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1.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 2455-2465, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511891

RESUMO

Background: Inhaled bronchodilator therapy is currently the mainstay of treatment for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Some inhalers require patients to achieve certain inhalation efforts either to activate the device or to deliver medication to the site of action. For dry powder inhalers, low peak inspiratory flow (PIF) can result in poor medication delivery but the clinical significance of this is not well understood. Methods: TRONARTO was a 4-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, parallel-group study which stratified patients with moderate-to-severe COPD according to their PIF against medium-low resistance at screening. Patients were randomized to receive tiotropium/olodaterol (5 µg/5 µg) or matched placebo delivered via the Respimat® Soft Mist™ inhaler (SMI). After 4 weeks of treatment, we assessed change from baseline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) area under the curve 0-3 hours (FEV1 AUC0-3h) and trough FEV1. Results: Overall, 213 patients were randomized, of whom 106 received tiotropium/olodaterol (PIF <60 L/min, 55; PIF ≥60 L/min, 51) and 107 received placebo (PIF <60 L/min, 55; PIF ≥60 L/min, 52). For FEV1 AUC0-3h, the adjusted mean change from baseline versus placebo was 336 mL (95% confidence interval [CI] 246-425 mL; P<0.0001) in the PIF <60 L/min group and 321 mL (95% CI 233-409 mL; P<0.0001) in the PIF ≥60 L/min group. For trough FEV1, the adjusted mean change from baseline versus placebo was 201 mL (95% CI 117-286 mL; P<0.0001) in the PIF <60 L/min group and 217 mL (95% CI 135-299 mL; P<0.0001) in the PIF ≥60 L/min group. Conclusion: In the TRONARTO study, which included patients with moderate-to-severe COPD and varying inspiratory flow abilities, treatment with tiotropium/olodaterol resulted in significant lung function improvements versus placebo. This SMI can be used irrespective of the PIF that a patient can generate.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Benzoxazinas , Broncodilatadores , Inaladores de Pó Seco , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Brometo de Tiotrópio
2.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e049675, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348953

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) guidelines advocate treatment with combinations of long-acting bronchodilators for patients with COPD who have persistent symptoms or continue to have exacerbations while using a single bronchodilator. This study assessed the cost-utility of the fixed dose combination of the bronchodilators tiotropium and olodaterol versus two comparators, tiotropium monotherapy and long-acting ß2 agonist/inhaled corticosteroid (LABA/ICS) combinations, in three European countries: Finland, Sweden and the Netherlands. METHODS: A previously published COPD patient-level discrete event simulation model was updated with most recent evidence to estimate lifetime quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs for COPD patients receiving either tiotropium/olodaterol, tiotropium monotherapy or LABA/ICS. Treatment efficacy covered impact on trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), total and severe exacerbations and pneumonias. The unit costs of medication, maintenance treatment, exacerbations and pneumonias were obtained for each country. The country-specific analyses adhered to the Finnish, Swedish and Dutch pharmacoeconomic guidelines, respectively. RESULTS: Treatment with tiotropium/olodaterol gained QALYs ranging from 0.09 (Finland and Sweden) to 0.11 (the Netherlands) versus tiotropium and 0.23 (Finland and Sweden) to 0.28 (the Netherlands) versus LABA/ICS. The Finnish payer's incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of tiotropium/olodaterol was €11 000/QALY versus tiotropium and dominant versus LABA/ICS. The Swedish ICERs were €6200/QALY and dominant, respectively (societal perspective). The Dutch ICERs were €14 400 and €9200, respectively (societal perspective). The probability that tiotropium/olodaterol was cost-effective compared with tiotropium at the country-specific (unofficial) threshold values for the maximum willingness to pay for a QALY was 84% for Finland, 98% for Sweden and 99% for the Netherlands. Compared with LABA/ICS, this probability was 100% for all three countries. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the simulations, tiotropium/olodaterol is a cost-effective treatment option versus tiotropium or LABA/ICS in all three countries. In both Finland and Sweden, tiotropium/olodaterol is more effective and cost saving (ie, dominant) in comparison with LABA/ICS.


Assuntos
Broncodilatadores , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/uso terapêutico , Benzoxazinas , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Finlândia , Humanos , Países Baixos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Suécia , Brometo de Tiotrópio/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Respir Investig ; 59(6): 871-875, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433521

RESUMO

Spirometry is a crucial test used in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic has posed numerous challenges in performing spirometry. Dynamic-ventilatory digital radiography (DR) provides sequential chest radiography images during respiration with lower doses of radiation than conventional X-ray fluoroscopy and computed tomography. Recent studies revealed that parameters obtained from dynamic DR are promising for evaluating pulmonary function of COPD patients. We report two cases of COPD evaluated by dynamic-ventilatory DR for pulmonary function and treatment efficacy and discuss the potential of dynamic DR for evaluating COPD therapy.


Assuntos
Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica/métodos , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Idoso , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Fluticasona/uso terapêutico , Fumarato de Formoterol/uso terapêutico , Glicopirrolato/análogos & derivados , Glicopirrolato/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Indanos/uso terapêutico , Pulmão/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Quinolonas/uso terapêutico , Espirometria , Brometo de Tiotrópio/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 31(1): 29, 2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34035312

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment guidelines do not currently include recommendations for escalation directly from monotherapy to triple therapy. This 12-week, double-blind, double-dummy study randomized 800 symptomatic moderate-to-very-severe COPD patients receiving tiotropium (TIO) for ≥3 months to once-daily fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol (FF/UMEC/VI) 100/62.5/25 mcg via ELLIPTA (n = 400) or TIO 18 mcg via HandiHaler (n = 400) plus matched placebo. Study endpoints included change from baseline in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) at Days 85 (primary), 28 and 84 (secondary), health status (St George's Respiratory Questionnaire [SGRQ] and COPD Assessment Test [CAT]) and safety. FF/UMEC/VI significantly improved trough FEV1 at all timepoints (Day 85 treatment difference [95% CI] 95 mL [62-128]; P < 0.001), and significantly improved SGRQ and CAT versus TIO. Treatment safety profiles were similar. Once-daily single-inhaler FF/UMEC/VI significantly improved lung function and health status versus once-daily TIO in symptomatic moderate-to-very-severe COPD patients, with a similar safety profile.


Assuntos
Broncodilatadores , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Administração por Inalação , Androstadienos , Álcoois Benzílicos , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Clorobenzenos , Método Duplo-Cego , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Quinuclidinas , Brometo de Tiotrópio/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Brasília; CONITEC; maio 2021.
Não convencional em Português | BRISA/RedTESA | ID: biblio-1253973

RESUMO

CONTEXTO: A asma é uma doença complexa, de apresentação variável, com uma prevalência elevada. A OMS estima que existam cerca de 235 milhões de pessoas com asma no mundo, sendo que ocorrem em torno de 250 mil mortes por ano no mundo, devido a esta doença. A asma pode ser classificada como intermitente, persistente leve, persistente moderada e persistente grave. A asma grave é aquela que mais frequentemente se associa a óbitos. Estudos indicam que de 5 a 10% dos portadores de asma apresentam a forma grave. O Protocolo Clínico e Diretriz Terapêutica (PCDT) atual de Asma foi aprovado e publicado no ano de 2013. Este recomenda o uso de altas doses de corticosteroide inalatório associado a Beta2 agonistas de longa duração e no caso não haver controle com esses medicamentos, este sugere aumentar a dose destes medicamentos e associar corticoide oral. Do ano da publicação do PCDT de asma até este momento, surgiram opções terapêuticas para os portadores de asma grave, como a utilização de tiotrópio, um anticolinérgico, que atua como antimuscarínico de longa duração. TECNOLOGIA: tiotrópio. EVIDÊNCIAS CIENTÍFICAS: A literatura disponível, dá suporte ao uso do tiotrópio como um complemento ao padrão de tratamento em pessoas com asma moderada e grave, com controle inadequado da doença. Esses tratamentos melhoram o VEF1 e o controle da asma (ACQ). Não houve, no entanto, diferença observada para os desfechos exacerbações (com uso de corticosteroide oral), exacerbação com hospitalização, qualidade de vida e uso de corticosteroide oral. Os efeitos adversos foram semelhantes naqueles que usaram tiotrópio ou que não o utilizaram. A qualidade das evidências foi considerada alta para a maior parte dos desfechos (função pulmonar, qualidade de vida, controle de sintomas e efeitos adversos) na população adulta e baixa a moderada para evidência referente a crianças e adolescentes. AVALIAÇÃO ECONÔMICA: Em avaliação anterior à consulta pública, foi identificada ausência de diferença significativa entre os desfechos de eficácia e segurança com grupos tratados com e sem tiotrópio adição de tiotrópio. Foi então realizada uma análise de custo-minimização, que resultou em custo médio por indivíduo ao ano de R$ 2.566,80. ANÁLISE DE IMPACTO ORÇAMENTÁRIO: Em avaliação anterior à consulta pública e considerando o menor valor de compra feito pelo DLOG, o impacto incremental seria de R$ 981.009.093,38 a uma taxa de difusão de 30% a 50% e de R$ 1.715.357.742,83 com difusão de 60% a 80%, em cinco anos (2021-2025). Já considerando o preço proposto pela empresa fabricante do medicamento no relatório nº 585 da Conitec, o impacto incremental poderia variar de cerca de R$ 578,5 milhões a R$ 1 bilhão, em cinco anos. MONITORAMENTO DO HORIZONTE TECNOLÓGICO: Em busca nas bases ClinicalTrials.gov e Cortellis™ foram localizadas duas tecnologias em fase 3 de estudo, ambas sem registro no FDA, EMA e Anvisa. O masatinibe é um inibidor de tirosina quinase em investigação para asma grave não controlada por corticoides orais (>5mg/dia) e alta dose de corticoides inalatórios + LABA, cujos resultados preliminares sugerem superioridade do masatinibe em comparação o placebo para redução do número de exacerbações. Já o tepelizumabe é um anticorpo monoclonal humanizado que se se liga à linfopoietina estromal tímica, citocina possivelmente relacionada à hiperresponsividade das vias aéreas, IgE, eosinofilia e à patofisiologia da asma. Este medicamento está sendo avaliado como terapia adjuvante na asma moderada a grave em pacientes adultos e adolescentes. No que diz respeito ao tiotrópio, foram encontrados dois pedidos de patente, sendo que um deles foi arquivado e o outro, negado. CONSIDERAÇÕES: As evidências existentes na literatura, até o momento, são, em geral, de boa qualidade e sugerem que o tiotrópio é eficaz na melhora da função pulmonar (avaliada através do VEF1 e dos sintomas da asma- alterações estatisticamente significativas entre os grupos com e sem o tiotrópio), porém a magnitude destes 'ganhos' parece ser muito baixa e não ter reflexo clínico. Em consonância com esta possibilidade, o uso deste medicamento, em relação a exacerbações, hospitalizações e qualidade de vida, não apresentou significância estatística. Para o desfecho redução no uso e dose de corticosteroide não foi encontrada literatura específica dentro dos critérios pré-estabelecidos. Por fim, o tiotrópio mostrou-se um medicamento com um bom nível de segurança. RECOMENDAÇÃO PRELIMINAR DA CONITEC: O Plenário da Conitec, em sua 95ª Reunião Ordinária, realizada no dia 04 de março de 2021, deliberou que a matéria fosse disponibilizada em consulta pública com recomendação preliminar desfavorável à incorporação do tiotrópio para a indicação avaliada. Para tomar a decisão a Conitec considerou que há escassez de evidências que demonstrem a superioridade do tiotrópio frente ao tratamento já disponível no SUS (combinação de LABA + CI ­ formoterol + budesonida) e que a incorporação do tiotrópio resultaria em impacto orçamentário vultoso ao sistema de saúde. CONSULTA PÚBLICA: A consulta pública nº 21 ficou vigente no período entre 22/03/2021 e 12/04/2021. Foram recebidas 1.195 contribuições, sendo 456 pelo formulário para contribuições técnico-científicas e 740 pelo formulário para contribuições sobre experiência ou opinião. Em comum, tanto contribuições técnico-científicas quanto sobre experiência ou opinião foram, na maioria, discordantes da recomendação preliminar da Conitec; e reforçaram a importância de consideração de diretrizes nacionais e internacionais, principalmente, Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) e da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia (SBPT). A maioria das contribuições técnico-científicas apresentava desfechos e estudos já contemplados no relatório inicial ou inelegíveis, considerando os critérios de inclusão e exclusão elaborados com especialistas (p.ex. estudos observacionais ou revisões não sistemáticas). Principalmente no tocante à avaliação econômica e análise de impacto orçamentário, a maioria argumentou que tiotrópio é mais econômico que omalizumabe, opção disponível no SUS para pacientes com asma alérgica grave. Omalizumabe não foi definido como comparador na pergunta norteadora deste relatório, pois não havia sido incorporado no SUS na ocasião de elaboração da pergunta, bem como porque sua indicação (asma alérgica grave) abrange um subgrupo dos pacientes com asma moderada e grave. Alguns profissionais de saúde sugeriram ainda que a população elegível da análise de impacto orçamentário estava superdimensionada. Nas contribuições sobre experiência de pacientes, profissionais, familiares ou pessoas interessadas no tema, eles opinam principalmente sobre a melhora da capacidade pulmonar, o aumento da qualidade de vida, diminuição de crises e internações e diminuição de outros medicamentos como corticoides, além de evitar a progressão para uso de imunobiológicos. Sobre os efeitos negativos do tiotrópio, pessoas que tiveram experiência com a tecnologia relataram, principalmente, boca seca e tosse, taquicardia, aumento da pressão intraocular, porém a maioria relata que os efeitos colaterais são muito leves e raros. Após síntese e análise das contribuições e anexos, foi incluído um ensaio clínico randomizado à revisão sistemática com meta-análise deste relatório, que não modificou significativamente as conclusões quanto à evidência científica. Considerando a premissa de diferença entre os tratamentos em termos de efetividade, uma análise de custo-efetividade foi realizada e identificou, para anos de vida ajustados pela qualidade (QALY), que a incorporação do tiotrópio ao tratamento padrão leva a uma RCEI de R$ 2.849,23 por QALY adicional, quando comparado ao TRATAMENTO padrão em crianças, adolescentes e adultos com asma moderada a grave. Quanto à atualização da análise de impacto orçamentário considerando população elegível menor, a adição de tiotrópio resultaria em impacto de R$ 254.361.850 para o período de 5 anos. RECOMENDAÇÃO FINAL DA CONITEC: O Plenário da Conitec, em sua 97ª Reunião Ordinária, realizada no dia 05 de maio de 2021, deliberou por unanimidade recomendar a não incorporação do tiotrópio para o tratamento de crianças, adolescentes e adultos com asma moderada e grave não controlada. Para tomar a decisão, a Conitec considerou que, ao passo que há evidência do benefício do tiotrópio considerando função pulmonar e outros desfechos intermediários, há escassez de evidências que demonstrem a superioridade do tiotrópio frente ao tratamento já disponível no SUS (combinação de LABA + CI ­ formoterol + budesonida), considerando desfechos primordiais, como exacerbações graves, hospitalização ou qualidade de vida. Foi assinado o Registro de Deliberação nº 607/2021. Decisão: não incorporar o tiotrópio para tratamento da asma moderada e grave em pacientes adultos e crianças (com idade de 6 anos ou mais), no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde ­ SUS, conforme Portaria nº 19, publicada no Diário Oficial da União nº 103, Seção 1, página 118, em 2 de junho de 2021.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Brometo de Tiotrópio/uso terapêutico , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Sistema Único de Saúde , Análise Custo-Benefício/economia
7.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 1137-1148, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33911859

RESUMO

Purpose: Ensifentrine is an inhaled dual inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3 and 4 that has shown bronchodilatory effects and symptom improvement in clinical studies in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and anti-inflammatory effects in healthy volunteers in a model of COPD-like inflammation. This manuscript reports on the results of the clinical study examining if ensifentrine provides meaningful improvements in lung function when added on to tiotropium over 4 weeks in patients with COPD who have impaired lung function and symptoms despite treatment with tiotropium. Patients and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-ranging study recruited patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. Patients were randomized to open-label tiotropium once daily (QD) plus (+) blinded escalating doses of ensifentrine or placebo twice daily (BID). Effects on lung function, symptoms and quality of life (QoL) were assessed over 4 weeks. Results: A total of 416 COPD patients were randomized and 413 received at least one dose of blinded study medication + tiotropium. All ensifentrine doses produced a significant and dose-dependent increase in peak forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) from baseline to Week 4, with placebo-corrected differences of 77.5 mL when added to tiotropium (0.375 mg; 95% CI: 4.8, 150.1 mL; p=0.037) to 124.2 mL (3 mg; 95% CI: 51.0, 196.8 mL; p<0.001). A significant increase in average FEV1 (0-12h) was shown at Week 4 with the 3 mg dose (87.3 mL; 95% CI: 20.0, 154.5 mL; p=0.011). Clinically meaningful and statistically significant improvements in the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire - COPD (SGRQ-C) additive to tiotropium were observed at Week 4, exceeding the minimally clinically important difference of 4 units with the 1.5 and 3 mg doses. Adverse events were similar in frequency between the ensifentrine and placebo arms. Conclusion: This clinical study demonstrated that nebulized ensifentrine added on to tiotropium produced clinically important improvements in lung function and QoL over 4 weeks in COPD patients receiving tiotropium who demonstrated symptoms and lung function impairment, with a safety profile similar to placebo.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Qualidade de Vida , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Isoquinolinas , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/farmacologia , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/uso terapêutico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinonas , Brometo de Tiotrópio/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 1149-1161, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33911860

RESUMO

Background: Comorbidities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with increased medical costs and risk of exacerbations. This study compared COPD-related medical costs and exacerbations in high-cost, high-comorbidity patients with COPD receiving initial maintenance treatment (IMT) with umeclidinium/vilanterol (UMEC/VI) versus fluticasone propionate/salmeterol (FP/SAL), budesonide/formoterol (B/F), or tiotropium (TIO). Methods: This retrospective, matched cohort study identified patients from Optum's de-identified Clinformatics Data Mart database who initiated UMEC/VI, FP/SAL, B/F, or TIO between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2018 (index date defined as date of the first fill). Eligibility criteria included age ≥40 years at index, ≥1 pre-index COPD diagnosis, no pre-index asthma diagnosis, 12 months of continuous insurance coverage pre-index, and high pre-index costs (≥80th percentile of IMT population) and comorbidities (Quan-Charlson comorbidity index ≥3). Propensity score matching was used to control for potential confounders. On-treatment COPD-related medical costs (primary endpoint) and exacerbations were evaluated. Results: Matched cohorts were well balanced on baseline characteristics (UMEC/VI vs FP/SAL: n=1194 each; UMEC/VI vs B/F: n=1441 each; UMEC/VI vs TIO: n=1277 each). Patients receiving UMEC/VI had significantly lower COPD-related medical costs versus FP/SAL (difference: $6587 per patient per year; P=0.048), and numerically lower costs versus B/F and TIO. Patients initiating UMEC/VI had significantly lower risk of COPD-related severe exacerbation versus FP/SAL (hazard ratio [95% CI]: 0.78 [0.62, 0.98]; P=0.032), B/F (0.77 [0.63, 0.95]; P=0.016), and TIO (0.79 [0.64, 0.98]; P=0.028). The rate of COPD-related severe exacerbations was significantly lower with UMEC/VI versus FP/SAL (rate ratio [95% CI]: 0.73 [0.59, 0.91]; P=0.008) and B/F (0.73 [0.59, 0.93]; P=0.012), and numerically lower versus TIO (0.83 [0.68, 1.04]; P=0.080). Conclusion: These findings suggest that high-cost, high-comorbidity patients with COPD receiving UMEC/VI compared with FP/SAL, B/F, and TIO as IMT may have lower medical costs and exacerbation risk.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Administração por Inalação , Adulto , Álcoois Benzílicos/efeitos adversos , Broncodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Budesonida , Clorobenzenos/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Combinação de Medicamentos , Combinação Fluticasona-Salmeterol/efeitos adversos , Fumarato de Formoterol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Quinuclidinas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Brometo de Tiotrópio/efeitos adversos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731991

RESUMO

Background: The Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) is a simple patient-reported tool to measure clinical control of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Objective: This open-label, single-arm, non-interventional study (NCT03663569) investigated changes in CCQ score during treatment with tiotropium/olodaterol in clinical practice. Methods: Data were included from consenting COPD patients, enrolled in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Israel, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine, who were receiving a new prescription for tiotropium/olodaterol according to the treating physician in a real-world environment. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of therapeutic success, defined as a 0.4-point decrease in CCQ score after treatment with tiotropium/olodaterol for approximately 6 weeks. Results: Overall, 4819 patients were treated; baseline and Week 6 CCQ scores were available for 4700 patients, mostly classified as Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) B (51.6%) or D (42.7%). After 6 weeks' treatment, 81.4% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 80.24-82.49) of patients achieved therapeutic success; mean improvement in overall CCQ score was 1.02 points (95% CI 1.00-1.05). Improved CCQ score was seen in 92.2% of patients (95% CI 91.43-92.98), 2.5% had no change and 5.3% showed a worsening. When stratified by prior treatment, the greatest benefit was seen in treatment-naïve patients, with 85.7% achieving therapeutic success, compared with 79.5% of those pretreated with long-acting ß2-agonist (LABA)/inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and 74.2% of those pretreated with LABA or long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) monotherapy. Overall, rescue medication decreased by 1.25 puffs/day (95% CI 1.19-1.31) versus baseline. In total, 29 patients (0.6%) reported drug-related adverse events and 7 patients reported serious adverse events (0.15%). Conclusion: In 4700 COPD patients, 6 weeks' treatment with tiotropium/olodaterol, as initial treatment or follow-up to LAMA or LABA monotherapy or LABA/ICS, improved CCQ and decreased rescue medication use. The adverse event profile was consistent with the known safety profile of tiotropium/olodaterol.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Administração por Inalação , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/efeitos adversos , Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Broncodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Bulgária , República Tcheca , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hungria , Israel , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/efeitos adversos , Polônia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Romênia , Federação Russa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suíça , Brometo de Tiotrópio/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
COPD ; 18(2): 181-190, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709856

RESUMO

This Phase II, randomized, parallel group study was conducted as part of US regulatory requirements to identify the most appropriate dose of the long-acting muscarinic antagonist glycopyrronium bromide (GB) for use in a single-inhaler triple-therapy combination with the inhaled corticosteroid beclomethasone dipropionate plus the long-acting ß2-agonist formoterol fumarate. Eligible subjects were adults with COPD and post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) 40-80% predicted. Subjects were randomized to receive inhaled double-blind GB 6.25, 12.5, 25 or 50 µg or placebo, all twice daily (BID), or open-label tiotropium 18 µg once daily for six weeks. The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy of GB versus placebo in terms of FEV1 area under the curve between 0 and 12 h at Week 6. Of 733 subjects randomized, 682 (93.0%) completed the study. For the primary endpoint, all GB doses were superior to placebo (p < 0.05), with a dose-response up to 25 µg BID, and 25 and 50 µg BID both superior to 6.25 µg BID (p < 0.05). Results for the secondary spirometry endpoints were consistent with the primary endpoint. Overall, the efficacy of GB 25 and 50 µg BID was broadly consistent with that of tiotropium. The incidence of adverse events, both overall and for the most common preferred terms, was low and similar in all treatment groups, including placebo (overall, 22.3-29.3%). Based on the totality of the efficacy and safety data, the optimal GB dose is 25 µg BID.


Assuntos
Glicopirrolato , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Administração por Inalação , Adulto , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Volume Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumarato de Formoterol/uso terapêutico , Glicopirrolato/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Brometo de Tiotrópio/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Adv Ther ; 38(5): 2249-2270, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721209

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), treatment with long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA)/long-acting ß2-agonist (LABA) combination therapy significantly improves lung function versus LABA/inhaled corticosteroid (ICS). To investigate whether LAMA/LABA could provide better clinical outcomes than LABA/ICS, this non-interventional database study assessed the risk of COPD exacerbations, pneumonia, and escalation to triple therapy in patients with COPD initiating maintenance therapy with tiotropium/olodaterol versus any LABA/ICS combination. METHODS: Administrative healthcare claims and laboratory results data from the US HealthCore Integrated Research Databasesm were evaluated for patients with COPD initiating tiotropium/olodaterol versus LABA/ICS treatment (January 2013-March 2019). Patients were aged at least 40 years with a diagnosis of COPD (but not asthma) at cohort entry. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used (as-treated analysis) to assess risk of COPD exacerbation, community-acquired pneumonia, and escalation to triple therapy, both individually and as a combined risk of any one of these events. Potential imbalance of confounding factors between cohorts was handled using fine stratification, reweighting, and trimming by exposure propensity score (high-dimensional); subgroup analyses were conducted on the basis of blood eosinophil levels and exacerbation history. RESULTS: The total population consisted of 61,985 patients (tiotropium/olodaterol n = 2684; LABA/ICS n = 59,301); after reweighting, the total was 42,953 patients (tiotropium/olodaterol n = 2600; LABA/ICS n = 40,353; mean age 65 years; female 54.5%). Patients treated with tiotropium/olodaterol versus LABA/ICS experienced a reduction in the risk of COPD exacerbations (adjusted hazard ratio 0.76 [95% confidence interval 0.68, 0.85]), pneumonia (0.74 [0.57, 0.97]), escalation to triple therapy (0.22 [0.19, 0.26]), and any one of these events (0.45 [0.41, 0.49]); the combined risk was similar irrespective of baseline eosinophils and exacerbation history. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with COPD, tiotropium/olodaterol was associated with a lower risk of COPD exacerbations, pneumonia, and escalation to triple therapy versus LABA/ICS, both individually and in combination; the combined risk was reduced irrespective of baseline eosinophils or exacerbation history. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT04138758 (registered 23 October 2019).


Assuntos
Broncodilatadores , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Benzoxazinas , Broncodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/uso terapêutico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Brometo de Tiotrópio/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 27(7): 810-824, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited clinical trial and/or real-world evidence comparing differences among currently approved fixed-dose combination (FDC) long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA)/long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA) treatments. OBJECTIVE: To compare chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-related and all-cause health care resource utilization (HCRU) and costs between COPD patients initiating tiotropium (TIO) + olodaterol (OLO) versus (a) other LAMA + LABA FDCs and (b) umeclidinium (UMEC) + vilanterol (VI), specifically. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, patients initiating fixed-dose LAMA + LABA therapy (earliest fill date = index date) between January 1, 2014, and September 30, 2018, were identified using administrative claims data from the Optum Research Database. Patients were followed post-index for 1-12 months. Follow-up was censored at the earliest occurrence of index therapy discontinuation or switch, health plan disenrollment, study end date, or reaching the maximum 12-month allowed duration. Propensity score matching of 1:2 was used to balance differences in baseline characteristics between cohorts for each of the 2 comparisons. Annualized population averages of HCRU and costs were calculated for each cohort as [sum of visits (or costs) for all individuals during the follow-up period] ÷ [sum of follow-up on-treatment time for all individuals] × 365 days. RESULTS: After matching, compared with patients who initiated other LAMA + LABAs or UMEC + VI, patients who initiated TIO + OLO had 14.29% and 16.95% fewer mean annualized per-patient COPD-related emergency department (ED) visits (vs. other LAMA + LABAs: 0.49 vs. 0.59, P = 0.005; vs. UMEC + VI: 0.48 vs. 0.56, P = 0.026) and 3.07% and 3.14% fewer mean annualized per-patient pharmacy fills (vs. other LAMA + LABAs: 12.66 vs. 13.07, P = 0.016; vs. UMEC + VI: 12.62 vs. 13.02, P = 0.022), leading to 17.39% and 21.47% lower mean annualized per-patient COPD-related ED costs (vs. other LAMA + LABAs: $289 vs. $368, P = 0.003; vs. UMEC + VI: $285 vs. $345, P = 0.027) and 4.56% and 5.67% lower mean annualized per-patient pharmacy spending (vs. other LAMA + LABAs: $3,570 vs. $3,741, P < 0.001; vs. UMEC + VI: $3,556 vs. $3,770, P < 0.001) in the follow-up period. Similarly, patients in the TIO + OLO cohort had 15.63% and 21.17% fewer mean annualized per-patient all-cause ED visits (vs. other LAMA + LABAs: 1.08 vs. 1.37, P < 0.001; vs. UMEC + VI: 1.08 vs. 1.28, P = 0.001), 8.29% fewer mean annualized per-patient outpatient visits (vs. UMEC + VI: 13.28 vs. 14.48, P = 0.031), 3.41% fewer mean annualized per-patient pharmacy fills (vs. other LAMA + LABAs: 56.92 vs. 58.93, P = 0.028), 19.48% and 22.28% lower mean annualized per-patient all-cause ED costs (vs. other LAMA + LABAs: $755 vs. $971, P < 0.001; vs. UMEC + VI: $749 vs. $930, P < 0.001), and 10.86% lower mean annualized per-patient outpatient setting costs (vs. UMEC + VI: $3,348 vs. $3,756, P = 0.050). There were no statistically significant differences for the other outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS: In a real-world setting, differences in HCRU and costs were observed between FDC LAMA + LABAs, with patients initiating TIO + OLO having lower ED visits/costs, COPD-related pharmacy fills/costs, and all-cause pharmacy use and outpatient visits/costs than those initiating other FDC LAMA + LABAs or UMEC + VI specifically. The remaining HCRU and cost measures were not significantly different. DISCLOSURES: This study was sponsored by Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (BIPI; Ridgefield, CT). BIPI was given the opportunity to review the manuscript for medical and scientific accuracy, as well as intellectual property considerations. Palli is an employee of BIPI. Xie, Chastek, Elliott, and Bengtson are employees of Optum, which was contracted by BIPI to conduct this study. The authors received no direct compensation related to the development of the manuscript. Part of the results of this study were accepted and presented at the 30th European Respiratory Society (ERS) International Congress (September 7-9, 2020; virtual).


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/economia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/economia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/economia , Administração por Inalação , Idoso , Benzoxazinas/administração & dosagem , Álcoois Benzílicos/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores , Clorobenzenos/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quinuclidinas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Brometo de Tiotrópio/administração & dosagem , Estados Unidos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33603353

RESUMO

Long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs) are the cornerstone for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); furthermore, tiotropium is approved as add-on therapy in severe asthmatic patients. Accumulating evidence suggests that LAMAs may modulate airway contractility and airway hyperresponsiveness not only by blocking muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAchRs) expressed on airway smooth muscle but also via anti-inflammatory mechanisms by blocking mAchRs expressed on inflammatory cells, submucosal glands, and epithelial cells. The aim of this systematic review, performed according to the PRISMA-P guidelines, was to provide a synthesis of the literature on the anti-inflammatory impact of muscarinic receptor antagonists in the airways. Most of the current evidence originates from studies on tiotropium, that demonstrated a reduction in synthesis and release of cytokines and chemokines, as well as the number of total and differential inflammatory cells, induced by different pro-inflammatory stimuli. Conversely, few data are currently available for aclidinium and glycopyrronium, whereas no studies on the potential anti-inflammatory effect of umeclidinium have been reported. Overall, a large body of evidence supports the beneficial impact of tiotropium against airway inflammation. Further well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to better elucidate the anti-inflammatory mechanisms leading to the protective effect of LAMAs against exacerbations via identifying suitable biomarkers.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/efeitos adversos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Muscarínicos/uso terapêutico , Brometo de Tiotrópio/efeitos adversos
14.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 26, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, combination treatment with long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) and long-acting ß2 agonist (LABA) increases forced expiratory volume in one second and reduces symptoms compared to monotherapy. In Japan, three different once-daily fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) have been prescribed since 2015, although a direct comparison of these FDCs has never been performed. The objective of the present study was to compare the effectiveness, preference, and safety of three LAMA/LABA FDCs-glycopyrronium/indacaterol (Gly/Ind), umeclidinium/vilanterol (Ume/Vil), and tiotropium/olodaterol (Tio/Olo)-in patients with COPD. METHODS: We enrolled 75 COPD outpatients (male:female ratio, 69:6; 77.4 ± 6.9 years). A prospective, randomized, crossover study was conducted on three groups using three FDCs: Gly/Ind; Ume/Vil; and Tio/Olo. Each medication was administered for 4 weeks before crossover (total 12 weeks). After each FDC administration, a respiratory function test and questionnaire survey were conducted. A comparative questionnaire survey of all three LAMA/LABA FDCs was conducted after 12 weeks (following administration of final FDC). RESULTS: No significant differences in COPD Assessment Test or modified Medical Research Council dyspnea questionnaire were reported in the surveys completed after each FDC administration; no significant differences in spirometric items were observed. In the final comparative questionnaire survey, patients reported better actual feeling of being able to inhale following Gly/Ind administration compared with Tio/Olo, although no significant differences in adverse events or other evaluations were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The three LAMA/LABA FDCs administered to COPD patients show similar effects and safety, although some minor individual preference was reported. Trial registration This study retrospectively registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (number UMIN000041342, registered on August 6, 2020).


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Benzoxazinas/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/administração & dosagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Quinuclidinas/administração & dosagem , Brometo de Tiotrópio/administração & dosagem , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Benzoxazinas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Cross-Over , Progressão da Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/efeitos adversos , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Quinuclidinas/efeitos adversos , Brometo de Tiotrópio/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Respir Med ; 176: 106278, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A variety of dual-combination maintenance inhalers are used to treat asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Understanding patient preferences for treatment attributes may help select an optimal treatment from the patient perspective. METHODS: Patient preferences for maintenance inhaler device and medication attributes were elicited through a discrete choice experiment and used in benefit-risk assessments to calculate predicted choice probabilities (PrCPs) for 14 dual-combination maintenance inhalers in four treatment classes: lower- and higher-dose inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/long-acting beta agonist (LABA) inhalers for asthma, and ICS/LABA and long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA)/LABA inhalers for COPD. RESULTS: For all treatment classes, reduced exacerbations and faster onset of action were the most important attributes. For all classes, patients were willing to tolerate an extra yearly exacerbation to decrease the medication's onset of action from 30 to 5 min. For patients with asthma using lower-dose ICS/LABA (n = 497), budesonide/formoterol fumarate dihydrate (80 µg/4.5 µg) pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) had the highest PrCP (28.4%), and for those using a higher-dose ICS/LABA (n = 285), PrCPs were highest for mometasone furoate/formoterol fumarate dihydrate (200 µg/5 µg) pMDI (27.0%) and budesonide/formoterol fumarate dihydrate (160 µg/4.5 µg) pMDI (26.9%). For patients with COPD using an ICS/LABA (n = 574), budesonide/formoterol fumarate dihydrate (160 µg/4.5 µg) pMDI had the highest PrCP (56.6%), and for those using a LAMA/LABA inhaler (n = 217), tiotropium/olodaterol (2.5 µg/2.5 µg) soft mist inhaler had the highest PrCP (42.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Patient preference data for maintenance inhaler attributes can be used to identify a preference order of inhalers in different treatment classes.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia de Manutenção/métodos , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Preferência do Paciente , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Medição de Risco , Administração por Inalação , Benzoxazinas/administração & dosagem , Budesonida/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Progressão da Doença , Combinação de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Fumarato de Formoterol/administração & dosagem , Brometo de Tiotrópio/administração & dosagem
16.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 37(2): 275-284, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095662

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review clinical evidence supporting the use of fixed-dose combination of tiotropium and olodaterol, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) and a long-acting ß2-agonist (LABA), respectively, as the initial and follow-up treatment choice in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as per Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2020 recommendations-the impact of this treatment strategy on the reduction in the risk of exacerbations-and the importance of early therapeutic interventions. METHODS: For this narrative review, the available literature was searched to identify studies including patients with COPD receiving tiotropium and olodaterol as either monotherapy or combination therapy and studies including patients with COPD receiving inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in addition to long-acting bronchodilators. Relevant studies were included in the review. RESULTS: Patients with COPD are often prescribed ICS therapy, which, when used over a long term, can be associated with local and systemic adverse effects. The GOLD 2020 report recommends dual bronchodilator therapy as both an initial and follow-up treatment option. A LABA + LAMA combination is mechanistically synergistic, and cumulative evidence surrounding the efficacy and safety of fixed-dose combination of tiotropium and olodaterol supports therapeutic advantages over monotherapy in most patients with COPD. CONCLUSIONS: The early stages of COPD may represent a "window of therapeutic opportunity" during which initiation of tiotropium and olodaterol dual bronchodilator therapy may improve lung function and quality of life and reduce exacerbations in patients with COPD.


Assuntos
Benzoxazinas/efeitos adversos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Brometo de Tiotrópio/efeitos adversos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Qualidade de Vida
17.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 38: 58-62, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243704

RESUMO

Tiotropium bromide is a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) and is the only LAMA licensed for management for patients' ≥6 years old with severe asthma who have experienced one or more severe asthma exacerbations in the preceding year. Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that once-daily tiotropium is safe and efficacious in 6-17 year-olds with symptomatic asthma despite treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs), with or without additional controllers. In this paper, we review the evidence of the safety and efficacy of tiotropium add-on maintenance treatment in children and adolescents with symptomatic moderate and severe asthma.


Assuntos
Asma , Administração por Inalação , Adolescente , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Criança , Humanos , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/uso terapêutico , Brometo de Tiotrópio/uso terapêutico
18.
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv ; 34(4): 242-250, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170059

RESUMO

Background: For patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease under invasive mechanical ventilation, medication for aerosol therapy is delivered through tracheostomy or endotracheal airways. Typically, these medications (such as bronchodilators) are long-acting formulations that are delivered through Soft Mist™ Inhalers (SMI), or Pressurized Metered-Dose Inhalers. The Respimat® SMI has been shown to have increased efficiency because of its slow and prolonged aerosol mist and has gained popularity in clinical settings. However, the Respimat was not designed for drug delivery through artificial airways. Therefore, there is a need for SMI adapters in intensive care for use in mechanical ventilator circuits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a new Respimat adapter (ODAPT™ for mechanical ventilator [ODAPT MV]) for use in mechanical ventilator circuits which, in combination with a Pulmodyne T-piece adapter, allows use without interruption of the circuit in case of medication replacement. Methods: Tiotropium delivery to the lungs, using Respimat, was assessed using the ODAPT MV adapter within an in vitro setup, including a three-dimensional printed trachea model and a mechanical ventilator. Medication deposition and losses were investigated using two commonly used tracheostomy tube (TT) sizes (6 and 8 mm inner canula) for two flow rates (45 and 60 L/min) under different conditions (30%-50%. and 100% relative humidity [RH]). Medication delivery using the ODAPT MV adapter was compared with the RTC-26C in-line adapter under similar conditions (8 mm TT size, 100% RH at 45 L/min). Results: It was found that 7.1%-13.4% of the nominal dose (ND) was lost in the ODAPT MV adapter for different TT size, RH, and flow rates used. Higher losses were found in the inhaler's mouthpiece ranging from 15.7% to 29.1% ND. The percentage of the delivered medication reaching the lungs was determined to be 13.7%-18.5% ND delivered without significant differences between the experimental conditions tested. The ODAPT MV performed well compared with the RTC-26C under similar conditions (17.9% and 16.6% ND, respectively). Conclusion: The medication delivered through mechanical ventilation using the ODAPT MV adapter represents about one third the dose delivered directly through the Respimat SMI in vivo.


Assuntos
Respiração Artificial , Traqueostomia , Administração por Inalação , Aerossóis , Broncodilatadores , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Inaladores Dosimetrados , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Brometo de Tiotrópio
19.
Adv Ther ; 38(1): 579-593, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175291

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Since chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous condition, a composite endpoint of clinically important deterioration (CID) may provide a more holistic assessment of treatment efficacy. We compared long-acting muscarinic antagonist/long-acting ß2-agonist combination therapy with tiotropium/olodaterol versus tiotropium alone using a composite endpoint for CID. CID was evaluated overall and in patients with low exacerbation history (at most one moderate exacerbation in the past year [not leading to hospitalisation]), Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2 patients and maintenance-naïve patients with COPD. We assessed whether early treatment optimisation is more effective with tiotropium/olodaterol versus tiotropium in delaying and reducing the risk of CID. METHODS: Data were analysed from 2055 patients treated with either tiotropium/olodaterol 5/5 µg or tiotropium 5 µg (delivered via Respimat®) in two replicate, 52-week, parallel-group, double-blind studies (TONADO® 1/2). CID was defined as a decline of at least 0.1 L from baseline in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s, increase from baseline of at least 4 units in St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire score, or moderate/severe exacerbation. Time to first occurrence of one of these events was recorded as time to first CID. RESULTS: Overall, treatment with tiotropium/olodaterol significantly increased the time to, and reduced the risk of, CID versus tiotropium (median time to CID 226 versus 169 days; hazard ratio [HR] 0.76 [95% confidence interval 0.68, 0.85]; P < 0.0001). Significant reductions were also observed in patients with low exacerbation history (241 versus 170; HR 0.73 [0.64, 0.83]; P < 0.0001), GOLD 2 patients (241 versus 169; 0.72 [0.61, 0.84]; P < 0.0001) and maintenance-naïve patients (233 versus 171; 0.75 [0.62, 0.91]; P = 0.0030). CONCLUSION: In patients with COPD, including patients with low exacerbation history, GOLD 2 patients and maintenance-naïve patients, tiotropium/olodaterol reduced the risk of CID versus tiotropium. These results demonstrate the advantages of treatment optimisation with tiotropium/olodaterol over tiotropium monotherapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: TONADO® 1 and 2 (NCT01431274 and NCT01431287, registered 8 September 2011).


Assuntos
Broncodilatadores , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Administração por Inalação , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/uso terapêutico , Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Brometo de Tiotrópio/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(5): 1939-1947.e7, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tiotropium has the potential to alleviate asthmatic symptoms caused by the aging of lungs. However, few studies have focused on specific treatments for elderly patients with asthma. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of adding tiotropium to inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta-agonists in elderly patients with severe asthma using real-world data. METHODS: Phase I was a retrospective cohort study using the National Health Insurance claims data to measure clinical and economic outcomes. In phase II, a Markov model was constructed to evaluate cost-effectiveness from Korean health care system perspective, based on phase I, including 2 health states, and an asthma exacerbation event. We estimated cost given in 2018 US dollars, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Subgroup analyses for patients with poorly controlled symptoms (frequent short-acting beta-agonist users; frequent exacerbators) were performed. RESULTS: In elderly patients with severe asthma, the incremental cost and effectiveness in the tiotropium group compared with the inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta-agonist group were $2281 and 0.038 QALYs, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $60,074/QALY, indicating that the addition of tiotropium is not a cost-effective alternative. Meanwhile, 2 subgroups with poorly controlled symptoms showed that adding tiotropium is a cost-effective alternative (frequent short-acting beta-agonist users $4078/QALY; frequent exacerbators $8332/QALY). CONCLUSIONS: Tiotropium shows a higher cost-effectiveness profile when applied to elderly patients with uncontrolled symptoms. These results using real-world evidence provide information beyond the clinical outcomes reported by randomized controlled trials, providing a complementary ground in establishing the reimbursement criteria of tiotropium for elderly patients with severe asthma.


Assuntos
Asma , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Brometo de Tiotrópio/uso terapêutico
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