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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 769574, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722347

RESUMO

To feed successfully, ticks must bypass or suppress the host's defense mechanisms, particularly the immune system. To accomplish this, ticks secrete specialized immunomodulatory proteins into their saliva, just like many other blood-sucking parasites. However, the strategy of ticks is rather unique compared to their counterparts. Ticks' tendency for gene duplication has led to a diverse arsenal of dozens of closely related proteins from several classes to modulate the immune system's response. Among these are chemokine-binding proteins, complement pathways inhibitors, ion channels modulators, and numerous poorly characterized proteins whose functions are yet to be uncovered. Studying tick immunomodulatory proteins would not only help to elucidate tick-host relationships but would also provide a rich pool of potential candidates for the development of immunomodulatory intervention drugs and potentially new vaccines. In the present review, we will attempt to summarize novel findings on the salivary immunomodulatory proteins of ticks, focusing on biomolecular targets, structure-activity relationships, and the perspective of their development into therapeutics.


Assuntos
Carrapatos , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes , Imunomodulação , Saliva , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares
2.
Parasitol Res ; 120(12): 4067-4072, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725733

RESUMO

Hepatozoon and Hemolivia are members of the haemogregarines and are reported in reptiles and reptile-associated ticks. However, no studies have reported on Hepatozoon and Hemolivia in Japanese reptile-associated ticks. This study aimed to molecularly identify and to characterize Hepatozoon and Hemolivia in Japanese reptile-associated ticks, Amblyomma geoemydae (Cantor, 1847) and Amblyomma nitidum (Hirst & Hirst, 1910). A total of 41 and 75 DNA samples from A. geoemydae and A. nitidum ticks, respectively, were used for screening of Hepatozoon and Hemolivia with polymerase chain reaction targeting 18S rDNA. As a result, Hemolivia and Hepatozoon were detected in two A. geoemydae and one A. nitidum, respectively. The sequences of Hemolivia spp. showed a 99.5% (1,050/1,055 bp) identity with Hemolivia parvula (KR069083), and the Hemolivia spp. were located in the same clade as H. parvula in the phylogenetic tree. The sequences of Hepatozoon sp. showed a 98.4% (1,521/1,545 bp) identity with Hepatozoon colubri (MN723844), and the Hepatozoon sp. was distinct from validated Hepatozoon species in the tree. Our findings highlight the first molecular record of Hemolivia in Japan and present the first detection of Hepatozoon in A. nitidum. Further investigations on these tick-borne protozoa are required to understand their life cycle and pathogenicity.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Carrapatos , Animais , Japão , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Répteis
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 769542, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746035

RESUMO

Chemokines are structurally related proteins that activate leucocyte migration in response to injury or infection. Tick saliva contains chemokine-binding proteins or evasins which likely neutralize host chemokine function and inflammation. Biochemical characterisation of 50 evasins from Ixodes, Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus shows that they fall into two functional classes, A and B, with exclusive binding to either CC- or CXC- chemokines, respectively. Class A evasins, EVA1 and EVA4 have a four-disulfide-bonded core, whereas the class B evasin EVA3 has a three-disulfide-bonded "knottin" structure. All 29 class B evasins have six cysteine residues conserved with EVA3, arrangement of which defines a Cys6-motif. Nineteen of 21 class A evasins have eight cysteine residues conserved with EVA1/EVA4, the arrangement of which defines a Cys8-motif. Two class A evasins from Ixodes (IRI01, IHO01) have less than eight cysteines. Many evasin-like proteins have been identified in tick salivary transcriptomes, but their phylogenetic relationship with respect to biochemically characterized evasins is not clear. Here, using BLAST searches of tick transcriptomes with biochemically characterized evasins, we identify 292 class A and 157 class B evasins and evasin-like proteins from Prostriate (Ixodes), and Metastriate (Amblyomma, Dermacentor, Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus) ticks. Phylogenetic analysis shows that class A evasins/evasin-like proteins segregate into two classes, A1 and A2. Class A1 members are exclusive to Metastriate ticks and typically have a Cys8-motif and include EVA1 and EVA4. Class A2 members are exclusive to Prostriate ticks, lack the Cys8-motif, and include IHO01 and IRI01. Class B evasins/evasin-like proteins are present in both Prostriate and Metastriate lineages, typically have a Cys6-motif, and include EVA3. Most evasins/evasin-like proteins in Metastriate ticks belong to class A1, whereas in Prostriate species they are predominantly class B. In keeping with this, the majority of biochemically characterized Metastriate evasins bind CC-chemokines, whereas the majority of Prostriate evasins bind CXC-chemokines. While the origin of the structurally dissimilar classes A1 and A2 is yet unresolved, these results suggest that class B evasin-like proteins arose before the divergence of Prostriate and Metastriate lineages and likely functioned to neutralize CXC-chemokines and support blood feeding.


Assuntos
Ixodidae , Carrapatos , Animais , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Ixodidae/genética , Ixodidae/metabolismo , Filogenia , Ligação Proteica , Carrapatos/metabolismo
4.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 37(11): 570-575, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731875

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: There are many tick-borne infections that affect children and adolescents in the United States. These illnesses often begin with non-specific flulike symptoms such as fever, chills, headache, and myalgia, so obtaining a good travel history is important. Most people do not even realize that they were bitten by a tick, so identification of the specific tick is not necessary. Often, treatment should commence before formal illness identification, as delays may cause more severe disease, and rapid laboratory confirmation is difficult. One of the most important issues is prevention of tick bites with insect repellents, accompanied by thorough tick checks after being outdoors in a tick-infested region.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Picadas de Carrapatos , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Carrapatos , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Febre , Humanos , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
5.
Korean J Parasitol ; 59(5): 489-496, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724768

RESUMO

Ticks can transmit pathogenic bacteria, protozoa, and viruses to humans and animals. In this study, we investigated the microbiomes of Haemaphysalis longicornis according to sex and life stages. The Shannon index was significantly higher for nymphs than adult ticks. Principal coordinates analysis showed that the microbiome composition of female adult and male adult ticks were different. Notably, Coxiella-like bacterium (AB001519), known as a tick symbiont, was found in all nymphs and female adult ticks, but only one out of 4 male adult ticks had Coxiella-like bacterium (AB001519). In addition, Rickettsia rickettsii, Coxiella burnetii, and Anaplasma bovis were detected in this study.


Assuntos
Ixodidae , Microbiota , Rickettsia , Carrapatos , Anaplasma , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia
6.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 498, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611774

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of various factors on the host resistance of cattle against tick infestation in Kerala State, South India. The number of naturally infested semi-engorged female ticks present on the cattle was counted on a sample cattle population across the four regions of Kerala. Then, the animals were grouped based on the tick count. The chi-square test and Fisher exact test were used to identify the effects of genetic and non-genetic factors on tick burden in cattle. It was found that the Holstein Friesian crossbred and Jersey crossbred cattle had a significantly higher level of tick infestation than the indigenous Vechur breed (Bos indicus). No tick infestation was observed in indigenous Kasaragod Dwarf cattle (B. indicus). Tick infestation was more in heifers and dry animals than lactating animals. However, the sex of the animal and the stage of lactation did not influence the tick load. Tick infestation was also influenced by parity, grazing, and region.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Infestações por Carrapato , Carrapatos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Imunidade Inata , Lactação , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
7.
Geospat Health ; 16(2)2021 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672184

RESUMO

There is a vast amount of geo-referenced data in many fields of study including ecological studies. Geo-referencing is usually by point referencing; that is, latitudes and longitudes or by areal referencing, which includes districts, counties, states, provinces and other administrative units. The availability of large geo-referenced datasets for modelling has necessitated the development and application of spatial statistical methods. However, spatial varying coefficients models exploring the abundance of tick counts remain limited. In this study we used data that was collected and prepared by researchers in the Department of Biological Sciences from the Old Dominion University, Virginia, USA. We modelled tick life-stage counts and abundance variability from 12 sampling locations, with 5 different habitats (numbered 1-5), three habitat types; namely: woods, edges and grass; collected monthly from May 2009 through December 2018. Spatio-temporal Poisson and spatio-temporal negative binomial (NB) count data models were fitted to the data and compared using the deviance information criteria (DIC). The NB model outperformed the Poisson models with all its DIC values being smaller than those of the Poisson model. Results showed that the covariates varied spatially across counties. There was a decreasing time (in years) effect over the study period. However, even though the time effect was decreasing over the study period, space-time interaction effects were seen to be increasing over time in York County.


Assuntos
Carrapatos , Animais , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise Espaço-Temporal
8.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(4): e007021, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669762

RESUMO

The present study attempted to evaluate the practical experience and methods employed by Brazilian veterinary practitioners for control of parasites. Twenty-one questions were asked of 403 veterinary practitioners based in different climatic zones with reference to parasite epidemiology from the country. Administration of a combination of drugs at three-month intervals was the most common regime recommended for prophylaxis against gastrointestinal helminths, with a single treatment repeated after 15 days. Routine prophylaxis against dog ectoparasites was recommended by 82.4% veterinary practitioners, and 46.6% changed the drug compound used. Monthly prophylaxic treatments for ectoparasites, using systemic, topical and/or collar-impregnated drugs, was recommended by 21.5% veterinary practitioners. Side-effects of ectoparasiticide-impregnated collars were suspected by 58% of the veterinary practitioners. Isoxazolines were the most frequently used chemical group to treat ectoparasites in dogs. Poor efficacy of fipronil in controlling ticks was suspected by 79.5% of the veterinary practitioners. The isoxazolines and combination of anthelmintic compounds are the most common drugs to prevent or treat ectoparasites and gastrointestinal nematodes, respectively. The suspect of the inefficacy of antiparasitic drugs is shared among the veterinary practitioners from part of Brazil. Guidelines are needed, specifically for the control of gastrointestinal helminths and ectoparasites in Brazilian dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Inseticidas , Nematoides , Parasitos , Carrapatos , Animais , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 894, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary care and frontline healthcare providers are often the first point of contact for patients experiencing tick-borne disease (TBD) but face challenges when recognizing and diagnosing these diseases. The specific aim of this study was to gain a qualitative understanding of frontline and primary care providers' knowledge and practices for identifying TBDs in patients. METHODS: From fall 2018 to spring 2019, three focus groups were conducted with primary care providers practicing in a small-town community endemic to Lyme disease (LD) and with emerging incidence of additional TBDs. A follow up online survey was distributed to urgent and emergency care providers in the small-town community and an academic medical center within the referral network of the local clinical community in spring and summer 2019. Qualitative analysis of focus group data was performed following a grounded theory approach and survey responses were analyzed through the calculation of descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Fourteen clinicians from three primary care practices participated in focus groups, and 24 urgent and emergency care clinicians completed the survey questionnaire. Four overarching themes emerged from focus group data which were corroborated by survey data. Themes highlighted a moderate level of awareness on diagnosis and treatment of LD among participants and limited knowledge of diagnosis and treatment for two other regionally relevant TBDs, anaplasmosis and babesiosis. Providers described challenges and frustrations in counseling patients with strong preconceptions of LD diagnosis and treatment in the context of chronic infection. Providers desired additional point-of-care resources to facilitate patient education and correct misinformation on the diagnosis and treatment of TBDs. CONCLUSIONS: Through this small study, it appears that clinicians in the small-town and academic medical center settings are experiencing uncertainties related to TBD recognition, diagnosis, and patient communication. These findings can inform the development of point-of-care resources to aid in patient-provider communication regarding TBDs and inform the development of continuing medical education programs for frontline and primary care providers.


Assuntos
Doença de Lyme , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Carrapatos , Animais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Doença de Lyme/diagnóstico , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Doença de Lyme/terapia , Atenção Primária à Saúde
11.
J Int Med Res ; 49(9): 3000605211025398, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590876

RESUMO

Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. Most patients have non-specific symptoms at onset. In addition, routine diagnostic tests for C. burnetii are not sensitive, and the bacterium cannot grow in general culture medium. The diagnosis of Q fever therefore poses a challenge. This case study describes a man with a clear history of tick bite who had recurrent fever, pneumonia, and liver damage. Routine tests and bacterial cultures failed to clarify the pathogeny, but laboratory and imaging data suggested infection. After routine tests were exhausted, we detected the presence of C. burnetii in a whole blood sample using next-generation sequencing (NGS). To our knowledge, this is the first report of Q fever associated with Coxiella burnetii detected directly from blood samples in Lishui, China. NGS has revolutionized the diagnosis of infectious diseases, especially those caused by rare or newly discovered pathogens, and patient responses have finally proved its substantial benefits. NGS has important clinical significance for the early diagnosis of chronic Q fever. This proof-of-concept study is worthy of promotion in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Febre Q , Carrapatos , Animais , China , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Febre Q/diagnóstico , Zoonoses
13.
Euro Surveill ; 26(35)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477056

RESUMO

BackgroundTick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus is a human pathogen that is expanding its endemic zones in Europe, emerging in previously unaffected regions. In Austria, increasing incidence in alpine regions in the west has been countered by a decline in traditional endemic areas to the east of the country.AimTo shed light on the cause of this disparity, we compared the temporal changes of human TBE incidences in all federal provinces of Austria with those of Lyme borreliosis (LB), which has the same tick vector and rodent reservoir.MethodsThis comparative analysis was based on the surveillance of hospitalised TBE cases by the National Reference Center for TBE and on the analysis of hospitalised LB cases from hospital discharge records across all of Austria from 2005 to 2018.ResultsThe incidences of the two diseases and their annual fluctuations were not geographically concordant. Neither the decline in TBE in the eastern lowlands nor the increase in western alpine regions is paralleled by similar changes in the incidence of LB.ConclusionThe discrepancy between changes in incidence of TBE and LB support the contributions of virus-specific factors beyond the mere availability of tick vectors and/or human outdoor activity, which are a prerequisite for the transmission of both diseases. A better understanding of parameters controlling human pathogenicity and the maintenance of TBE virus in its natural vector-host cycle will generate further insights into the focal nature of TBE and can potentially improve forecasts of TBE risk on smaller regional scales.


Assuntos
Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos , Doença de Lyme , Carrapatos , Animais , Áustria/epidemiologia , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Incidência , Doença de Lyme/diagnóstico , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia
14.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 28(3): 397-403, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558260

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to analyze some metalloproteinases, cytokines, and chemokines in LB patients and healthy seropositive subjects. The presence of IgM/IgG antibodies against specific Borreliella antigens was analyzed in the presence or absence of clinical manifestations of LB. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 38 patients diagnosed with LB and arthralgia and/or arthritis symptoms, and 57 foresters presenting no clinical symptoms of LB. The ELISA test was applied for general screening of anti-Borreliella IgM/IgG. Western blot was used for confirmatory diagnosis of LB for the positive and borderline results. Serum IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IFN-γ, TNF, IL-8, CCL5, CXCL9/MIG, CCL2/MCP-1, CXCL10/IP-10 concentrations were measured with the use of the Human Cytometric CBA test. The concentration of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the serum was determined with the use of ELISA tests. RESULTS: Analysis of the cytokines and chemokines revealed that only the concentration of IL-2 was significantly higher (2.4 pg/m; p=0.00641) in patients with LB symptoms than in the seropositive individuals (0.4 pg/ml). The MMP2 concentration was significantly higher (233.3 ng/ml; p=0.00294) in patients with clinical manifestations of LB than in those occupationally exposed to tick bites, but did not have anti-Borreliella antibodies (192.0 ng/ml). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of IgG antibodies against a number of Borreliella antigens and the differences in the IL-2 and MMP2 levels in seropositive or seronegative individuals and symptomatic LB patients, may indicate differences in the intensity of the immune response to the infection and, consequently, may induce development of clinical manifestations of the disease in seropositive and seronegative individuals.


Assuntos
Doença de Lyme/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Infecções Assintomáticas , Borrelia/imunologia , Borrelia/fisiologia , Quimiocinas/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Doença de Lyme/diagnóstico , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/sangue , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Picadas de Carrapatos/sangue , Picadas de Carrapatos/diagnóstico , Picadas de Carrapatos/microbiologia , Carrapatos/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(4): e009721, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495043

RESUMO

Hemoplasmas are epierythrocytic bacteria that infect mammals. 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemoalbiventris' was detected in white-eared opossums (Didelphis albiventris) from southern and central-western Brazil. The present study aimed at: i) screening opossums for tick-borne (TBP) pathogens (Piroplasmida and Anaplasmataceae) and ii) detecting and characterizing hemoplasma species infecting opossums from Curitiba and Foz do Iguaçu cities in the Paraná State, southern Brazil. Thirty blood samples from white-eared opossums were evaluated by PCR assays. Animals were not infested by ectoparasites. The mammalian endogenous gapdh gene was consistently amplified in all samples. All opossums tested negative for Theileria/Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. by PCR based on 18S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes, respectively. A genus-specific PCR assay based on the 16S rRNA gene of hemoplasmas showed that three/13 (23.08%; CI 95%: 8.18-50.26%) opossums from Foz do Iguaçu were positive for hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. All opossums from Curitiba tested negative for hemoplasmas. Sequencing of both the 16S and 23S rRNA genes revealed that the animals were infected by 'Ca. M. haemoalbiventris'. Although 'Ca. M. haemoalbiventris' is prevalent in opossums in Brazil, clinical signs associated with its infection and its putative vectors remain unknown.


Assuntos
Didelphis , Infecções por Mycoplasma , Mycoplasma , Carrapatos , Animais , Brasil , Cidades , Mycoplasma/genética , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
16.
Pediatr Ann ; 50(9): e350-e355, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542342

RESUMO

Over the past two decades, tickborne diseases have demonstrated a steady rise in the United States, with several novel tickborne pathogens discovered. Tickborne illnesses vary by geography and seasonality secondary to the associated tick vector. Interestingly, the geographic range of these tick vectors are also expanding with many more counties reporting cases than the previous 20 years. The clinical presentation of tickborne infections can range from mild to fatal, thus early identification and empiric treatment is of utmost importance. This article reviews the most common tick-borne infections in the US, including epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(9):e350-e355.].


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Carrapatos , Animais , Humanos , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/terapia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Parasitol Res ; 120(11): 3645-3651, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561747

RESUMO

Species of the genus Argas are parasites that transmit pathogens, eubacteria, and viruses. Argas japonicus Yamaguti, Clifford & Tipton, 1968 was described based on specimens collected from Japan and Korea. Recently, A. japonicus was reported in different areas of China, suggesting that it may be widely distributed. Here, we have redescribed the female, male, and nymphal stages of A. japonicus and provided scanning electron microscope images based on specimens collected in Neimenggu, China. In addition, we compared four A. japonicus individuals with Argas 16S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequences obtained from GenBank.


Assuntos
Argas , Argasidae , Carrapatos , Animais , Argas/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ninfa
19.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(6): 3222-3229, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476906

RESUMO

The Iguaçu National Park (INP) is the largest remnant of Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil, representing an ecological continuum with Argentina. The INP harbours a diverse fauna, with ring-tailed coatis (Nasua nasua Linnaeus, 1976, Carnivora: Procyonidae) in close contact with tourists either begging and/or snatching food from visitors. A potentially novel haemotropic Mycoplasma sp. has been previously detected in the ring-tailed coatis from central-western and southern Brazil. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of haemotropic Mycoplasma sp. and tick-borne pathogens in wild ring-tailed coatis from the INP, Foz do Iguaçu municipality, Paraná State, southern Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 18 wild ring-tailed coatis and evaluated by conventional PCR (cPCR) assays for haemotropic Mycoplasma spp. (16S and 23S rRNA), Theileria/Babesia spp. (18S rRNA) and Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. (16S rRNA, sodB, dsb and groEL). Eight out of 18 (44.44%; 95% CI: 24.56%-66.28%) animals were positive for haemotropic Mycoplasma spp. All ring-tailed coatis tested negative for Theileria/Babesia spp. and only one out of 18 (5.56%; 95% CI: 0.99%-25.76%) animals tested positive for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. by the 16S rRNA cPCR. Unfortunately, multiple attempts to sequence the 16S rRNA gene of the Ehrlichia/Anaplasma-positive sample have failed. Phylogenetic and network analysis of the hemoplasma 16S and 23S rRNA gene fragments confirmed that animals were infected by a potentially novel haemotropic Mycoplasma sp. previously reported in ring-tailed coatis from Brazil. The name 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haematonasua' is proposed for this novel organism.


Assuntos
Mycoplasma , Procyonidae , Carrapatos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Mycoplasma/genética , Parques Recreativos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
20.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 680264, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354960

RESUMO

Ticks and tick-borne diseases are significant public health concerns. Bioactive molecules in tick saliva facilitate prolonged blood-feeding and transmission of tick-borne pathogens to the vertebrate host. Alpha-gal syndrome (AGS), a newly reported food allergy, is believed to be induced by saliva proteins decorated with a sugar molecule, the oligosaccharide galactose-⍺-1,3-galactose (α-gal). This syndrome is characterized by an IgE antibody-directed hypersensitivity against α-gal. The α-gal antigen was discovered in the salivary glands and saliva of various tick species including, the Lone Star tick (Amblyomma americanum). The underlying immune mechanisms linking tick bites with α-gal-specific IgE production are poorly understood and are crucial to identify and establish novel treatments for this disease. This article reviews the current understanding of AGS and its involvement with tick species.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Carrapatos , Animais , Imunoglobulina E , Saliva
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