Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.082
Filtrar
1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 23(1): 13, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thyme derived essential oil and its components have numerous applications in pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries, owing to their antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties. To obtain thyme essential oil with different terpene composition, we developed new germplasm resources using the conventional hybridization approach. RESULTS: Phenotypic characteristics, including essential oil yield and composition, glandular trichome density, plant type, and fertility, of three wild Chinese and seven European thyme species were evaluated. Male-sterile and male-fertile thyme species were crossed in different combinations, and two F1 populations derived from Thymus longicaulis (Tl) × T. vulgaris 'Fragrantissimus' (Tvf) and T. vulgaris 'Elsbeth' (Tve) × T. quinquecostatus (Tq) crosses were selected, with essential oil yield and terpene content as the main breeding goals. Simultaneously, simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers were developed based on the whole-genome sequence of T. quinquecostatus to authenticate the F1 hybrids. A total of 300 primer pairs were selected, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out on the parents of the two hybrid populations (Tl, Tvf, Tve, and Tq). Based on the chemotype of the parents and their F1 progenies, we examined the expression of genes encoding two γ-terpinene synthases, one α-terpineol synthase, and maybe one geraniol synthase in all genotypes by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). CONCLUSION: We used hybridization to create new germplasm resources of thyme, developed SSR markers based on the whole-genome sequence of T. quinquecostatus, and screened the expression of monoterpene synthase genes in thyme. The results of this study provide a strong foundation for the creation of new germplasm resources, construction of the genetic linkage maps, and identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), and help gain insight into the mechanism of monoterpenoids biosynthesis in thyme.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis , Thymus (Planta) , Thymus (Planta)/genética , Thymus (Planta)/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Timol/metabolismo , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética
2.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 42: 9603271221149201, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36606752

RESUMO

This present study was designed to investigate ameliorating potential of thymol (THY) on hexachlorobenzene (HBC)-induced epididymal and testicular toxicities in adult male rats. Forty adult male rats were orally treated by gavage daily for 28 consecutive days and divided into four groups; control group administered with corn oil, HBC-treated group (16 mg/kg b. wt), thymol-treated group (30 mg/kg b. wt), and HBC + THY-treated group. The results revealed that HBC exposure caused a significant decrease in the body weight change, organ weights, sperm functional parameters, serum testosterone level with widespread histological abnormalities. Furthermore, HBC-treated rats showed increased in the serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), epididymal and testicular myeloperoxidase activity, tumor necrosis-α, interleukin-1ß level and caspase-3 activity, induced oxidative damage as evidenced by elevated malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (RONS) levels and significant reduction in antioxidant enzyme activities and reduced glutathione (GSH). However, co-treatment of THY with HBC alleviated the HBC-induced epididymal and testicular toxicities. Our findings revealed that HBC acts as a reproductive toxicant in rats and thymol could be a potential remedial agent for HBC-induced reproductive toxicity.


Assuntos
Hexaclorobenzeno , Testículo , Timol , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Hexaclorobenzeno/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Sêmen , Espermatozoides , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona , Timol/farmacologia
3.
Food Res Int ; 163: 112149, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596101

RESUMO

Fishes are highly perishable, mainly stored and transported under frozen condition; however, they are mainly preferred as fresh or in chilled form for consumption because frozen storage compromises the texture quality and other sensory attributes. Shelf-life enhancement of rohu and seer fish steaks was studied using combination of ajwain extract (various concentrations) and γ-irradiation (various doses) under chilled storage (4 °C). These were analyzed periodically by microbiological, sensory, color and biochemical analyses during storage. Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed thymol as major component. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed the presence of nine phenolic compounds including thymol in ajwain extract. The best result was achieved when samples were dipped in 10 % ajwain extract with 2 kGy gamma irradiation dose. An extended shelf-life of 5 and 10 days in case of rohu and seer fish steaks were attained respectively using this combination. These results were confirmed by microbial, biochemical and sensory analyses. The present study thus promises potential application of the above protocol in fishery industry for good quality of fish and commercial benefits.


Assuntos
Ammi , Apiaceae , Cyprinidae , Perciformes , Animais , Timol , Extratos Vegetais , Expectativa de Vida
4.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677882

RESUMO

This study elucidated the chemical composition of essential oil from Centipeda minima (EOCM) and its antibacterial and antioxidant activities with two chemical monomers thymol and carvacrol. The main chemical composition of EOCM, analyzed by GC-MS, were trans-chrysanthenyl acetate, thymol, aromadendrene and ß-caryophyllene. In the screening of antibacterial activity against S. aureus, two monomers with antibacterial activity were obtained: thymol and carvacrol. The MIC of EOCM, thymol and carvacrol were 0.625 mg/mL, 0.156 mg/mL and 0.156 mg/mL, respectively. The experimental results were shown that three drugs could inhibit the growth of S. aureus and inhibit the formation of biofilm by changing the permeability of cell membrane and interfering with the metabolic activities in bacteria. The scavenging effects of the three drugs on DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical showed that the antioxidant effect of the three drugs was EOCM > carvacrol > thymol.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Óleos Voláteis , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Timol/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
5.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678320

RESUMO

Essential oils (EO) are promising feed additives for their antibacterial, antioxidant, and immune-enhancing abilities with low toxicity. Carvacrol, thymol, and cinnamaldehyde are commonly used to synthesize EO. However, few studies focus on combining these three EO in early-weaned piglets. In the present study, 24 piglets weaned at 21 d of age were randomly divided into 2 groups (6 replicate pens per group, 2 piglets per pen). The piglets were fed a basal diet (the control group) and a basal diet supplemented with 400 mg/kg EO (a blend consisting of carvacrol, thymol, and cinnamaldehyde, the EO group) for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, one piglet per pen was randomly chosen to be sacrificed. Growth performance, hematology, plasma biochemical indices, antioxidant capacity, intestinal epithelial development and immunity, colonic volatile fatty acids (VFA), and microbiota were determined. The results indicated that the diet supplemented with EO significantly improved average daily feed intake (ADFI, p < 0.01) and average daily gain (ADG, p < 0.05) in the day 0 to 28 period. EO supplementation led to a significant decrease in plasma lysozyme (p < 0.05) and cortisol levels (p < 0.01). Additionally, EO significantly promoted jejunal goblet cells in the villus, jejunal mucosa ZO-1 mRNA expression, ileal villus height, and ileal villus height/crypt depth ratio in piglets (p < 0.05). The ileal mucosal TLR4 and NFκB p-p65/p65 protein expression were significantly inhibited in the EO group (p < 0.05). Colonic digesta microbiota analysis revealed that bacteria involving the Erysipelotrichaceae family, Holdemanella genus, Phascolarctobacterium genus, and Vibrio genus were enriched in the EO group. In conclusion, these findings indicate that the EO blend improves ADG and ADFI in the day 0 to 28 period, as well as intestinal epithelial development and intestinal immunity in early-weaned piglets, which provides a theoretical basis for the combined use of EO in weaned piglets.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Suínos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Timol/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais
6.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e268781, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629640

RESUMO

Following the obesity epidemics, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has grown in prevalence and become a main cause of morbidity and death, intimately linked to cardiovascular disease, cancer, and cirrhosis. The key factor in the evolution of NAFLD is thought to be oxidative stress. Because most patients cannot change their lifestyle or dietary habits, a pharmaceutical strategy is now required to treat NAFLD. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, is treated with vitamin E. (NASH). Vitamin E is also a powerful antioxidant that has been demonstrated to lower oxidative stress in people with NAFLD. Thymol is a monoterpene phenol with a variety of pharmacological effects, however its anti-fatty liver properties have yet to be investigated. Despite the fact that oxidative stress is thought to have a role in the etiology of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, antioxidant therapies have not been well studied in the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. The goal was to learn more about vitamin E and thymol's biological activities, with a particular emphasis on their therapeutic effectiveness in NAFLD. Four groups of thirty-two adult male rats were formed (healthy control, thymol, Vit E, and fatty liver). For 28 days, rats were given either oral vitamin E (200 mg/kg) or thymol (50 mg/kg) randomly. The levels of ALT, AST, TNF- α, Ferritin, CK-MB enzymes, and MAPK gene expression were then determined in the serum. Based on a random effect model analysis, at the end of 28 days of therapy, ALT (41.43 U/L), AST (47.91 U/L), Ferritin (1.13 pg/dl), CK-MB (251.22 IU/L), TNF-α (95.39 pg/mL) (p≤0.001), and MAPK gene expression levels (p≤0.05) significantly reduced in both experimental groups compared with the fatty liver group. Vitamin E and thymol therapy is a safe, affordable, and effective therapeutic option in the fatty liver group. Patients with fatty liver disease should be encouraged to take vitamin E and Thymol supplements, which are both safe and affordable, because more effective new therapeutic options are lacking.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Masculino , Ratos , Animais , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Vitamina E/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Ratos Wistar , Timol/farmacologia , Timol/uso terapêutico
7.
Life Sci ; 314: 121256, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549352

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a terminal lung ailment that shares several pathological and genetic mechanisms with severe COVID-19. Thymol (THY) is a dietary compound found in thyme species that showed therapeutic effects against various diseases. However, the effect of THY against bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung fibrosis was not previously investigated. The current study investigated the ability of THY to modulate oxidative stress, inflammation, miR-29a/TGF-ß expression, and PI3K/phospho-Akt signaling in lung fibrosis. Mice were divided into Normal, THY (100 mg/kg, p.o.), BLM (15 mg/kg, i.p.), BLM + THY (50 mg/kg, p.o.), and BLM + THY (100 mg/kg, p.o.) groups and treated for four weeks. The obtained results showed that BLM + THY (50 mg/kg) and BLM + THY (100 mg/kg) reduced fibrotic markers; α-SMA and fibronectin, inflammatory mediators; TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and NF-kB and oxidative stress biomarkers; MDA, GSH, and SOD, relative to BLM group. Lung histopathological examination by H&E and Masson's trichrome stains confirmed the obtained results. Remarkably, expression levels of TGF-ß, PI3K, and phospho-Akt were decreased while miR-29a expression was elevated. In conclusion, THY effectively prevented BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis by exerting significant anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Our novel findings that THY upregulated lung miR-29a expression while decreased TGF-ß and PI3K/Akt signaling are worthy of further investigation as a possible molecular mechanism for THY's anti-fibrotic actions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Fibrose Pulmonar , Camundongos , Animais , Fibrose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Bleomicina/toxicidade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Timol/uso terapêutico , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , COVID-19/patologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Fibrose , MicroRNAs/metabolismo
8.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 33(1): 43-50, 2023 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36517045

RESUMO

Fungal keratitis is a refractory kind of keratopathy. We attempted to investigate the anti-inflammatory role of thymol on Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) keratitis. Wound healing and fluorescein staining of the cornea were applied to verify thymol's safety. Mice models of A. fumigatus keratitis underwent subconjunctival injection of thymol. The anti-inflammatory roles of thymol were verified by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, slit lamp observation, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and Western blotting. In contrast with the DMSO group, more transparent corneas and less inflammatory cells infiltration were detected in mice treated with 50 µg/ml thymol. Thymol downregulated the synthesis of TLR4, MyD88, NF-kB, IL-1ß, NLRP3, caspase 1, caspase 8, GSDMD, RIPK3 and MLKL. In summary, we proved that thymol played a protective part in A. fumigatus keratitis by cutting down inflammatory cells aggregation, downregulating the TLR4/ MyD88/ NF-kB/ IL-1ß signal expression and reducing necroptosis and pyroptosis.


Assuntos
Aspergilose , Ceratite , Animais , Camundongos , Aspergillus fumigatus/genética , Aspergillus fumigatus/metabolismo , Timol/farmacologia , Timol/uso terapêutico , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Aspergilose/tratamento farmacológico , Aspergilose/metabolismo , Piroptose , Necroptose , Ceratite/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratite/metabolismo , Ceratite/microbiologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais de Doenças
9.
Chem Biol Interact ; 370: 110308, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36535314

RESUMO

Alcoholic liver disease represents a serious threat to human health. In terms of safety and acceptability, thymol is widely used in or on foodstuffs to generate odour and taste. The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect and mechanism of thymol against ethanol-induced injury in liver cells. Here we found that thymol is an effective agent for reducing ethanol-induced reactive oxygen species production in mouse liver cells. Thymol improves ethanol-induced lipid accumulation, and this corresponded to altered DGAT2 mRNA expression levels. Metabolomics data analysis showed that thymol alleviated ethanol-induced changes in the levels of thirty-four metabolites including nicotinic acid and l-arginine. By utilizing pathway enrichment analysis, altered metabolites in cells treated with ethanol and ethanol plus thymol were enriched in fourteen pathways including metabolic pathways and arginine and proline metabolism. We further confirmed the alleviation of overdose nitric oxide production in cells treated with ethanol plus thymol compared with that in ethanol-treated cells. It was interesting that up-regulated LC3-II/LC3-I ratio together with higher SQSTM1 protein abundance in ethanol-treated cells were attenuated by treatment with ethanol plus thymol. Thymol ameliorated ethanol-induced reduction of HSPA8 protein abundance. In addition, chloroquine-treated cells exhibited lower HSPA8 protein abundance compared with cells simulated with ethanol plus thymol. These data reveal that improving effect of thymol on ethanol-induced metabolic alteration is related to autophagic flux restoration. Our findings indicate that thymol is an attractive option for treating ethanol-induced liver damage.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Etanol/toxicidade , Timol/farmacologia , Timol/uso terapêutico , Autofagia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Fígado
10.
Food Res Int ; 162(Pt B): 112093, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36461400

RESUMO

Active packaging systems that are sustainable and capable of delivering antimicrobial agents intelligently are in demand in food industry. In this work, an extremely simple strategy inspired by leaf stomata was introduced to smartly trigger thymol release at different relative humidity using EVOH as the "stomata". Thymol was encapsulated into ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) to form core-shell nanofibers (thymol/EVOH) via coaxial electrospinning. The core-shell structure of the nanofiber was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Thymol release could be triggered by the relative humidity (RH), and nanofibers released more thymol at 90% RH than at 30% RH. In addition, this functionalized nanofibers showed excellent antibacterial activity in vitro against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and performed good biocompatibility. The nanofiber film was also applied to fruit preservation, and was found to extend the strawberries shelf-life. Sensory analysis also showed that the strawberries flavor treated by thymol/EVOH nanofibers presented high acceptability. The work will provide an innovative approach to design packaging film.


Assuntos
Nanofibras , Timol , Umidade , Embalagem de Produtos , Folhas de Planta , Escherichia coli
11.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 188: 105220, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36464385

RESUMO

Extensive usage of synthetic pesticides has proved to be destructive to all living being and the resurgence of pest resistance. Compounds derived from certain plants are usually safer compared to chemical control of pest. The present study thus intended to use Thymus vulgaris essential oil (EO) and two of its derivatives including thymol and carvacrol in order to see their deleterious effects on Glyphodes pyloalis (Walker). We also studied the oil components. This pest has recently become a serious concern for the silk industry. Our results showed that the thyme EO contain several components including thymol (26.9%), ρ-Cymene (14.54%), linalool (13.39%) and carvacrol (5.7%). Our toxicity tests revealed an estimated LD50 values for thyme EO, thymol and carvacrol 2.82, 32.18 and 56.54 µg/larva, respectively. However, the thyme EO was more toxic than its two tested compounds. The activity of certain detoxifying enzymes such as α- and ß-esterase, glutathione S-transferase and cytochrome P450 were significantly inhibited by thymol-treated larvae compared to the control group. Similarly, the activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatases enzymes in thymol-treated larvae decreased while the activity of acid phosphatases increased. Our results suggest that thyme EO and its components have potential for the control of G. pyloalis larvae in mulberry orchards, where no synthetic chemicals are allowed.


Assuntos
Morus , Óleos Voláteis , Thymus (Planta) , Animais , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Timol/toxicidade , Larva , Fosfatase Alcalina
12.
Med Oncol ; 40(1): 57, 2022 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36550238

RESUMO

Cancer is a disease that has become widespread recently and has been studied extensively. It is of great importance to find an active and effective treatment quickly due to the emergence of the disease and its spread to many tissues in the organism by metastasis. In this study, it is aimed to detect active and active substances that are highly effective on cancer cells in a short time by using docking scores, the accuracy of which has been proven by many studies. Today, many medicinal plants are being studied for therapeutic purposes. In this study, the activities of the prominent active substances in these medicinal plants were compared with the docking scores and the molecules with the highest inhibition effect on liver cancer receptors were determined. The data obtained in this study are of great importance in terms of guiding experimental studies by detecting active substances effective on liver cancer by preventing time and material loss. Considering the results obtained from this study, it can be concluded that Cucurbitacin I and Cucurbitacin E, Thymol, Piperine, and Carvacrol are very effective for the inhibition of liver cancer cell receptors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hepáticas , Plantas Medicinais , Humanos , Timol/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36554523

RESUMO

Due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, the risk it represents to public health, and the possible consequences for animal health and welfare, there is an increasing focus on reducing antimicrobial usage (AMU) in animal husbandry. Therefore, a great interest in developing alternatives to AMU in livestock production is present worldwide. Recently, essential oils (EOs) have gained great attention as promising possibilities for the replacement of antibiotics. The current study aimed to test the potential of using a novel EO-based pharmaceutical formulation (Phyto-Bomat) in bovine mastitis treatment. The antibacterial activity was performed using the microdilution technique. Lactating dairy cows were treated with 15 mL of Phyto-Bomat in the inflamed quarter for 5 consecutive days in order to analyze blood and milk samples for thymol and carvacrol residues using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Antimicrobial activity expressed as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) indicates that this formulation has the highest activity against Gram-positive strains. The dominant compounds in Phyto-Bomat were thymol and carvacrol, at 12.58 ± 1.23 mg/mL and 23.11 ± 2.31 mg/mL, respectively. The quantification of these two compounds in evaluated biological samples showed that 24 h after administration the concentration of thymol and carvacrol in milk samples was at the same level as before application. On the other hand, thymol and carvacrol were detectable in plasma samples even after 24 h post-treatment, with values ranging from 0.15-0.38 and 0.21-0.66 µg/mL, respectively. The tested formulation showed encouraging results of antibacterial activity against bovine mastitis pathogens, as well as the withdrawal period of dominant compounds, which implies that further testing regarding the bacteriological and clinical cure rates in clinical settings is needed.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Mastite Bovina , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Timol/farmacologia , Mastite Bovina/tratamento farmacológico , Composição de Medicamentos , Lactação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/química
14.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364030

RESUMO

The genus Thymus (Lamiaceae) contains numerous medicinally important species. Among them, Thymus quinquecostatus Celak. has been extensively utilized as a traditional medicine and a food flavoring agent in the Korean peninsula, owing to its unique aroma. In particular, T. quinquecostatus has been used for the treatment of gastroenteritis, inflammation, stomach problems, liver disease, arthritis, arteriosclerosis, and menstrual problems. This study aimed to investigate the chemical diversity of essential oils among 103 Korean native populations of T. quinquecostatus. For this purpose, seedlings of T. quinquecostatus populations were purchased from different regions in the Korean Peninsula, and seedlings were grown in the experimental field under the same environmental conditions. The chemical compositions of steam-distilled essential oils were determined using GC-MS. In total, 212 components were identified from 103 populations of T. quinquecostatus. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed in order to understand variations in the essential oil compositions among 103 Korean native populations of T. quinquecostatus. According to the essential oil compositions, 30 components were selected for PCA. Based on the most abundant essential oil components, four chemotypes were identified in T. quinquecostatus populations. PCA and cluster analyses revealed that 103 individuals of T. quinquecostatus could be classified into four clusters, such as thymol, geraniol, geranyl acetate, and linalool. Furthermore, dendrogram construction demonstrated that geraniol and geranyl acetate, as well as linalool and thymol groups, were closely related. This study suggested the significant chemical polymorphism of essential oils in local populations of T. quinquecostatus in Korea. It could be concluded that the intraspecific variations in the essential oil compositions may be associated with genetic diversity among the individuals.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis , Thymus (Planta) , Humanos , Thymus (Planta)/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Timol/química
15.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364152

RESUMO

The purposes of this investigatory study were to determine the chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs) of Origanum compactum from two Moroccan regions (Boulemane and Taounate), as well as the evaluation of their biological effects. Determining EOs' chemical composition was performed by a gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS). The antioxidant activity of EOs was evaluated using free radical scavenging ability (DPPH method), fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. The anti-inflammatory effect was assessed in vitro using the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibition test and in vivo using the carrageenan-induced paw edema model. Finally, the antibacterial effect was evaluated against several strains using the disk-diffusion assay and the micro-dilution method. The chemical constituent of O. compactum EO (OCEO) from the Boulemane zone is dominated by carvacrol (45.80%), thymol (18.86%), and α-pinene (13.43%). However, OCEO from the Taounate zone is rich in 3-carene (19.56%), thymol (12.98%), and o-cymene (11.16%). OCEO from Taounate showed higher antioxidant activity than EO from Boulemane. Nevertheless, EO from Boulemane considerably inhibited 5-LOX (IC50 = 0.68 ± 0.02 µg/mL) compared to EO from Taounate (IC50 = 1.33 ± 0.01 µg/mL). A similar result was obtained for tyrosinase inhibition with Boulemane EO and Taounate EO, which gave IC50s of 27.51 ± 0.03 µg/mL and 41.83 ± 0.01 µg/mL, respectively. The in vivo anti-inflammatory test showed promising effects; both EOs inhibit and reduce inflammation in mice. For antibacterial activity, both EOs were found to be significantly active against all strains tested in the disk-diffusion test, but O. compactum EO from the Boulemane region showed the highest activity. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) for O. compactum EO from the Boulemane region ranged from 0.06 to 0.25% (v/v) and from 0.15 to 0.21% (v/v) for O. compactum from the Taounate region. The MBC/MIC index revealed that both EOs exhibited remarkable bactericidal effects.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis , Origanum , Camundongos , Animais , Origanum/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Timol , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430333

RESUMO

Carvacrol is a monoterpenoid phenol produced by aromatic plants such as oregano. Although the exact mechanism by which carvacrol acts has not yet been established, it appears to inhibit transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7), which modulates the homeostasis of metal ions such as zinc and calcium. Several studies have demonstrated that carvacrol has protective effects against zinc neurotoxicity after ischemia and epilepsy. However, to date, no studies have investigated the effect of carvacrol on traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced zinc neurotoxicity. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of carvacrol for the prevention of zinc-induced neuronal death after TBI. Rats were subjected to a controlled cortical impact, and carvacrol was injected at a dose of 50 mg/kg. Histological analysis was performed at 12 h, 24 h, and 7 days after TBI. We found that carvacrol reduced TBI-induced TRPM7 over-expression and free zinc accumulation. As a result, subsequent oxidative stress, dendritic damage, and neuronal degeneration were decreased. Moreover, carvacrol not only reduced microglial activation and delayed neuronal death but also improved neurological outcomes after TBI. Taken together, these findings suggest that carvacrol administration may have therapeutic potential after TBI by preventing neuronal death through the inhibition of TRPM7 expression and alleviation of zinc neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Síndromes Neurotóxicas , Canais de Cátion TRPM , Canais de Potencial de Receptor Transitório , Animais , Ratos , Zinco , Canais de Cátion TRPM/genética , Fenóis , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Timol
17.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 155: 113799, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36271575

RESUMO

Both thymoquinone (TQ) and thymol (T) have been proved to possess a positive impact on human health. In this research, we aimed to investigate the effect of these compounds separately and together on the Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like behavior induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG) in rats. Forty male, Spargue Dawley rat pups (postnatal day 21), were randomly allocated into five groups: Normal saline (NS), MSG, MSG+TQ, MSG+T, and MSG+TQ+T. MSG (0.4 mg/kg/day), TQ (10 mg/kg/day) and T (30 mg/kg/day) were orally administered for 8 weeks. The behavioral tests proved that rats treated with TQ and/or T showed improved locomotor, attention and cognitive functions compared to the MSG group with more pronounced effect displayed with their combination. All treated groups showed improvement in MSG-induced aberrations in brain levels of GSH, IL-1ß, TNF-α, GFAP, glutamate, calcium, dopamine, norepinephrine, Wnt3a, ß-Catenin and BDNF. TQ and/or T treatment also enhanced the mRNA expression of Nrf2, HO-1 and Bcl2 while reducing the protein expression of TLR4, NFκB, NLRP3, caspase 1, Bax, AIF and GSK3ß as compared to the MSG group. However, the combined therapy showed more significant effects in all measured parameters. All of these findings were further confirmed by the histopathological examinations. Current results concluded that the combined therapy of TQ and T had higher protective effects than their individual supplementations against MSG-induced ADHD-like behavior in rats.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Glutamato de Sódio , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/prevenção & controle , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2 , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Cálcio , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Dopamina , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Norepinefrina , RNA Mensageiro , Solução Salina , Timol/farmacologia , Timol/uso terapêutico , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt
18.
Anal Methods ; 14(40): 3989-3998, 2022 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36189826

RESUMO

In the present study, a novel ferrofluid was prepared by combining a menthol/thymol deep eutectic solvent with magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@OA). This composite was first applied in vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VA-LLME), followed by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) for the determination of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) residues in beverages. The synthesized deep eutectic solvent-based ferrofluid (DES-FF) was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Furthermore, the type of carrier, pH of the sample solution, ferrofluid volume, salt amount, vortex time, type and volume of elution solvents and desorption time were statistically optimized for high extraction efficiencies. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.008 µg mL-1 and 0.03 µg mL-1, respectively. Moreover, the mean recoveries for DMP ranged from 85.2% to 99.5%, and intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 5.5% and 7.8%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of dimethyl phthalate in real samples, making it a promising analysis technique for beverage samples. The greenness of the entire procedure of our proposed method was assessed by comparing it with other reported methods using ComplexGAPI (Complex Green Analytical Procedure Index). The results show that our proposed method has a better greenness than other reported methods.


Assuntos
Microextração em Fase Líquida , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Solventes/química , Solventes Eutéticos Profundos , Mentol , Timol , Coloides , Bebidas
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(42): 13787-13795, 2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36240172

RESUMO

Sour rot caused by Geotrichum citri-aurantii (G. citri-aurantii) is responsible for huge economic losses during citrus fruit storage. However, the availability of chemical fungicides for controlling this disease is rather limited. In the present study, the antifungal activities of 25 oxygenated aromatic compounds against the mycelial growth of G. citri-aurantii were determined, and their corresponding structure-activity relationships were illustrated. Salicylaldehyde (pMIC = 2.689) possessed the strongest inhibitory effect on G. citri-aurantii growth, followed by thymol (pMIC = 2.478) and o-phthalaldehyde (pMIC = 2.429). Molecular electrostatic potential and molecular orbital analysis showed that the antifungal efficiency of test compounds was determined by the number and location of hydroxyl and aldehyde groups and the length of the ester chain. All compounds were selected for quantitative structure-antifungal activity relationship (QSAR) analysis. A three-dimensional-QSAR model of G. citri-aurantii inhibitors was established and demonstrated good predictive capability [comparative molecular field analysis, q2 = 0.532, optimum number of components (ONC) =10, R2 = 0.996, F = 560.325, standard error of estimation (SEE) = 0.034, and two descriptors; comparative similarity index analysis, q2 = 0.675, ONC = 6, R2 = 0.989, F = 263.354, SEE = 0.054, and five descriptors]. QSAR analysis showed that substitution at position 1 with hydrophilic and electron-withdrawing groups produced a hydrogen donor and thus improved the antifungal activity. In contrast, substitution at positions 4 or 5 with hydrophilic and electron-donating groups decreased its antifungal activity. These findings can provide theoretical guidance for preparing effective antifungal drugs for controlling sour rot in citrus.


Assuntos
Citrus , Fungicidas Industriais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Timol/farmacologia , o-Ftalaldeído , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Geotrichum/química , Citrus/microbiologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Ésteres/farmacologia , Hidrogênio/farmacologia
20.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(10)2022 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36287924

RESUMO

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a common contaminant in food and feed during storage, does great harm to human and animal health. Five essential oils (thymol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, and citral) were tested for their inhibition effect against Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) in broth and feed. Cinnamaldehyde and citral were proven to be most effective against A. flavus compared to others and have a synergistic effect when used simultaneously. The broth supplemented with cinnamaldehyde and citral was inoculated with A. flavus (106 CFU/mL) by using the checkerboard method, and mold counts and AFB1 production were tested on days 0, 1, 3, and 5. Similarly, 100 g poultry feed supplemented with the mixture of cinnamaldehyde and citral at the ratio 1:1 was also inoculated with A. flavus, and the same parameters were tested on days 0, 7, 14, and 21. In poultry feed, cinnamaldehyde and citral significantly reduced mold counts and AFB1 concentrations (p &lt; 0.05). Results showed that cinnamaldehyde and citral have a positive synergy effect and could both inhibit at least 90% the fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production at 40 µg/mL in broth and poultry feed, and could be an alternative to control aflatoxin contamination in food and feed in future.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Humanos , Aspergillus flavus , Aflatoxina B1 , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Eugenol/farmacologia , Timol/farmacologia , Aves Domésticas , Aflatoxinas/análise
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...