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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36700599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To analyze the epidemiology, surveillance, and control strategies for trachoma in the state of Ceará, northeast Brazil, from 2007 to 2021. METHODS: This ecological study was based on secondary data from the Information System on Notifiable Diseases of the Secretary of Health of the state of Ceará. Data from school and home surveys for trachoma detection obtained during the study period were analyzed, the percentage of positivity was estimated, and sociodemographic and clinico-epidemiological factors were investigated. RESULTS: The coverage of trachoma surveillance and control actions in Ceará municipalities increased from 12.5% in 2007 to 55.9% in 2019, but with an average restriction of 8.0% during the COVID-19 pandemic. The estimated trachoma positivity (mean overall positivity) was less than 5.0% (2.76%, 95% CI 1.2-5.2), with a higher proportion of cases in the 5-9-year age group (45.0%, 95% CI 44.6-45.4), in females (53.2%, 95% CI 52.8-53.6), and rural areas (52.6%, 95% CI 52.2-53.0). Positivity above 10.0% was observed in the Litoral Leste/Jaguaribe and Sertão Central regions, with a higher occurrence of the follicular inflammatory clinical form (98.1%, 95% CI 98.0-98.2). CONCLUSIONS: Trachoma remains in the state of Ceará and is likely underreported. Despite recent advances, the fragility of health surveillance activities compromises the recognition of the actual magnitude and distribution of trachoma in the state. Accurate information is fundamental for planning, monitoring, and evaluating surveillance and disease control.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Tracoma , Feminino , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Tracoma/diagnóstico , Tracoma/epidemiologia , Tracoma/prevenção & controle , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Prevalência
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 27, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650425

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Understanding the perception and practices of ophthalmologists for trachoma is important to develop interventions aimed at disease elimination in Egypt. The survey investigated: (1) the views and practice patterns of Egyptian ophthalmologists for trachoma and (2) the influence of geographic location, setting, and years of practice on ophthalmologists' perceptions. METHODS: A questionnaire sent to ophthalmologists currently working in Egypt collected information on: (1) demographics, (2) caseload and practice patterns for trachoma, (3) 13 Likert scale questions regarding the current state of trachoma, and (4) two open-ended written response questions. RESULTS: Of the 500 recipients, 194 ophthalmologists participated. 98% of the respondents reported seeing trachoma patients in their practice. 28.8% agreed that trachoma is currently an active health problem in Egypt, with ophthalmologists in public practice having significantly higher agreement scores compared to private practitioners (p = 0.030). Rural ophthalmologists were significantly more likely to agree that a targeted trachoma control program is needed in their location of practice compared to their urban counterparts (p < 0.001). Open-ended questions revealed recurrent themes, including the rural distribution of trachoma patients and the high volume of patients with corneal opacity. CONCLUSION: Ophthalmologists' experiences with trachoma in Egypt differed based on practice setting, years in practice, and location, and the overall perception of the impact of the disease remains low. However, there was widespread agreement that trachoma is present in communities across the country. Practitioners in rural areas and in the public sector shared a disproportionate burden of the trachoma caseload. The perspectives of such ophthalmologists must be emphasized in decision-making related to trachoma interventions.


Assuntos
Oftalmologistas , Tracoma , Humanos , Egito/epidemiologia , Tracoma/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Rural , Prevalência
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(12): e0010943, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36477293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Though significant progress in disease elimination has been made over the past decades, trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness globally. Further efforts in trachoma elimination are paradoxically being limited by the relative rarity of the disease, which makes clinical training for monitoring surveys difficult. In this work, we evaluate the plausibility of an Artificial Intelligence model to augment or replace human image graders in the evaluation/diagnosis of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF). METHODS: We utilized a dataset consisting of 2300 images with a 5% positivity rate for TF. We developed classifiers by implementing two state-of-the-art Convolutional Neural Network architectures, ResNet101 and VGG16, and applying a suite of data augmentation/oversampling techniques to the positive images. We then augmented our data set with additional images from independent research groups and evaluated performance. RESULTS: Models performed well in minimizing the number of false negatives, given the constraint of the low numbers of images in which TF was present. The best performing models achieved a sensitivity of 95% and positive predictive value of 50-70% while reducing the number images requiring skilled grading by 66-75%. Basic oversampling and data augmentation techniques were most successful at improving model performance, while techniques that are grounded in clinical experience, such as highlighting follicles, were less successful. DISCUSSION: The developed models perform well and significantly reduce the burden on graders by minimizing the number of false negative identifications. Further improvements in model skill will benefit from data sets with more TF as well as a range in image quality and image capture techniques used. While these models approach/meet the community-accepted standard for skilled field graders (i.e., Cohen's Kappa >0.7), they are insufficient to be deployed independently/clinically at this time; rather, they can be utilized to significantly reduce the burden on skilled image graders.


Assuntos
Tracoma , Humanos , Tracoma/diagnóstico , Inteligência Artificial , Aprendizado de Máquina , Redes Neurais de Computação , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(12): e0011014, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36574461

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the burden, clinical features and associations of trichiasis due to trachomatous and non-trachomatous aetiologies. METHODS: Consenting patients presenting with trichiasis of either eyelid (of one or both eyes) attending the outpatient department, cornea and oculoplasty clinics of a tertiary eye care hospital in New Delhi between August 2018 to March 2020 were included. A comprehensive examination including visual acuity and anterior segment evaluation and photography was performed. Grade of trichiasis, laterality, presence and grade of entropion, and information on corneal opacity, conjunctival scarring, Herbert's pits, and pannus, if present, were recorded in the case record form. RESULTS: Overall, 302 patients (454 eyes) with trichiasis were recruited. The most common attributed cause of upper eyelid trichiasis (276 patients, 405 eyes) was trachoma (26% of patients), followed by Stevens-Johnson syndrome (23%), blepharokeratoconjunctivitis (17%) and old age (10%). A total of 296/405 eyes (73%) had some form of corneal involvement. Trachoma was not identified as the cause of trichiasis in any eye with lower eyelid-only disease. CONCLUSION: Only about a quarter of upper eyelid trichiasis in this peri-elimination setting was attributed to trachoma. A distinction between trachomatous and non-trachomatous trichiasis is imperative to meaningfully determine whether elimination of trachoma as a public health problem has occurred. These data may have implications for population-based estimates of TT prevalence in India and other peri-elimination settings.


Assuntos
Pestanas , Doenças Palpebrais , Tracoma , Triquíase , Humanos , Triquíase/epidemiologia , Triquíase/diagnóstico , Tracoma/diagnóstico , Doenças Palpebrais/epidemiologia , Fenótipo
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383894

RESUMO

The World Health Organization recommends conducting prevalence surveys to validate the elimination of trachoma as a public health problem by the year 2030. The recommendation specifies that the surveys should be directed to previous endemic poor rural areas. Brazil is an endemic country for trachoma and has experienced a large internal migration from the rural areas to the outskirts of the major cities. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of trachoma in children aged 1 to 9 years old in two of the poorest municipalities on the outskirts of Sao Paulo to test the hypothesis of whether internal migration brought trachoma with it. A household survey was conducted between 2013 and 2014. The field teams went door-to-door to collect data on households with children of the selected age group and their members. The trachoma prevalence in this group was 1.5% (79/5,393). In the 10 to 19 years old group, the trachoma prevalence was significantly higher among girls 3.2% (47/1,448) than among boys 1.5% (20/1,361). This result adds evidence to the elimination of trachoma as a public health problem and will be included in the supporting material to validate its elimination in Brazil.


Assuntos
Gonorreia , Tracoma , Criança , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Tracoma/epidemiologia , Tracoma/prevenção & controle , Cidades , Brasil/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Cegueira
6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1015714, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36324475

RESUMO

Background: Trachoma, caused by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is a neglected tropical disease that can lead to blinding pathology. Current trachoma control programmes have successfully used mass drug administration (MDA) with azithromycin to clear C. trachomatis infection and reduce transmission, alongside promoting facial cleanliness for better personal hygiene and environmental improvement. In areas of low-trachoma endemicity, the relationship between C. trachomatis infection and trachomatous disease weakens, and non-chlamydial bacteria have been associated with disease signs. Methods: We enrolled a cohort of children aged 6-10 years from three adjacent trachoma endemic villages in Kilimanjaro and Arusha regions, Northern Tanzania. Children were divided into four clinical groups based on the presence or absence of ocular C. trachomatis infection and clinical signs of trachomatous papillary inflammation (TP). To determine the impact of treatment on the ocular microbiome in these clinical groups, we performed V4-16S rRNA sequencing of conjunctival DNA from children 3-9 months pre-MDA (n = 269) and 3 months post-MDA (n = 79). Results: Chlamydia trachomatis PCR-negative, no TP children had the highest pre-MDA ocular microbiome alpha diversity, which was reduced in C. trachomatis infected children and further decreased in those with TP. Pre-MDA, Haemophilus and Staphylococcus were associated with C. trachomatis infection with and without concurrent TP, while Helicobacter was increased in those with TP in the absence of current C. trachomatis infection. Post-MDA, none of the studied children had ocular C. trachomatis infection or TP. MDA increased ocular microbiome diversity in all clinical groups, the change was of greater magnitude in children with pre-MDA TP. MDA effectively reduced the prevalence of disease causing pathogenic non-chlamydial bacteria, and promoted restoration of a normal, healthy conjunctival microbiome. Conclusion: We identified Helicobacter as a non-chlamydial bacterium associated with the clinical signs of TP. Further investigation to determine its relevance in other low-endemicity communities is required. MDA was shown to be effective at clearing C. trachomatis infection and other non-chlamydial ocular pathogens, without any detrimental longitudinal effects on the ocular microbiome. These findings suggest that azithromycin MDA may be valuable in trachoma control even in populations where the relationship between clinical signs of trachoma and the prevalence of current ocular C. trachomatis infection has become dissociated.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Tracoma , Criança , Humanos , Tracoma/tratamento farmacológico , Tracoma/epidemiologia , Tracoma/prevenção & controle , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/farmacologia , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Túnica Conjuntiva
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 924316, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36388287

RESUMO

Background: Infectious diseases continue to burden populations in Malaysia, especially among rural communities where resources are limited and access to health care is difficult. Current epidemiological trends of several neglected tropical diseases in these populations are at present absent due to the lack of habitual and efficient surveillance. To date, various studies have explored the utility of serological multiplex beads to monitor numerous diseases simultaneously. We therefore applied this platform to assess population level exposure to six infectious diseases in Sabah, Malaysia. Furthermore, we concurrently investigated demographic and spatial risk factors that may be associated with exposure for each disease. Methods: This study was conducted in four districts of Northern Sabah in Malaysian Borneo, using an environmentally stratified, population-based cross-sectional serological survey targeted to determine risk factors for malaria. Samples were collected between September to December 2015, from 919 villages totaling 10,100 persons. IgG responses to twelve antigens of six diseases (lymphatic filariasis- Bm33, Bm14, BmR1, Wb123; strongyloides- NIE; toxoplasmosis-SAG2A; yaws- Rp17 and TmpA; trachoma- Pgp3, Ct694; and giardiasis- VSP3, VSP5) were measured using serological multiplex bead assays. Eight demographic risk factors and twelve environmental covariates were included in this study to better understand transmission in this community. Results: Seroprevalence of LF antigens included Bm33 (10.9%), Bm14+ BmR1 (3.5%), and Wb123 (1.7%). Seroprevalence of Strongyloides antigen NIE was 16.8%, for Toxoplasma antigen SAG2A was 29.9%, and Giardia antigens GVSP3 + GVSP5 was 23.2%. Seroprevalence estimates for yaws Rp17 was 4.91%, for TmpA was 4.81%, and for combined seropositivity to both antigens was 1.2%. Seroprevalence estimates for trachoma Pgp3 + Ct694 were 4.5%. Age was a significant risk factors consistent among all antigens assessed, while other risk factors varied among the different antigens. Spatial heterogeneity of seroprevalence was observed more prominently in lymphatic filariasis and toxoplasmosis. Conclusions: Multiplex bead assays can be used to assess serological responses to numerous pathogens simultaneously to support infectious disease surveillance in rural communities, especially where prevalences estimates are lacking for neglected tropical diseases. Demographic and spatial data collected alongside serosurveys can prove useful in identifying risk factors associated with exposure and geographic distribution of transmission.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Filariose Linfática , Toxoplasmose , Tracoma , Bouba , Humanos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
9.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0273808, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trachoma is a public health issue in more than 50 nations worldwide, mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa, where hundreds of millions of people are considered blind. Ethiopia is projected to have 30% of the global active trachoma burden. The frequency of Trachoma Folliculitis in children aged 1 to 9 years old is 30% in the Oromia Region. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of active trachoma and associated variables among children aged 1 to 9 years old in Arsi Negele Town, West Arsi Zone, Oromia Regional State, Southern Ethiopia, December 24-26, 2019. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Arsi Negele town community on December 24-26, 2019. A total of 178 study volunteers were recruited using a single population proportion formula and assigned to families in the town's three kebeles in proportion. A simple random selection procedure was used to choose study participants from the identified households. Madda Walabu University provided ethical approval, and different government structures provided letters of permission. Pre-tested structured questionnaires and binocular loupes X 2.5 were used to collect data from either mothers or fathers of eligible children for eye examination; torches with bottles of alcohol were used to gather data from either mothers or fathers of eligible children for eye examination. For analysis, data was entered into (IBM, SPSS) version 22. To assess factors associated with active trachoma, bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used. The crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to investigate the degree of association between the independent variables and active trachoma. Multivariate logistic regression was used to find connections between dependent and independent variables with a p≤ 0.05 confidence levels and a 95% confidence interval. RESULT: The prevalence of active trachoma was determined to be 21.91% TF among 178 children aged 1 to 9 years. Flies on children's faces (AOR = 3.427; 95 percent CI: 1.432-8.171), unclean children's faces (AOR = 3.99; 95 percent CI: 1.427-11.158), face washing habits (AOR = 3.064; 95 percent CI: 1.273-7.373), and not using soap while face washing (AOR = 4.564; 95 percent CI 1.561-13.342) were found to be statistically significant associated factors with the prevalence of active trachoma. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of active trachoma was found to be relatively high. Face washing practices and the lack of soap use while washing faces were found as associated factors requiring optimal interventions to prevent trachoma infection among children aged 1-9 years in Arsi Negele town.


Assuntos
Gonorreia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Tracoma , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sabões , Tracoma/epidemiologia
11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(10)2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36253018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To facilitate mass distribution of azithromycin, trachoma control programmes use height instead of weight to determine dose for children 6 months to 15 years old. WHO has recommended azithromycin distribution to children 1-11 months old to reduce mortality in high mortality settings under carefully monitored conditions. Weight was used to determine dose in children 1-5 months old in studies of azithromycin distribution for child survival, but a simplified approach using age or height for all aged 1-11 months old could increase programme efficiency in real-world settings. METHODS: This secondary analysis used data from two cluster randomised trials of azithromycin distribution for child mortality in Niger and Burkina Faso. An exhaustive search algorithm was developed to determine the optimal dose for different age groups, using tolerance limits of 10-20 mg/kg for children 1-2 months old and 15-30 mg/kg for children 3-11 months old. Height-based dosing was evaluated against the existing trachoma dosing pole and with a similar exhaustive search. RESULTS: The optimal two-tiered age-based approach suggested a dose of 80 mg (2 mL) for children 1-2 months old and 160 mg (4 mL) for children 3-11 months old. Under this schedule, 89%-93% of children would have received doses within tolerance limits in both study populations. Accuracy was 93%-94% with a three-tiered approach, which resulted in doses of 80 mg (2 mL), 120 mg (3 mL) and 160 mg (4 mL) for children 1-2, 3-4 and 5-11 months old, respectively. For children 1-5 months old, the existing height pole would result in 70% of doses within tolerance limits. The optimisation identified height-based dosing options with 95% accuracy, although this would require changes to the existing dosing pole as well as additional training to measure infants lying flat. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, an age-based approach with two age tiers resulted in high accuracy while considering both concerns about overdosing in this young population and simplicity of field operations.


Assuntos
Azitromicina , Tracoma , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estatura , Criança , Mortalidade da Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Tracoma/tratamento farmacológico , Tracoma/epidemiologia
12.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(11): e1600-e1611, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36240827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In line with movement restrictions and physical distancing essential for the control of the COVID-19 pandemic, WHO recommended postponement of all neglected tropical disease (NTD) control activities that involve community-based surveys, active case finding, and mass drug administration in April, 2020. Following revised guidance later in 2020, and after interruptions to NTD programmes of varying lengths, NTD programmes gradually restarted in the context of an ongoing pandemic. However, ongoing challenges and service gaps have been reported. This study aimed to evaluate the potential effect of the programmatic interruptions and strategies to mitigate this effect. METHODS: For seven NTDs, namely soil-transmitted helminths, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, trachoma, visceral leishmaniasis, and human African trypanosomiasis, we used mathematical transmission models to simulate the effect of programme interruptions on the dynamics of each of these diseases in different endemic settings. We also explored the potential benefit of implementing mitigation strategies, primarily in terms of minimising the delays to control targets. FINDINGS: We show that the effect of the COVID-19-induced interruption in terms of delay to achieving elimination goals might in some cases be much longer than the duration of the interruption. For schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, trachoma, and visceral leishmaniasis, a mean delay of 2-3 years for a 1-year interruption is predicted in areas of highest prevalence. We also show that these delays can largely be mitigated by measures such as additional mass drug administration or enhanced case-finding. INTERPRETATION: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought infectious disease control to the forefront of global consciousness. It is essential that the NTDs, so long neglected in terms of research and financial support, are not overlooked, and remain a priority in health service planning and funding. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Medical Research Council, and the UK Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Leishmaniose Visceral , Oncocercose , Esquistossomose , Tracoma , Medicina Tropical , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , Oncocercose/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Solo , Tracoma/epidemiologia
13.
JBI Evid Synth ; 20(10): 2445-2474, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065912

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to synthesize the perceptions and practices of community members relating to trachoma in Africa. INTRODUCTION: Trachoma is the leading cause of blindness worldwide, and Africa is the worst-affected continent. Synthesized evidence relating to the disease has focused on various aspects including epidemiology, control, health education, facial cleanliness, interventions for trachomatous trichiasis, and the burden of trachoma on women. Currently, systematic reviews on perceptions and practices relating to trachoma are lacking despite the existence of primary studies. Filling this knowledge gap is critical for decision-making for effective community uptake of interventions. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Qualitative studies on the perceptions and practices relating to trachoma in both health care and community settings in Africa were considered for inclusion. Studies with participants 14 years or older were considered, regardless of gender, health status, religion, or ethnicity. Perceptions included beliefs, perspectives, views, knowledge, and thoughts relating to trachoma. Practices included regular actions relating to trachoma, such as treatment and prevention behaviors. METHODS: A search for studies in English was conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, BioMed Central, Current Contents, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar in May 2019 and updated in October 2021. Unpublished studies were searched in MedNar, Index to Thesis, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global, World Health Organization, and individual governments' commissioned trachoma reports. Two independent reviewers were involved in study selection, critical appraisal, and data extraction using the JBI tools. Data were synthesized using the JBI meta-aggregative approach. RESULTS: Seven studies were included in this review. Participants were people either with or without trachoma. A total of 90 findings were extracted, from which 10 categories were produced and three synthesized findings derived from the categories. The synthesized findings are: understanding and awareness of trachoma influences perceptions of treatment and preventive methods; beliefs and behaviors influence treatment options; economic constraints, socio-cultural beliefs, and risk perceptions influence prevention behaviors and practices. CONCLUSION: Various perceptions and practices relating to trachoma exist among community members in Africa. These perceptions and practices are influenced by knowledge, cultural beliefs, economic factors, and environmental factors. The findings suggest the need for decision-makers in policy and practice to consider and include these perceptions and practices when designing interventions to combat trachoma in endemic countries. However, due to the limited number of included studies and their methodological weaknesses, more high-quality studies are needed to have a deeper and broader view on these perceptions and practices.


Assuntos
Gonorreia , Tracoma , África/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Tracoma/epidemiologia , Tracoma/prevenção & controle
14.
Med J Aust ; 217(10): 538-543, 2022 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36180097

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the findings of standard clinical assessments and of complementary clinical and laboratory methods for determining whether community-wide treatment for trachoma is warranted in a remote Queensland community. DESIGN: Three cross-sectional screening surveys, 2019-2021, complemented by laboratory pathology testing. SETTING: Small community in northwest Queensland with geographic and cultural ties to Northern Territory communities where trachoma persists. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged 1-14 years; opportunistic screening of people aged 15 years or more. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of clinical signs of trachoma, Chlamydia trachomatis infection, ocular non-chlamydial infections, and seropositivity for antibodies to the C. trachomatis Pgp3 protein. RESULTS: During the three surveys, 73 examinations of 58 children aged 1-4 years, 309 of 171 aged 5-9 years, and 142 of 105 aged 10-14 years for trachoma were undertaken, as were 171 examinations of 164 people aged 15 years or more; 691 of 695 examinations were of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander people (99%), 337 were of girls or young women (48%). Clinical signs consistent with trachomatous inflammation-follicular were identified in 5-9-year-old children 23 times (7%), including in eleven with non-chlamydial infections and one with a C. trachomatis infection. One child (10-14 years) met the criteria for trachomatous scarring. Two of 272 conjunctival swab samples (all ages) were polymerase chain reaction-positive for C. trachomatis (0.7%). Two of 147 people aged 15 years or more examined in 2019 had trichiasis, both aged 40 years or more. Seven of 53 children aged 1-9 years in 2019 and seven of 103 in 2021 were seropositive for anti-Pgp3 antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the prevalence of clinical signs consistent with trachomatous inflammation-follicular among 5-9-year-old children exceeding the 5% threshold for community-wide treatment, laboratory testing indicated that childhood exposure to ocular C. trachomatis is rare in this community. Laboratory testing should be integrated into Australian trachoma guidelines.


Assuntos
Gonorreia , Tracoma , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Tracoma/diagnóstico , Tracoma/epidemiologia , Tracoma/tratamento farmacológico , Chlamydia trachomatis , Estudos Transversais , Queensland/epidemiologia , Austrália , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Prevalência , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
15.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(8.1): 8S-14S, 2022 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36156496

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Trachomatous trichiasis (TT) is the advanced stage of trachoma where lashes touch the globe of the eye causing permanent damage. Without eyelid surgery, TT can lead to irreversible blindness. In 2015 the Ethiopian Ministry of Health launched the Fast Track Initiative with the aim of enhancing the provision of surgical services for TT. The aims of this study were to determine the productivity of individual surgeons during the 2017 Initiative, to compare this productivity with the Ministry's annual target indicator of ≥ 200 surgeries, and to assess the factors associated with surgical output. METHODOLOGY: This retrospective cross-sectional study utilized programmatic data on surgical output from 140 surgeons active from January 2017 through December 2017 in the eastern half of Amhara region, Ethiopia. Data were collected from a surgery monitoring dataset, analyzed, and compared to the performance targets set by the Ministry. RESULTS: The mean annual number of surgeries carried out per surgeon was 169 (standard deviation: 111) for a total of 23,616 surgeries. Among the 140 surgeons, 38% achieved the target set by the Ministry. Location of surgical training site and estimated surgical backlog were signficantly associated with a higher surgery output. CONCLUSIONS: An increase in surgical output was observed compared to productivity prior to the Initiative, although the average annual output during the 2017 Fast Track Initiative was lower than the Ministry's target. Using data driven approaches to setting annual productivity goals should be considered, particularly in light of fewer remaining TT cases as a result of the successful Initiative.


Assuntos
Tracoma , Triquíase , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tracoma/epidemiologia , Tracoma/cirurgia , Triquíase/complicações , Triquíase/epidemiologia , Triquíase/cirurgia
16.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-09-21.
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56432

RESUMO

El tracoma, una enfermedad prevenible, es una de las principales causas de ceguera de origen infeccioso en el mundo. Además, afecta principalmente las poblaciones que viven en zonas rurales, pobres y remotas que tienen un acceso deficiente o inexistente a servicios básicos como agua, saneamiento, salud o educación, entre otros. En la Región de las Américas, el tracoma representa un problema de salud pública en Brasil, Colombia, Guatemala y Perú, y se estima que en el 2021 cerca de 5 millones de personas vivían en zonas en las que se necesitan intervenciones para eliminarlo. Esta caja de herramientas reúne las recomendaciones actualizadas de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud y de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para la puesta en marcha de actividades locales dirigidas a acelerar las iniciativas de eliminación del tracoma en las Américas. Contiene adaptaciones a la situación epidemiológica del tracoma en la Región y se estructura en cuatro módulos que cubren los temas siguientes: 1) evaluaciones rápidas del tracoma, 2) búsqueda activa dae casos de triquiasis tracomatosa, 3) monitoreo y seguimiento de casos de triquiasis tracomatosa y 4) planificación de jornadas quirúrgicas para la corrección de la triquiasis tracomatosa. Está publicación está dirigida a los equipos de gerencia y administración de los programas nacionales y subnacionales para la eliminación del tracoma como problema de salud pública, y se espera que contribuya a facilitar la planeación, ejecución y monitoreo de medidas operativas de eliminación de esta enfermedad.


Assuntos
Tracoma , Cegueira , Zonas Remotas , Áreas de Pobreza , Saneamento Rural , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Epidemiologia , América , COVID-19
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(8): e2228244, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35997979

RESUMO

Importance: Because transmission of ocular strains of Chlamydia trachomatis is greatest among preschool-aged children, limiting azithromycin distributions to this age group may conserve resources and result in less antimicrobial resistance, which is a potential advantage in areas with hypoendemic trachoma and limited resources. Objective: To determine the efficacy of mass azithromycin distributions to preschool-aged children as a strategy for trachoma elimination in areas with hypoendemic disease. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cluster randomized clinical trial performed from November 23, 2014, until July 31, 2017, thirty rural communities in Niger were randomized at a 1:1 ratio to biannual mass distributions of either azithromycin or placebo to children aged 1 to 59 months. Participants and study personnel were masked to treatment allocation. Data analyses for trachoma outcomes were performed from October 19, 2021, through June 10, 2022. Interventions: Every 6 months, a single dose of either oral azithromycin (20 mg/kg using height-based approximation for children who could stand or weight calculation for small children) or oral placebo was provided to all children aged 1 to 59 months. Main Outcomes and Measures: Trachoma was a prespecified outcome of the trial, assessed as the community-level prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular and trachomatous inflammation-intense through masked grading of conjunctival photographs from a random sample of 40 children per community each year during the 2-year study period. A secondary outcome was the seroprevalence of antibodies to C trachomatis antigens. Results: At baseline, 4726 children in 30 communities were included; 1695 children were enrolled in 15 azithromycin communities and 3031 children were enrolled in 15 placebo communities (mean [SD] proportions of boys, 51.8% [4.7%] vs 52.0% [4.2%]; mean [SD] age, 30.8 [2.8] vs 30.6 [2.6] months). The mean coverage of study drug for the 4 treatments was 79% (95% CI, 75%-83%) in the azithromycin group and 82% (95% CI, 79%-85%) in the placebo group. The mean prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular at baseline was 1.9% (95% CI, 0.5%-3.5%) in the azithromycin group and 0.9% (95% CI, 0-1.9%) in the placebo group. At 24 months, trachomatous inflammation-follicular prevalence was 0.2% (95% CI, 0-0.5%) in the azithromycin group and 0.8% (95% CI, 0.2%-1.6%) in the placebo group (incidence rate ratio adjusted for baseline: 0.18 [95% CI, 0.01-1.20]; permutation P = .07). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this trial do not show that biannual mass azithromycin distributions to preschool-aged children were more effective than placebo, although the underlying prevalence of trachoma was low. The sustained absence of trachoma even in the placebo group suggests that trachoma may have been eliminated as a public health problem in this part of Niger. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02048007.


Assuntos
Gonorreia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Tracoma , Adulto , Antibacterianos , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chlamydia trachomatis , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Níger/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Tracoma/tratamento farmacológico , Tracoma/epidemiologia , Tracoma/prevenção & controle
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 107(4): 904-911, 2022 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35970284

RESUMO

The effects of azithromycin mass drug administration (MDA) on trachoma and yaws have been addressed. However, the secondary effects of azithromycin MDA remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the secondary effects of azithromycin MDA. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from conception to January 5, 2022. Studies on secondary effects of azithromycin MDA were included. A total of 34 studies were included. Six of them reported on child mortality, 10 on malaria, and 20 on general morbidity and condition. Azithromycin MDA reduced child mortality, and quarterly MDA may be most beneficial for reducing child mortality. The effect of azithromycin MDA on malaria was weak. No association was observed between azithromycin MDA and malaria parasitemia (rate ratio: 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.43-1.15). Azithromycin MDA was associated with a lower risk of respiratory tract infections and diarrhea. Additionally, it was associated with a lower risk of fever, vomiting, and headache. The carriage of pathogenic organisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and gut Campylobacter species was reduced. However, these secondary effects of azithromycin MDA appeared to last only a few weeks. Moreover, no association was observed between azithromycin MDA and nutritional improvement in children. In conclusion, azithromycin MDA had favorable secondary effects on child mortality and morbidity. However, the effects were short term.


Assuntos
Malária , Tracoma , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Humanos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Tracoma/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(9): 3260-3265, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36018099

RESUMO

Purpose: In the mid-twentieth century, trachoma was endemic in the northwestern states of India. We aimed to generate recent estimates of prevalence of trachomatous inflammation, follicular (TF) and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in ten suspected-endemic districts across seven previously hyper-endemic states and union territories for trachoma in India including Delhi, Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, Gujarat, Uttarakhand and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Methods: Population-based prevalence surveys were undertaken in 10 districts. In each of those districts, two-stage cluster sampling was used to select a sample of 2000 children aged 1-9 years and all adults aged ≥15 years in the enumerated households from a total of 20 clusters per district. Consenting eligible participants were examined for trachoma by trained ophthalmologists using the World Health Organization's simplified grading system. Data were analyzed at the district level. Results: A total of 13,802 households were surveyed in which 19,662 children were examined for TF and 44,135 adults aged ≥15 years were examined for TT. District-level TF prevalence in 1-9-year-olds ranged from 0.1% in Bikaner (95% CI: 0.01-0.3) to 2.1% in Dholpur (95% CI: 1.6-2.8) and that of trichiasis ranged from 0.7 per 1000 in Pauri Garhwal (95% CI: 0.01-1.4) to 22.1 per 1000 (95% CI: 15.8-28.4) in Car Nicobar. In four districts (Car Nicobar, Dholpur, Hoshiarpur, Tonk), trichiasis prevalence in adults aged ≥15 years was ≥0.2%. Conclusion: TF was not a public health problem in any of the districts surveyed; thus, antibiotic mass drug administration is not needed. However, TT among adults was found to be above 0.2% in four districts; thus, further trichiasis surgery interventions at the public health level are warranted to achieve elimination. These findings will facilitate planning for elimination of trachoma as a public health problem in India.


Assuntos
Tracoma , Triquíase , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Prevalência
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