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2.
Zootaxa ; 5060(2): 1-32, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811177

RESUMO

Physodeutera (Toxoma) lokobensis sp. nov. is described as new to science from the island of Nosy Be, northern Madagascar (phytogeographically Sambirano). The new species is morphologically similar and obviously close to Physodeutera (T.) conturbata Moravec, 2002, Ph. (T.) sulcoprothoracica (W. Horn, 1913), and Ph. (T.) dubia (Maan, 1942). Redescriptions and new illustrations of the type specimens of the three similar species with references to their original descriptions and redescriptions with illustrations in the monograph of the genus Physodeutera Lacordaire, 1842 (Moravec 2002a) are presented. The type designation of Ph. (T.) dubia has been revised to rectify the misinterpreted designation in the monograph. A revised key to the subgenus Toxoma Rivalier, 1967 and essential maps of the distribution are also given.


Assuntos
Besouros , Tigres , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Madagáscar
3.
J Comp Pathol ; 188: 32-36, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686275

RESUMO

A 16-year-old, female, captive Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) had a history of a recurrent subcutaneous mass. After two attempts at surgical removal, euthanasia was elected during the third surgical attempt due to the degree of neoplastic infiltration. At necropsy, a large subcutaneous mass infiltrated the dermis, subcutis and abdominal wall with metastasis to the lungs, spleen and adrenal glands. Microscopically, the neoplasm formed nodules comprising sheets of round cells with large irregular nuclei. Toluidine blue and Giemsa stains were negative. An immunohistochemistry panel revealed membranous and cytoplasmic labelling with ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (IBA1), cytoplasmic labelling with vimentin but no labelling with multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1), CD20 or pancytokeratin markers. Based on the gross distribution and histological and immunohistochemistry features, a diagnosis of disseminated histiocytic sarcoma was made. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first record of disseminated histiocytic sarcoma in a captive Bengal tiger.


Assuntos
Sarcoma Histiocítico , Tigres , Glândulas Suprarrenais , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Feminino , Sarcoma Histiocítico/veterinária , Pulmão , Metástase Neoplásica , Baço
4.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(3): 918-925, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687508

RESUMO

This retrospective study identified and characterized brain lesions in captive nondomestic felids from a large cat sanctuary. Necropsy reports from January 2002 through December 2018 were examined, and gross images and microscopic slides were reviewed from individual cats, where available. In total, 255 cats met the following inclusion criteria: complete necropsy report available, brain examined grossly or microscopically, and age of >1 mon. Of the 255 cats, 49 cats (19%) were determined to have brain lesions. Eleven different felid species, as well as one captive-bred hybrid (liger), were included in the study, with tigers (Panthera tigris) (55%) and lions (Panthera leo) (18%) being the most common species. Lesions were grouped into six etiologic categories: neoplastic (32%), vascular (26%), inflammatory or infectious (20%), congenital (9%), idiopathic (7%), and metabolic (6%). Not included in these categorized lesions were previously undescribed amphophilic globules in the cerebral cortex of many cats with and without other brain lesions; these were in 95% of lion and 93% of tiger brains where the cerebral cortex was available for histologic examination. These globules were not associated with clinical disease. The histopathologic and gross brain changes documented in this study provide insight into specific diseases and pathologic processes that affect the brains of captive large cat populations.


Assuntos
Felidae , Leões , Tigres , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Encéfalo , Gatos , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(3): 1079-1083, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687527

RESUMO

Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is a condition characterized by a decreased synthesis and secretion of pancreatic enzymes, which results in weight loss, poor hair coat, and diarrhea. The diagnostic test of choice for EPI in domestic cats is feline serum trypsin-like immunoreactivity (fTLI). This paper details four tigers (Panthera tigris) with clinical signs compatible with EPI. On the basis of domestic cat reference ranges, fTLI assays for all four clinically affected tigers were diagnostic for EPI (median 1.0 µg/L; range 0.5-1.2 µg/L). All four tigers had a rapid clinical response to pancreatic enzyme supplementation. Serum from 10 clinically healthy tigers was submitted for the fTLI assay, for comparative purposes. The healthy tigers' fTLI assays were also within range for a diagnosis of EPI in domestic cats (median 3.1 µg/L; range 1.9-4.5 µg/L); however, clinically affected tigers had significantly lower serum fTLI concentrations than healthy tigers (P = 0.0058). Serum cobalamin was below the detection limit in both the affected and healthy tigers (<150 ng/L). Measuring fTLI appears to be a useful tool in the diagnosis of EPI-like syndrome in tigers. As in other species, EPI-like syndrome in tigers may also be associated with cobalamin deficiency.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina , Tigres , Animais , Gatos , Diarreia/veterinária , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/veterinária , Valores de Referência , Tripsina
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(39)2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518374

RESUMO

Most endangered species exist today in small populations, many of which are isolated. Evolution in such populations is largely governed by genetic drift. Empirical evidence for drift affecting striking phenotypes based on substantial genetic data are rare. Approximately 37% of tigers (Panthera tigris) in the Similipal Tiger Reserve (in eastern India) are pseudomelanistic, characterized by wide, merged stripes. Camera trap data across the tiger range revealed the presence of pseudomelanistic tigers only in Similipal. We investigated the genetic basis for pseudomelanism and examined the role of drift in driving this phenotype's frequency. Whole-genome data and pedigree-based association analyses from captive tigers revealed that pseudomelanism cosegregates with a conserved and functionally important coding alteration in Transmembrane Aminopeptidase Q (Taqpep), a gene responsible for similar traits in other felid species. Noninvasive sampling of tigers revealed a high frequency of the Taqpep p.H454Y mutation in Similipal (12 individuals, allele frequency = 0.58) and absence from all other tiger populations (395 individuals). Population genetic analyses confirmed few (minimal number) tigers in Similipal, and its genetic isolation, with poor geneflow. Pairwise FST (0.33) at the mutation site was high but not an outlier. Similipal tigers had low diversity at 81 single nucleotide polymorphisms (mean heterozygosity = 0.28, SD = 0.27). Simulations were consistent with founding events and drift as possible drivers for the observed stark difference of allele frequency. Our results highlight the role of stochastic processes in the evolution of rare phenotypes. We highlight an unusual evolutionary trajectory in a small and isolated population of an endangered species.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Deriva Genética , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Melanose/genética , Fenótipo , Tigres/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Genoma , Genótipo , Índia , Repetições de Microssatélites , Homologia de Sequência , Tigres/genética
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16371, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385570

RESUMO

Deforestation and agricultural intensification have resulted in an alarming change in the global land cover over the past 300 years, posing a threat to species conservation. Dhole is a monophyletic, social canid and, being an endangered and highly forest-dependent species, is more prone to the loss of favorable habitat in the Anthropocene. We determined the genetic differentiation and demographic history of dhole across the tiger reserves of Maharashtra using the microsatellite data of 305 individuals. Simulation-based analyses revealed a 77-85% decline in the major dhole sub-populations. Protected areas have provided refuge to the historically declining dhole population resulting in clustering with strong genetic structure in the remnant dhole population. The historical population decline coincides with the extreme events in the landscape over the past 300 years. The study highlights the pattern of genetic differentiation and diversity of a highly forest-dependent species which can be associated with the loss of forest cover outside tiger reserves. It also warrants attention to develop conservation plans for the remnant surviving population of dholes in India.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/genética , Carnívoros/genética , Cães/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Demografia/métodos , Ecossistema , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Florestas , Índia , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Tigres/genética
8.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(6): 1197-1201, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382452

RESUMO

A 16-y-old female Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) was evaluated for hyporexia. Examination revealed chronic kidney disease and a large subcutaneous axillary mass with draining tracts that contained numerous small black grains. Histologic examination revealed the presence of intralesional fungal hyphae. Persistent hyporexia and pyogranulomatous disease, as well as progressive cachexia and azotemia occurred despite treatment, and euthanasia was performed. Disseminated phaeohyphomycosis was diagnosed on postmortem examination, additionally affecting various lymph nodes, the nasal cavity, mesenteric adipose tissue, abdominal aorta, pericardium, and kidney. Fungal culture from a deep-tissue sample isolated a pure growth of Curvularia sp., a dematiaceous opportunistic fungus able to cause eumycetomas and/or phaeohyphomycosis. Phaeohyphomycosis is a rare but emerging condition, not previously reported as disseminated disease in an exotic carnivore, to our knowledge. Aggressive systemic antifungal treatment was unsuccessful, likely complicated by diagnostic challenges and concurrent renal disease. The presence of a swelling with abundant grains exiting draining tracts should direct clinicians to the diagnosis of a mycetoma, warranting early and aggressive treatment.


Assuntos
Carnívoros , Micetoma , Feoifomicose , Tigres , Animais , Feminino , Rim , Micetoma/diagnóstico , Micetoma/tratamento farmacológico , Micetoma/veterinária , Feoifomicose/diagnóstico , Feoifomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Feoifomicose/veterinária
10.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(2): 628-637, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130406

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in captive tigers (Panthera tigris). Blood creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen measurements are inexpensive and common biomarkers used to evaluate renal function. However, several limitations have been reported regarding their sensitivity and interindividual variability. Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) has been suggested to be a more sensitive biomarker that is less affected by extrarenal factors and has a strong correlation with glomerular filtration rate and blood Cr in several species. This project aimed to identify the usefulness of SDMA as an endogenous marker of kidney function in captive tigers. The hypothesis of this study is that increased circulating SDMA is positively associated with increased blood Cr. SDMA and Cr were measured in 65 banked samples (serum and plasma) from 30 individual captive tigers. The samples were collected over a 38-y period and stored at -21°C. SDMA and Cr concentrations were determined using the commercially available SDMA test and enzymatic colorimetric methods, respectively. SDMA had a significant positive association with Cr (for every 1 unit increase of log SDMA, Cr increased by 82%, P = 0.0002). Age and subspecies influenced Cr but not SDMA concentrations. In one animal, blood SDMA increased above the ZIMS reported range. approximately 3.6 mo before Cr increased. SDMA is currently indicated for the diagnosis of CKD in domestic felids and seems also promising in nondomestic felids. Further prospective studies might improve the understanding of the performance of this biomarker.


Assuntos
Arginina/análogos & derivados , Creatinina/sangue , Rim/fisiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/veterinária , Tigres/sangue , Animais , Arginina/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(4): 767-771, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980074

RESUMO

Mesothelioma has been reported frequently in large felids. These neoplasms present a diagnostic challenge given their highly variable morphology that mimics carcinomas or sarcomas at different locations. Our goal was to characterize mesotheliomas morphologically and immunohistochemically to determine if a panel of antibodies could be used to more accurately support the diagnosis of these neoplasms in large felids. Mesotheliomas from 6 large felids, including 4 clouded leopards, 1 Bengal tiger, and 1 cheetah, were immunohistochemically labeled for vimentin, E-cadherin, pancytokeratin, Wilms tumor 1 (WT1), MUC-1, and calretinin. The mesotheliomas of the 4 clouded leopards and the tiger were of the epithelial subtype; the mesothelioma from the cheetah was biphasic. All 6 mesotheliomas had strong immunohistochemical labeling for vimentin, E-cadherin, and pancytokeratin. All cases had cytoplasmic labeling for WT1, and 2 also had nuclear labeling. The 3 mesotheliomas with distinct papillary fronds were weakly positive for MUC-1. These and one other epithelial mesothelioma were also positive for calretinin. Our study demonstrates that the morphologic and immunohistochemical phenotypes of mesothelioma that have been identified in humans and domestic species can occur in large felids, and a panel of pancytokeratin, vimentin, WT1, and calretinin can be utilized to support the diagnosis of these neoplasms.


Assuntos
Felidae , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Mesotelioma/veterinária , Acinonyx , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Masculino , Mesotelioma/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica/diagnóstico , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Tigres
13.
J Wildl Dis ; 57(2): 393-398, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822151

RESUMO

Serum samples of 11 Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) from Chitwan National Park in Nepal, collected between 2011-17, were evaluated for the presence of antibodies to eight diseases commonly investigated in large felids. This initial serologic survey was done to establish baseline information to understand the exposure of Nepal's free-ranging tiger population to these diseases. Tiger serum samples collected opportunistically during encounters such as translocation, human conflict, and injury were placed in cold storage for later use. Frozen serum samples were assessed for feline coronavirus (FCoV), feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, feline herpesvirus (FHV), canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2), leptospirosis (LEP; seven serovars), and toxoplasmosis (TOX). Six tigers were found to be positive for LEP, eight for CPV-2, five for FHV, one for FCoV, and 10 for TOX. Tigers, like other wild felids, have been exposed to these common pathogens, but further research is needed to determine the significance of these pathogens to the Nepali population.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Tigres , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , Feminino , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/imunologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/imunologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/veterinária
14.
J Wildl Dis ; 57(2): 464-466, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822169

RESUMO

Canine distemper virus (CDV) is recognized as a conservation threat to Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) in Russia, but the risk to other subspecies remains unknown. We detected CDV neutralizing antibodies in nine of 21 wild-caught Sumatran tigers (42.9%), including one sampled on the day of capture, confirming exposure in the wild.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Cinomose Canina , Tigres/sangue , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Testes de Neutralização , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
16.
Zoo Biol ; 40(4): 320-329, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861886

RESUMO

A fifth of all known species are currently classified as threatened in the wild: the rate of biodiversity loss is rapid, continuous, and mostly due to anthropogenic activities. To slow down this decline, the accurate estimation of demographic parameters for threatened species is critical. With this aim, zoo institutions play an important role, giving access to data on zoo-housed animals, which aids researchers working on species life-history traits and intrinsic factors influencing the fitness of both sexes, such as age. While tigers (Panthera tigris) are particularly threatened in their natural environment, few of their demographic parameters have been determined because of their solitary and elusive nature as well as low population density. Using individual-based information for more than 9200 tigers (from 1938 to 2018) recorded in the International Tiger Studbook 2018, we aimed to determine sub-species and sex-specific variability of survival and reproductive parameters with age. No significant sex-difference in actuarial senescence (i.e., decline of survival probabilities with age) was observed but males tended to have a higher juvenile mortality and a faster senescence than females. Reproductive senescence (i.e., decline of reproductive parameters with age) was more pronounced in females than males. Moreover, we observed sub-species-specific variation in mortality and reproductive patterns, pointing out the necessity to consider them independently for conservation goals. Our findings can provide meaningful improvements to the husbandry of zoo-housed tigers, emphasizing the importance of adult breeding females of 7-9 years-old to control zoo-housed population size, but also providing accurate demographic estimates, crucial to set up effective conservation plans.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Animais de Zoológico , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Reprodução/fisiologia , Tigres/genética , Tigres/fisiologia , Animais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Feminino , Masculino , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Zoo Biol ; 40(4): 306-319, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724521

RESUMO

Tigers (Panthera tigris spp.) are endangered in the wild; ensuring sustainable insurance populations requires careful planning within zoological collections. In captive situations, contraceptives are often used to control breeding and ensure genetically viable populations that contain manageable numbers of animals; reversible contraceptives are ideal because they offer flexibility for breeding management. Historically, synthetic progestins, such as melengestrol acetate implants, were used in female tigers, but these are associated with an increased risk of reproductive pathology and subsequent infertility. Recent management advice to ex-situ collections has been to transition to the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, such as deslorelin acetate implants, which do not appear to have a similar risk of reproductive pathology but are associated with highly variable reversal times in exotic felids. Using data from 917 contraceptive records in female tigers captured by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums Reproductive Management Center and the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria Reproductive Management Group's joint Contraception Database and from supplementary surveys, this study reviews the changing use of contraceptives in captive female tigers. The aim was to describe the historical and current use of contraceptives and provide a comprehensive assessment on the use of deslorelin implants, including data on product protocols, efficacy, pathology, and reversibility. This study determined that current dose, frequency, reversibility, and anatomical placement sites of deslorelin implants are highly variable, indicating that specific, readily available, unified, evidence-based recommendations on the use of deslorelin would be useful for future contraceptive use in managed tiger populations.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/farmacologia , Tigres/fisiologia , Pamoato de Triptorrelina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pamoato de Triptorrelina/administração & dosagem , Pamoato de Triptorrelina/farmacologia
18.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(4): 1628-1635, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686506

RESUMO

The microorganisms inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract play important roles in many host physiological processes, including the absorption and metabolism of nutrients and immune function. The Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as a threatened species. Efforts are underway to breed Amur tigers under artificial settings to preserve this rare species. To maximize the imitation of the diet that this species consumes in the wild, the diet in the present study was composed of a variety of raw meats and was administered with regular fasting. In view of the important roles that the microbiota play in the host, in the present study, the microbiota of Amur tigers at three different ages were investigated. The results showed that the microbial diversity and richness decreased with age. Principal coordinate analysis showed significant differences among the three age groups. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of effect size (LEfSe) demonstrated the enrichment of the genus unclassified_f__Ruminococcaceae, genus Coprococcus_1, genus Ruminococcus__gauvreauii_group, family unclassified_o__Clostridiales and genus unclassified_o__Clostridiales in the JB group (1- year old) and the enrichment of the genus Catenisphaera in the AB group (over 4-year old). The results of the present study demonstrated the adaptation of the microbiota in captive Amur tigers to a diet similar to the one they consume in the wild. Furthermore, these results may reflect the microbiota of wild Amur tigers to a certain extent.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Tigres , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Dieta
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6923, 2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767302

RESUMO

Being a global pollutant, mercury can originate from both natural as well as anthropogenic sources. Coastal marine atmospheric fog is considered a potential source of ocean-derived monomethylmercury (MMHg) to coastal terrestrial ecosystems. However, the ratio between mercury appearing through natural processes and that from the results of human activity is unclear. We assumed that the total mercury content in the fur of tigers would differ depending on the distance from the sea. Here we show that the average mercury content in tigers from the coast (0.435 ± 0.062 mg kg-1) is significantly different from tigers from the inland area (0.239 ± 0.075 mg kg-1), (p = 0.02). We found that the content of mercury in the fur of tigers is largely dependent of natural processes rather than human activity. We assume that the levels of mercury in coastal ecosystems in the south of the Russian Far East reflect the position of the region relative to the deep faults of the East Pacific Platform. Obtained data indicate that environmental risks associated with mercury pollution currently exist, but do not pose a serious threat to Siberian tigers.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Tigres/metabolismo , Animais , Ecossistema , Feminino , Análise do Cabelo , Masculino , Sibéria
20.
Conserv Biol ; 35(2): 452-459, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749024

RESUMO

Wildlife provides food, medicine, clothing, and other necessities for humans, but overexploitation can disrupt the sustainability of wildlife resources and severely threaten global biodiversity. Understanding the characteristics of consumer behavior is helpful for wildlife managers and policy makers, but the traditional survey methods are laborious and time-consuming. In contrast, culturomics may more efficiently identify the features of wildlife consumption. As a case study of the culturomics approach, we examined tiger bone wine consumption in China based on social media and Baidu search engine data. Tiger bone wine is one of the most purchased tiger products; its consumption is closely related to tiger poaching, which greatly threatens wild tiger survival. We searched a popular social media website for the term "tiger bone wine" and focused on posts that were originally created from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2018. We filtered and classified posts related to the purchase, sale, or consumption of tiger bone wine and extracted information on providers, consumption motivations, year of production, and place of origin of the tiger bone wines based on the texts and photos of these posts. We found 756 posts related to tiger bone wine consumption, 113 of which mentioned providers of tiger bone wine, including friends (53%), elder relatives (37%), peer relatives (7%), and others (3%). Out of the 756 posts, 266 indicated the motivations of tiger bone wine consumption. Tiger bone wines were consumed as a tonic (34%), medicine (23%), game product (30%), and a symbol of wealth (28%). Some posts indicated ≥2 consumption motivations. These findings were consistent with the search queries from Baidu index. Such information could help develop targeted strategies for tiger conservation. The culturomics approach illustrated by our study is a rapid and cost-efficient way to characterize wildlife consumption.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Tigres , Idoso , Animais , Animais Selvagens , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Humanos
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