos dos Movimentos/etiologia , Transtornos dos Movimentos/terapia , Exame Neurológico , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Linhagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Fumarato de Quetiapina , Cloridrato de Tiaprida/uso terapêutico
20.
Farm Hosp ; 37(1): 10-4, 2013.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23461495

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Tiapride is a substituted benzamide classified as an atypical neuroleptic. To our knowledge, there are no published data on its stability prepared as a continuous intravenous infusion. The current study analysed its stability in two different infusion solutions and concentrations over 48 hours. METHOD: Triplicate samples of tiapride were prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride and in 5% dextrose solutions at final concentrations of 1 and 2 mg/ml. Samples were collected in glass bottles without photoprotection and at room temperature (25 ± 2 °C). Sampling times at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours included a visual inspection for colour changes and appearance of precipitation as well as pH determination. Tiapride was quantified at selected times by mass spectrometry using high-performance liquid chromatography. Concentration values in the samples corresponding to 0 hours were given a reference value of 100%. Concentrations in subsequent samples greater than 90% were considered stable. RESULTS: No colour change or precipitation was observed during the study period. pH values ranged between 0.1 and 0.4 units. At 48 hours, the concentration of remaining tiapride in sodium chloride 1 mg/ml and 2 mg/ml was 93.8% and 91.6%, respectively. That in 5% dextrose 1 mg/ml and 2 mg/ml was 96.8% and 94.1%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Dilutions of tiapride in 0.9% sodium chloride and in 5% dextrose solution, at concentrations of 1 mg/ml and 2 mg/ml, in glass bottles and at room temperature were stable both physically and chemically during 48 hours.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/química , Cloridrato de Tiaprida/química , Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Calibragem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Embalagem de Medicamentos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Glucose , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Infusões Intravenosas , Espectrometria de Massas , Cloreto de Sódio , Soluções , Temperatura , Cloridrato de Tiaprida/administração & dosagem
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