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1.
Food Res Int ; 163: 112259, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596171

RESUMO

Taste plays a paramount role in food and beverage choice, with recent studies pointing to a potential influence of the microorganisms from the tongue dorsum - particularly bacteria - on flavor perception. Thus, the association between tongue dorsum biofilm and taste is a fundamental prerequisite for a better understanding of the role played by these bacteria in wine tasting. To study this impact, we have analyzed the microbiomes from 58 samples of the tongue dorsum surface from professional wine tasters and 30 samples from non professional wine tasters. The microbiome of each sample was characterized through metagenome sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene for taxonomic discrimination of bacteria. A total of 497 taxa were identified in the tongue dorsum, and significant differences in diversity were observed between the wine taster and the control group. The comparison of bacterial diversity between samples collected before and after wine tasting along with the presence of new bacterial taxa indicates a direct effect of wine on the microbiome of frequent wine tasters, particularly in those tasting sparkling wines.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Vinho , Vinho/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Paladar , Língua , Microbiota/genética
2.
Food Res Int ; 163: 112294, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596198

RESUMO

Obesity is a complex nutritional disorder that may be influenced by calorie intake and eating behaviours. Aside from many studies, the influence of papillae count on obesity is still debated. Despite the multiple variables connected to weight gain and altered taste perception, determining the association between papillae count and taste sensitivity to fat, sweet and bitter tastes, in particular, has recently become a focus of attention. This study aimed to rule out the relationship between the number of papillae on different areas of the tongue and taste sensitivity in people (n = 150) among the various groups depending on their body mass index (BMI) and fat taste sensitivity. The general labelled magnitude scale (gLMS) was used for the taste sensitivity analysis, and participants were asked to rate the intensity of each concentration of the different tastants. Using a digital camera to obtain a picture of the tongue, the density of the papillae on the tongue was counted manually by three different operators. The study reveals that the total papillae density and BMI had a direct negative correlation (r = -0.43), with papillae density (PD) decreasing as BMI increased. Concurrently, persons with higher BMIs had lower papillae distributions (32.38 ± 1.85 PD/cm2) and significantly lower perceptions of the intensity of fat taste. Further examining papillae density in the anterior front part of the tongue, the front-right section, showed significantly higher papillae distribution (74.04 ± 2.11 PD/cm2) than the front-left section. When considering the sensitivity in the tip of the tongue, middle tongue, and whole mouth, high-sensitivity individuals for fat are more sensitive to both sweet and bitter tastes. Overall, the results of this study demonstrated a strong relationship between taste sensitivity in the Indian population, BMI, and tongue papillae density in various regions of the tongue.


Assuntos
Papilas Gustativas , Paladar , Humanos , Percepção Gustatória , Língua , Obesidade
3.
4.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 130(1): 11-16, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36637013

RESUMO

A significant swelling was seen in the floor of the mouth of a newborn girl. The girl could only drink with difficulty. On examination, a soft-elastic swelling was seen beneath the tongue. Ultrasonography and MRI showed a mass located above the hyoid bone. Upon the initial differential diagnosis of a dermoid cyst, an enucleation of the lesion was performed. Histopathological examination suggested a branchiogenic cyst or a digestive duplication cyst. Given the inconclusiveness of additional diagnostic examination, the lesion was diagnosed as a developmental cyst. Six months after enucleation, the infant girl's tongue motility was not restricted and there were no indications of a recurrence. This rare case illustrates the variety in differential diagnosis and the limitations of additional diagnostic examination.


Assuntos
Cisto Dermoide , Neoplasias Bucais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Cisto Dermoide/diagnóstico , Cisto Dermoide/cirurgia , Cisto Dermoide/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Soalho Bucal/patologia , Língua/patologia
5.
Clin Nucl Med ; 48(2): e92-e94, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607382

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Schwannomas are usually benign, rare, and slow-growing nerve sheath tumor composed of Schwann cells. They develop in the head and neck area in approximately 25% to 40% of cases, of which 1% in the oral cavity, where the tongue remains the preferred site. Malignant transformation occurs in approximately 8% to 10% cases. We report a unique case of a histologically proven FDG-avid schwannoma of the left mobile portion of the tongue, showing an 18F-FDG avidity on PET/CT, which was a false-positive result for local recurrence in a patient followed for squamous cell carcinoma.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neurilemoma , Humanos , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Seguimentos , Achados Incidentais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Língua/patologia , Neurilemoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurilemoma/patologia
6.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 511, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627326

RESUMO

Tongue cracks refer to fissures with different depth and shapes on the tongue's surface, which can characterize the pathological characteristics of spleen and stomach. Tongue cracks are of great significance to the objective study of tongue diagnosis. However, tongue cracks are small and complex, existing methods are difficult to extract them effectively. In order to achieve more accurate extraction and identification of tongue crack, this paper proposes to apply a deep learning network based on image segmentation (Segmentation-Based Deep-Learning, SBDL) to extract and identify tongue crack. In addition, we have studied the quantitative description of tongue crack features. Firstly, the pre-processed tongue crack samples were amplified by using adding salt and pepper noise, changing the contrast and horizontal mirroring; secondly, the annotation tool Crack-Tongue was used to label tongue crack; thirdly, the tongue crack extraction model was trained by using SBDL; fourthly, the cracks on the tongue surface were detected and located by the segmentation network, and then the output and features of the segmentation network were put into the decision network for the classification of crack tongue images; finally, the tongue crack segmentation and identification results were quantitatively evaluated. The experimental results showed that the tongue crack extraction and recognition results based on SBDL were better than Mask Region-based Convolutional Neural Network (Mask R-CNN), DeeplabV3+, U-Net, UNet++ and Semantic Segmentation with Adversarial Learning (SegAN). This method effectively solved the inaccurate tongue crack extraction caused by the tongue crack's color being close to the surrounding tongue coating's color. This method can achieve better tongue crack extraction and recognition results on a small tongue crack data set and provides a new idea for tongue crack recognition, which is of practical value for tongue diagnosis objectification.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Língua/diagnóstico por imagem , Excipientes , Alimentos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador
7.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 43(1): 160-167, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36640008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To objectively reveal the relationship between tongue coating microbes and bitter taste, sticky and greasy taste in chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) patients. METHODS: 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing was used to detect bacterial diversity and community composition of tongue coating microbes from samples of CAG patients. LEfSe algorithm was used for discovering the different tongue coating microbes in CAG patients with or without bitter taste, also that in CAG patients with or without sticky and greasy taste. RESULTS: We respectively compared the features of tongue coating microbes in bitter taste, sticky and greasy taste of CAG patients. At the genus level, 25 tongue coating microbes were significantly different in CAG patients with bitter taste or without bitter taste; 17 tongue coating microbes were significantly different in CAG patients with sticky and greasy taste or without sticky and greasy taste. and were closely related to CAG patients with bitter taste. , , and were closely related to CAG patients with stick and greasy taste. CONCLUSION: and possibly contribute to bitter taste of CAG patients, and and contribute to stick and greasy taste of CAG patients, which is potential for the diagnosis and treatment of CAG.


Assuntos
Gastrite Atrófica , Gastrite , Humanos , Paladar , Gastrite Atrófica/genética , Língua/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S
9.
Exp Gerontol ; 172: 112075, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36581224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral frailty is defined as a slight decline in comprehensive oral function and can predict the onset of adverse health outcomes including morbidity in community-dwelling older adults. Previously, the number of remaining teeth and masticatory status had been suggested to be associated with cognitive decline. The effects of comprehensive oral condition on cognitive decline have not been adequately examined. In this study, we aimed to examine whether oral frailty is associated with new-onset mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: Two thousand and forty-four participants of a longitudinal cohort study in Kashiwa City, Chiba Prefecture, without cognitive decline who participated in at least one follow-up survey, were included. New-onset MCI was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (score < 27 defined as MCI). Oral frailty was evaluated based on six components including the number of remaining teeth, masticatory status, tongue pressure, oral motor skills, and subjective difficulties in eating and swallowing. "Oral non-frailty" was defined as good performance on all six measures, "oral pre-frailty" was defined as poor performance on one or two measures, and "oral frailty" was defined as poor performance on three or more measures. Statistical analysis was performed, mainly using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: Of the 1410 participants who did not fit the exclusion criteria (mean 72.4 ± 5.2 years; 49 % female), 19 % had new-onset MCI during the follow-up period. When comparing the status of oral frailty (non-frailty, oral pre-frailty, and oral frailty), the oral frailty group had a significantly higher hazard ratio for new-onset MCI than the other groups, even after adjusting for confounding factors. Among the six components, a decrease in the number of remaining teeth, low tongue pressure, and difficulty eating tough foods significantly correlated with new-onset MCI. Additionally, we found individuals with co-existing oral frailty and physical frailty to be associated with an increased risk of MCI. However, no significant increase in hazard ratio was observed in participants with either physical or oral frailty. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings suggest that oral frailty could predict the risk of new-onset MCI in community-dwelling older adults. Further, we found that oral frailty with physical frailty exacerbated this risk, implying the existence of direct or additive effects on cognitive dysfunction. Comprehensive oral health focusing on maintaining eating function can be a strategy to prevent MCI and delay dementia in community-dwelling older adults.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Fragilidade , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Masculino , Vida Independente , Estudos Longitudinais , Pressão , Idoso Fragilizado/psicologia , Língua , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
10.
Gerodontology ; 39(4): 359-365, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599786

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To clarify the associations among oral status, nutritional status and physical status in Japanese independent older adults. BACKGROUND: It is important to focus on factors affecting physical status associated with life dysfunction, long-term care and mortality. However, there are very few reports of the associations among oral status, nutritional status and physical status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who visited the Preventive Dentistry Clinic at Okayama University Hospital from November 2017 to January 2019 participated in this cross-sectional study. Number of teeth, periodontal condition and oral function were recorded. Bacteria counts in tongue dorsum, oral wettability, tongue pressure, tongue and lip movement function [oral diadochokinesis (ODK)], masticatory ability, bite force and swallowing function were measured. Nutritional status was assessed by the Mini Nutritional Assessment. Physical frailty status and Elderly Status Assessment Set were also evaluated. These variables were analysed by structural equation modelling (SEM). RESULTS: Data from 203 patients were analysed (63 males and 140 females). Patients ranged in age from 60 to 93 years. The final model of the path diagram was completed by SEM. ODK was positively associated with nutritional status, and nutritional status was negatively associated with frailty. Age was associated with ODK, nutritional status and frailty. CONCLUSION: Based on the associations among age, ODK, nutritional status and frailty, maintaining tongue movement function may contribute to good nutritional status and physical status in Japanese independent older adults.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Estado Nutricional , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Língua , Pressão , Japão/epidemiologia , Vida Independente
11.
J Healthc Eng ; 2022: 1421586, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36457590

RESUMO

Objective: To study the effect of the physiological anchorage control concept on anchorage molars in lingual and labial orthodontic techniques. Methods: Three-dimensional finite element models, including the right maxillary first molar, periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, and buccal tube, were established. The models were divided into the McLaughlin-Bennett-Trevisi (MBT™) straight-wire model with 0-degree maxillary first molar axial inclination and the physiologic anchorage Speewire system (PASS) model with -7-degree maxillary first molar axial inclination. Simulated sliding retraction forces (1 N, 1.5 N, and 2 N) were loaded on the buccal side and lingual side, and retraction forces (0.5 N, 0.75 N, and 1 N) were loaded on the buccal and lingual sides simultaneously. The displacements, principal stresses, and von Mises stresses of the periodontal ligament under different conditions were derived. Results: The anchorage molars showed different degrees of rotation, tipping, intrusion, and extrusion. As the force increased, these displacement trends also increased. The mesial displacement of the buccal + lingual force loading was less than that of the other two groups. Under the same force load method, the mesial displacement of the PASS group was less than that of the MBT group. Tilt movement increases the tensile stress of the distal cervical margin and root mesial apical third and the compressive stress of the mesial cervical margin and root distal apical third. The maximum stress of the periodontal ligament was less than that of the other two groups when the lingual force was loaded. Conclusion: The physiological anchorage control concept in lingual orthodontics provides better sagittal anchorage control than in labial orthodontics, but there is no significant difference numerically. Attention should be given to the control of torsion, torque, and arch width. Tilt movement increases the PDL stress of the cervical margin and root apical third. The sliding retraction force should be loaded lingually to maintain the force value of 1∼1.5 N.


Assuntos
Dente Molar , Língua , Humanos , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Movimento , Ligamento Periodontal
12.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 129(12): 553-555, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36472308

RESUMO

A 28-year-old woman was referred by her dentist to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon for white lesions of the lower lip and lateral tongue borders on both sides. The diagnoss morsicatio labiorum and linguarum was made. Cheek, tongue, and lip biting occurs with some regularity and often patients are unaware of this habit. The diagnosis of morsicatio is based on clinical appearance and additional diagnostics are unnecessary. The condition belongs to a subcategory of obsessive-compulsive disorders. Treatment is not always necessary, but may consist of making the patient aware of the cause, possibly combined with symptomatic and/or causal therapy, for instance with an occlusal splint or cognitive behavioral therapy.


Assuntos
Doenças da Boca , Doenças da Língua , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Lábio , Língua/patologia , Doenças da Boca/etiologia , Doenças da Língua/diagnóstico , Bochecha
13.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36543406

RESUMO

Objective:To test the application effect of a self-developed mouth opener with a tongue base retractor in the operation of the deep part of tongue base. Methods:The tongue base surgical field was exposed by using a self-developed mouth opener with a tongue base retractor in 8 patients who underwent deep tongue base operation via oral approach, the difficulty of operation, the effect of exposure of operation field, the tear of mucous membrane of the pharynx arch and the risk of tongue paralysis were observed. Results:The self-made mouth opener can expose the deep operative field of the tongue root by using the self-provided tongue root retractor during the operation, and the operation is conducted under the guidance of angle endoscope. The operative field of 8 patients was well exposed during the whole operation, there was no pharyngeal mucosa tearing and postoperative tongue paralysis. Conclusion:The self-made mouth opener has the advantages of simple operation, good exposure effect and less complications, but it needs rigid bending instruments in some operations.


Assuntos
Faringe , Língua , Humanos , Língua/cirurgia , Faringe/cirurgia , Paralisia
14.
Biomed Phys Eng Express ; 9(1)2022 12 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36583442

RESUMO

The primary treatment for head and neck cancer is radiotherapy, which can cause complications and effects, such as the ability to speak, taste, produce saliva, and swallow. An oral stent is an immobilization tool for minimizing the dose in the tongue (or hard palate) by locking the tongue position during radiation delivery. It can improve the treatment accuracy due to less uncertainty caused by tongue position uncertainty between treatment fractions. However, commercial oral stents are not widely adopted in developing countries due to their unaffordable price. This study aimed to design the universal oral stent (UOS) to achieve high efficiency, ease to use, and low-cost fabrication based on 3D printing technology. There were five experiments to evaluate the UOS design and fabrication versus the modified cut syringe, including finite element analysis (FEA), the usability test, the micro Vickers hardness test, single beam dose analysis, and dose calculation on treatment plan simulations. The proposed UOS design and fabrication presented a high capability to apply for clinical use.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Humanos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Língua , Stents , Impressão Tridimensional
15.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 152(6): 3483, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36586846

RESUMO

Velum position was analysed as a function of vowel height in German tense and lax vowels preceding a nasal or oral consonant. Findings from previous research suggest an interdependence between vowel height and the degree of velum lowering, with a higher velum during high vowels and a more lowered velum during low vowels. In the current study, data were presented from 33 native speakers of Standard German who were measured via non-invasive high quality real-time magnetic resonance imaging. The focus was on exploring the spatiotemporal extent of velum lowering in tense and lax /a, i, o, ø/, which was done by analysing velum movement trajectories over the course of VN and VC sequences in CVNV and CVCV sequences by means of functional principal component analysis. Analyses focused on the impact of the vowel category and vowel tenseness. Data indicated that not only the position of the velum was affected by these factors but also the timing of velum closure. Moreover, it is argued that the effect of vowel height was to be better interpreted in terms of the physiological constriction location of vowels, i.e., the specific tongue position rather than phonetic vowel height.


Assuntos
Fonética , Língua , Humanos , Língua/fisiologia , Movimento , Constrição Patológica , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Fala/fisiologia , Acústica da Fala
16.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(12)2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36548714

RESUMO

India suffers the highest incidence of snakebite envenomation (SBE) in the world. Rural communities within India and other countries have long-held cultural beliefs surrounding snakes and SBE treatments, with snake statues present in numerous Hindu temples. While most cultural beliefs are well respected and do not affect anyone, some people worship live venomous snakes without any safety precautions. Moreover, they practice various inappropriate first aid and traditional treatments that exacerbate SBE-induced complications. We report an unusual case of SBE on the tongue of a patient who was bitten while worshipping Russell's viper following the advice of an astrologer based on the appearance of a snake in the patient's dream. Following the bite, the tongue was deeply incised by the priest as a first aid to mitigate SBE-induced complications. The patient suffered profuse bleeding and swelling of the tongue resulting in difficulties in intubating them. The patient regained consciousness after antivenom administration, intranasal ventilation, and blood removal from the mouth. The tongue underwent extensive surgery to restore movement and function. This report advises caution to those undertaking the extremely risky practice of worshipping live snakes and emphasises the urgent need to develop and enforce policies to mitigate such actions and educate rural communities.


Assuntos
Víbora de Russell , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Animais , Primeiros Socorros , Mordeduras de Serpentes/complicações , Mordeduras de Serpentes/terapia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Antivenenos/uso terapêutico , Língua , Venenos de Víboras
17.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 6066640, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36570335

RESUMO

Tongue texture analysis is of importance to inspection diagnosis in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which has great application and irreplaceable value. The tough and tender classification for tongue image relies mainly on image texture of tongue body. However, texture discontinuity adversely affects the classification of the tough and tender tongue classification. In order to promote the accuracy and robustness of tongue texture analysis, a novel tongue image texture classification method based on image inpainting and convolutional neural network is proposed. Firstly, Gaussian mixture model is applied to separate the tongue coating and body. In order to exclude the interference of tongue coating on tough and tender tongue classification, a tongue body image inpainting model is built based on generative image inpainting with contextual attention to realize the inpainting of the tongue body image to ensure the continuity of texture and color change of tongue body image. Finally, the classification model of the tough and tender tongue inpainting image based on ResNet101 residual network is used to train and test. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves better classification results compared with the existing methods of texture classification of tongue image and provides a new idea for tough and tender tongue classification.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Doenças da Língua , Humanos , Língua/diagnóstico por imagem , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos
18.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 51(5): 585-593, 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36581577

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To prepare the hyaluronic acid microneedle (abbreviated as microneedle) delivery system carrying curcumin nanodrugs (Cur-NDs) and photothermal trigger agent new indocyanine green (IR820), and to investigate its effect on proliferation of human tongue squamous carcinoma cells (Cal-27) in vitro. METHODS: The microneedle delivery system carrying Cur-NDs and IR820 was prepared. The morphological characteristics of the microneedles were observed, and the mechanical strength test, skin insertion ability test and the photothermal test in vitro were performed. Cal-27 cells were treated with microneedles, Cur-NDs microneedles, IR820 microneedles, or Cur-NDs+IR820 microneedles in vitro, respectively. The IR820 microneedle group and Cur-NDs+IR820 microneedle group were irradiated with 808 nm near infrared light at 1 W/cm 2 for 5 min. The cell viability was tested with cell counting kit-8 method. RESULTS: The prepared microneedles had homogeneous needle-like morphology, good mechanical strength and skin piercing ability, among which the microneedles equipped with IR820 showed better photothermal performance. The survival rates of Cal-27 cells were 100.00% in blank control group, 99.92% in control microneedles group, 94.08% in Cur-NDs microneedles group, 0.41% in IR820 microneedles group, and 0.04% in Cur-NDs+IR820 microneedles group, respectively (all P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Compared with single drug treatment, Cur-NDs+IR820 microneedle shows better inhibitory effect on Cal-27 cell proliferation in vitro.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Curcumina , Nanopartículas , Humanos , Curcumina/farmacologia , Verde de Indocianina/farmacologia , Ácido Hialurônico , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Língua
19.
Bioinspir Biomim ; 18(1)2022 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36541491

RESUMO

Sensing physical properties of liquids, such as viscosity, is of great significance for both biological organisms and industrial applications. For terrestrial organisms feeding on liquids, such as honey bees that forage nectar, sensing viscosity may help to determine the quality of food sources. Previous experiments showed that honey bees exhibit strong preferences for less viscous nectar; however, the physical mechanism underlying how they perceive viscosity remains unexplored. In this study, we propose that the western honey bee (Apis melliferaL.) is capable of distinguishing viscosity using the slender trichoid sensilla emerging from a ball and socket-like joint on the proboscis. Observations of the trichoid sensilla using transmission electron microscopy reveal physical characteristics that are typical of mechanosensory structures. Additionally, we found that bees actively alter the rate at which they feed based on the liquid's viscosity and not its sugar content, hinting at their sensing of viscosity. Through mathematical modeling, we found that the sensitivity of the biological viscometer was determined by its length, and the optimal sensitivity for a western honey bee occurs when the tongue interacts with nectar with a viscosity of 4.2 mPa·s, coinciding with the viscosities typically found in the wild. Our findings broaden insights into how honey bees adapt to varying-viscosity nectar from the perspective of mechanical sensing, and how the bee-flower partnership may be based around the optimal nectar viscosity for feeding. By understanding how bees may sense viscosity at the micrometer scale, we may motivate new technologies for micro-viscometers.


Assuntos
Néctar de Plantas , Sensilas , Abelhas , Animais , Flores , Língua , Viscosidade
20.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 8(1): 100, 2022 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36535943

RESUMO

Intra-oral halitosis usually results from the production of volatile sulfur compounds, such as methyl mercaptan and hydrogen sulfide, by the tongue microbiota. There are currently no reports on the microbial gene-expression profiles of the tongue microbiota in halitosis. In this study, we performed RNAseq of tongue coating samples from individuals with and without halitosis. The activity of Streptococcus (including S. parasanguinis), Veillonella (including V. dispar) and Rothia (including R. mucilaginosa) was associated with halitosis-free individuals while Prevotella (including P. shahi), Fusobacterium (including F. nucleatum) and Leptotrichia were associated with halitosis. Interestingly, the metatranscriptome of patients that only had halitosis levels of methyl mercaptan was similar to that of halitosis-free individuals. Finally, gene expression profiles showed a significant over-expression of genes involved in L-cysteine and L-homocysteine synthesis, as well as nitrate reduction genes, in halitosis-free individuals and an over-expression of genes responsible for cysteine degradation into hydrogen sulfide in halitosis patients.


Assuntos
Halitose , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Humanos , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Halitose/metabolismo , Halitose/microbiologia , Língua/microbiologia , Compostos de Sulfidrila/metabolismo , Biofilmes , Redes e Vias Metabólicas
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