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1.
Femina ; 49(9): 520-524, 20211030.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342318

RESUMO

A síndrome dos ovários policísticos (SOP) é frequentemente acompanhada de distúrbio metabólico, principalmente dos carboidratos e dos lipídeos, aumentando o risco de síndrome metabólica. Por essa razão, alguns investigadores ainda denominam a SOP de síndrome metabólica-reprodutiva. O objetivo deste capítulo é descrever as principais repercussões metabólicas, bem como como investigá-las e saber como suas consequências podem ser deletérias para a saúde da mulher. Esta é uma revisão narrativa mostrando a implicação do metabolismo dos carboidratos e dos lipídeos nas dislipidemias, bem como da síndrome metabólica sobre o sistema reprodutor, e o risco cardiovascular da mulher com SOP. Conclui-se que o manejo adequado dos distúrbios metabólicos na SOP é benéfico a curto e a longo prazo tanto para o sistema reprodutor quanto para o cardiovascular.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Resistência à Insulina , Fatores de Risco , Intolerância à Glucose/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiopatologia
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17785, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493755

RESUMO

The prevalence of colorectal adenoma and advanced adenoma (AA) differs between sexes. Also, the optimal age for the first screening colonoscopy is under debate. We, therefore, performed a sex-specific and age-adjusted comparison of adenoma, AA and advanced neoplasia (AN) rates in a real-world screening cohort. In total, 2824 asymptomatic participants between 45- and 60-years undergoing screening colonoscopy at a single-centre in Austria were evaluated. 46% were females and mean age was 53 ± 4 years. A propensity score for being female was calculated, and adenoma, AA and AN detection rates evaluated using uni- and multivariable logistic regression. Sensitivity analyses for three age groups (group 1: 45 to 49 years, n = 521, 41% females, mean age 47 ± 1 years; group 2: 50 to 54 years, n = 1164, 47% females, mean age 52 ± 1 years; group 3: 55 to 60 years, n = 1139, 46% females, mean age 57 ± 2 years) were performed. The prevalence of any adenoma was lower in females (17% vs. 30%; OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.38-0.55; p < 0.001) and remained so after propensity score adjustment for baseline characteristics and lifestyle factors (aOR 0.52, 95% CI 0.41-0.66; p < 0.001). The same trend was seen for AA with a significantly lower prevalence in females (3% vs. 7%; OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.26-0.55; p < 0.001) that persisted after propensity score adjustment (aOR 0.54, 95% CI 0.34-0.86; p = 0.01). Also, all age-group sensitivity analyses showed lower adenoma, AA and AN rates in females. Similar numbers needed to screen to detect an adenoma, an AA or AN were found in female age group 3 and male age group 1. Colorectal adenoma, AA and AN were consistently lower in females even after propensity score adjustment and in all age-adjusted sensitivity analyses. Our study may add to the discussion of the optimal age for initial screening colonoscopy which may differ between the sexes.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento , Fatores Sexuais , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adenoma/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Antropometria , Áustria/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Pólipos do Colo/diagnóstico , Pólipos do Colo/epidemiologia , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Dieta , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Fumar/epidemiologia
3.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 321(5): R699-R711, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524906

RESUMO

Aging people living with HIV (PLWH), especially postmenopausal women may be at higher risk of comorbidities associated with HIV, antiretroviral therapy (ART), hypogonadism, and at-risk alcohol use. Our studies in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected male macaques demonstrated that chronic binge alcohol (CBA) reduced acute insulin response to glucose (AIRG), and at-risk alcohol use decreased HOMA-ß in PLWH. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of ovariectomy (OVX) on glucose-insulin dynamics and integrity of pancreatic endocrine function in CBA/SIV-infected female macaques. Female macaques were administered CBA (12-15 g/kg/wk) or isovolumetric water (VEH) intragastrically. Three months after initiation of CBA/VEH administration, all macaques were infected with SIVmac251, and initiated on antiretroviral therapy (ART) 2.5 mo postinfection. After 1 mo of ART, macaques were randomized to OVX or sham surgeries (n = 7 or 8/group), and euthanized 8 mo post-OVX (study endpoint). Frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests (FSIVGTT) were performed at selected time points. Pancreatic gene expression and islet morphology were determined at study endpoint. There was a main effect of CBA to decrease AIRG at Pre-SIV and study endpoint. There were no statistically significant OVX effects on AIRG (P = 0.06). CBA and OVX decreased the expression of pancreatic markers of insulin docking and release. OVX increased endoplasmic stress markers. CBA but not OVX impaired glucose-insulin expression dynamics in SIV-infected female macaques. Both CBA and OVX altered integrity of pancreatic endocrine function. These findings suggest increased vulnerability of PLWH to overt metabolic dysfunction that may be exacerbated by alcohol use and ovarian hormone loss.


Assuntos
Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/complicações , Glicemia/metabolismo , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/etiologia , Resistência à Insulina , Insulina/sangue , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/complicações , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/patogenicidade , Animais , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/sangue , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/sangue , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/fisiopatologia , Macaca mulatta , Pâncreas/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/virologia , Fatores de Tempo
4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257090, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516556

RESUMO

Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) mutations and their key effector 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) have been reported to promote oncogenesis in various human cancers. To elucidate molecular mechanism(s) associated with IDH1/2 mutations, we established mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) cells and human colorectal cancer cells stably expressing cancer-associated IDH1R132C or IDH2R172S, and analyzed the change in metabolic characteristics of the these cells. We found that IDH1/2 mutants induced intracellular 2-HG accumulation and inhibited cell proliferation. Expression profile analysis by RNA-seq unveiled that glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) was induced by the IDH1/2 mutants or treatment with 2-HG in the MEF cells. Consistently, glucose uptake and lactate production were increased by the mutants, suggesting the deregulation of glucose metabolism. Furthermore, PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and Hif1α expression were involved in the up-regulation of Glut1. Together, these results suggest that Glut1 is a potential target regulated by cancer-associated IDH1/2 mutations.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/genética , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/metabolismo , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glucose/metabolismo , Glutaratos/metabolismo , Glicólise , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
5.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371884

RESUMO

The dietary supplement, trans-resveratrol and hesperetin combination (tRES-HESP), induces expression of glyoxalase 1, countering the accumulation of reactive dicarbonyl glycating agent, methylglyoxal (MG), in overweight and obese subjects. tRES-HESP produced reversal of insulin resistance, improving dysglycemia and low-grade inflammation in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Herein, we report further analysis of study variables. MG metabolism-related variables correlated with BMI, dysglycemia, vascular inflammation, blood pressure, and dyslipidemia. With tRES-HESP treatment, plasma MG correlated negatively with endothelial independent arterial dilatation (r = -0.48, p < 0.05) and negatively with peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) quinone reductase activity (r = -0.68, p < 0.05)-a marker of the activation status of transcription factor Nrf2. For change from baseline of PBMC gene expression with tRES-HESP treatment, Glo1 expression correlated negatively with change in the oral glucose tolerance test area-under-the-curve plasma glucose (ΔAUGg) (r = -0.56, p < 0.05) and thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) correlated positively with ΔAUGg (r = 0.59, p < 0.05). Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) correlated positively with change in fasting plasma glucose (r = 0.70, p < 0.001) and negatively with change in insulin sensitivity (r = -0.68, p < 0.01). These correlations were not present with placebo. tRES-HESP decreased low-grade inflammation, characterized by decreased expression of CCL2, COX-2, IL-8, and RAGE. Changes in CCL2, IL-8, and RAGE were intercorrelated and all correlated positively with changes in MLXIP, MAFF, MAFG, NCF1, and FTH1, and negatively with changes in HMOX1 and TKT; changes in IL-8 also correlated positively with change in COX-2. Total urinary excretion of tRES and HESP metabolites were strongly correlated. These findings suggest tRES-HESP counters MG accumulation and protein glycation, decreasing activation of the unfolded protein response and expression of TXNIP and TNFα, producing reversal of insulin resistance. tRES-HESP is suitable for further evaluation for treatment of insulin resistance and related disorders.


Assuntos
Hesperidina/administração & dosagem , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Resveratrol/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteínas de Transporte/sangue , Correlação de Dados , Estudos Cross-Over , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/terapia , Feminino , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/sangue , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/terapia , Glicosilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Aldeído Pirúvico/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 797: 149132, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311363

RESUMO

Vehicle exhaust, as one of the most important compositions of air pollution, induced various adverse health effects, especially diabetes, on human beings. Even though monitoring and epidemiological data indicates that particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is an inducing factor of diabetes, the specific causative mechanisms are still unclear. In the current study, the concentration of particulate matters (PMs, including PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10.0) and PAHs was investigated at rush hour of weekday in three urban underground parking garages (UPGs). To evaluate the impacts of particle-bound PAHs on human beings, analysis of non-target metabolomics and unmetabolized PAHs were conducted for UPG and non-UPG worker urine samples. The results showed that the highest concentrations of PMs and total PAHs were found at the UPG entrance. The concentrations of unmetabolized 5-6 rings PAHs in the UPG worker urine were significantly higher than that in non-UPG worker urine samples, which induced glucose metabolism disorders through hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) signaling pathway. This could be a reason for particle-bound PAHs induced-diabetes on road workers, drivers and garage staff. These findings can serve as a step towards air pollution management and the pathological mechanism analysis of environmental factor induced-diseases.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Estações do Ano
7.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 338, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256716

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Early adoption of a healthy lifestyle has positive effects on cardiovascular health (CVH) in adulthood. In this study, we aimed to assess CVH metrics in a cohort of healthy teenagers with focus on differences between rural and urban areas. METHODS: The Early Vascular Aging (EVA) Tyrol study is a population-based non-randomized controlled trial, which prospectively enrolled 14- to 19-year-old adolescents in North Tyrol, Austria and South Tyrol, Italy between 2015 and 2018. Data from the baseline and control group (prior to health intervention) are included in the current analysis. CVH determinants (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, dietary patterns, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose) were assessed and analyzed for urban and rural subgroups separately by univariate testing. Significant variables were added in a generalized linear model adjusted for living in urban or rural area with age and sex as covariates. Ideal CVH is defined according to the guidelines of the American Heart Association. RESULTS: 2031 healthy adolescents were enrolled in the present study (56.2% female, mean age 16.5 years). 792 adolescents (39.0%) were from urban and 1239 (61.0%) from rural areas. In 1.3% of adolescents living in urban vs. 1.7% living in rural areas all CVH determinants were in an ideal range. Compared to the rural group, urban adolescents reported significantly longer periods of moderate to vigorous-intensive activity (median 50.0 min/day (interquartile range 30-80) vs. median 40.0 min/day (interquartile range 25-60), p < 0.01). This observation remained significant in a generalized linear model (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences between the study groups regarding all other CVH metrics. CONCLUSION: The low prevalence of ideal CVH for adolescents living in urban as well as rural areas highlights the need for early health intervention. Geographic differences must be taken into account when defining targeted subgroups for health intervention programs.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Saúde da População Rural , Saúde da População Urbana , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Áustria/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia
8.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(9): 2652-2660, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Various obesity indices such as BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio, (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) are associated with the risk of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Given few studies examining the strength of the association in this population, we aimed to identify which obesity indices are most strongly associated with T2DM and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) among adults from five West African countries. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from 15,520 participants from the World Health Organisation (WHO) STEPs surveys in Burkina Faso, Benin, Mali, Liberia, and Ghana were included in analyses. Multinomial logistic regression was used to calculate the relative risk (RR) per standard deviation (SD) of each anthropometric measure, modelled as both continuous variables and as categorical variables based on established cut-points. In the analyses with continuous variables, the unadjusted RRs for T2DM per SD were 1.30 (1.23, 1.37) for body mass index (BMI); 1.56 (1.46, 1.67) for WC; 2.57 (2.15, 3.09) for WHtR and 1.16 (1.03, 1.31) for WHR. WHtR showed the strongest association with T2DM in all adjusted analyses. For models using categorical variables based on established cut-points, obesity defined using waist circumference (OB-WC) and OB-BMI showed the strongest associations with T2DM, and OB-WHR, the weakest association in all adjusted analyses. CONCLUSION: WHtR and WC appear to be the indices most strongly associated with T2DM and IFG respectively. Given its simplicity, WC may be the metric that most usefully conveys risk for T2DM in West African adults.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/diagnóstico , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Adulto , África Ocidental/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/sangue , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Organização Mundial da Saúde
9.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 28(2): 314-318, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184516

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Many people have CVD risk factors without realising it and it is important to recognise the risk factors as soon as possible. Periodic examinations are a mandatory form of control for all employes in Poland. They provide an excellent opportunity to screen for the most common civilization diseases in the population. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and hypertension among academics in a Polish university, and to compare the results between postdoctoral fellows and other academics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group were postdoctoral fellows (HAB; N=135, 53 females) and other academics (NHAB; N=286, 179 females) over the age of 40 who reported for a periodic occupational medical check-up. Fasting blood samples were drawn, serum glucose, lipids and blood pressure (BP) were measured. RESULTS: The mean age was 56.7 (SD 9.8) in HAB and 49.8 (SD 8.1) in NHAB. Mean systolic BP and glycaemia were significantly higher in male HAB group than male NHAB (135.8 vs 130.9 mmHg and 6.0 vs 5.6 mmol/l, respectively). The relationship in females was non-significant. The age-adjusted odds ratios (OR [95% CI]) of having elevated low density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, glucose and blood pressure in male HAB vs male NHAB were 0.61 [0.32. 1.16], 0.64 [0.33, 1.23], 1.52 [0.80, 2.88] and 2.11 [0.88, 5.23], and in female HAB vs female NHAB - 0.59 [0.31, 1.12], 0.64 [0.32, 1.26], 0.87 [0.40, 1.79] and 1.86 [0.70, 4.68], respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Adequately planned occupational medicine examinations provide an opportunity to diagnose dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, or high BP in all groups of employees, including highly educated academics.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Pesquisadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Academias e Institutos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/sangue , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/fisiopatologia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medicina do Trabalho , Exame Físico , Polônia
10.
Biochimie ; 187: 83-93, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082043

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (∼21 nucleotides), endogenous, non-coding RNA molecules implicated in the post-transcriptional gene regulation performed through target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. In recent years, several investigations have demonstrated that miRNAs are involved in regulating both carbohydrate and lipid homeostasis in humans and other organisms. Moreover, it has been observed that the dysregulation of these metabolism-related miRNAs leads to the development of several metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia. Hence, in this current review, with the aim to impulse the research arena of the micro-transcriptome implications in vital metabolic pathways as well as to highlight the remarkable potential of miRNAs as therapeutic targets for metabolic disorders in humans, we provide an overview of the regulatory roles of metabolism-associated miRNAs in humans and murine models.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/metabolismo , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/genética , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/patologia , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/terapia , Humanos , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/patologia , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/terapia , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética
11.
J Nutr Biochem ; 95: 108761, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965533

RESUMO

Inflammation in insulin-sensitive tissues (e.g., liver, visceral adipose tissue [VAT]) plays a major role in obesity and insulin resistance. Recruitment of innate immune cells drives the dysregulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. We aimed to seek the role of Toll like receptor 3 (TLR3), a pattern recognition receptor involved in innate immunity, obesity and the metabolic disorder. TLR3 expression in liver and VAT from diet induced obese mice and in VAT from overweight women was examined. Body weight, glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity were evaluated in TLR3 wild-type and knockout (KO) mice on a chow diet (CD) or high-fat diet for 15 weeks. At euthanasia, blood was collected, and plasma biochemical parameters and adipokines were determined with commercial kits. Flow cytometry was used to measure macrophage infiltration and activation in VAT. Standard western blot, immunohistochemistry and quantative PCR were used to assess molecules in pathways about lipid and glucose metabolism, insulin and inflammation in tissues of liver and VAT. Utilizing human and animal samples, we found that expression of TLR3 was upregulated in the liver and VAT in obese mice as well as VAT in overweight women. TLR3-deficiency protected against high-fat diet induced obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and lipid accumulation. Lipolysis was enhanced in VAT and hepatic lipogenesis was inhibited in TLR3 KO animals. Macrophages infiltration into adipose tissue was attenuated in TLR3 KO mice, accompanied with inhibition of NF-κB-dependent AMPK/Akt signaling pathway. These findings demonstrated that TLR3 ablation prevented obesity and metabolic disorders, thereby providing new mechanistic links between inflammation and obesity and associated metabolic abnormalities in lipid/glucose metabolism.


Assuntos
Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Intolerância à Glucose , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Obesidade , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/genética
12.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(5): 1416-1426, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: CA.ME.LI.A (CArdiovascular risks, MEtabolic syndrome, LIver and Autoimmune disease) is a cross-sectional, epidemiological study performed between 2009-2011 in Abbiategrasso (Milan, Italy) to estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, metabolic syndrome, liver and autoimmune diseases in the general adult population. This report focuses on the description and presentation of baseline characteristics of the population. METHODS AND RESULTS: Citizens were randomly selected from the city electoral registers (n = 30903), yielding a sample of 2554 subjects (M = 1257, F = 1297; age, 47 ± 15 yrs; range 18-77 yrs). Men had higher prevalence of overweight or obesity (60.8% vs 41.6%; p < 0.0001) and greater thickness of visceral adipose tissue (40 ± 19 vs 27 ± 17 mm; p < 0.0001); no gender difference was found in subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness. Men also showed higher levels of serum triglycerides, γ-GT, fasting blood glucose, insulin and Homa-IR Index, while HDL, CRP, and prevalence of elevated (>5.0 mg/L) CRP were lower. Compared to normal weight men, risk-ratio (RR) of CRP elevation was 1.32 (ns) in overweight and 2.68 (p < 0.0001) in obese subjects. The corresponding figures in females were 2.68 (p < 0.0001) and 5.18 (p < 0.0001). Metabolic syndrome was more frequent in men (32.7% vs 14.5%; RR: 2.24, p < 0.0001). Interadventitia common carotid artery diameter was higher in men and increased with age and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: The present study reports on the overall characteristics of a large population from Northern Italy. It aims to identify the associations among cardiovascular risk factors to prevent their development and progression, improve healthy lifestyle and identify subjects liable to pharmacological interventions.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Autoimunes/sangue , Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/sangue , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Hepatopatias/sangue , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue
13.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 190, 2021 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence exists that glutamine plays multiple roles in glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and anti-inflammatory effects. This systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials aimed to assess the effect of glutamine supplementation on cardio-metabolic risk factors and inflammatory markers. METHODS: The processes of systematic reviews and meta-analyses were performed according to the PRISMA checklist. PubMed, Web of Sciences, Cochrane library, and Scopus databases were search for relevant studies without time or language restrictions up to December 30, 2020. All randomized clinical trials which assessed the effect of glutamine supplementation on "glycemic indices", "level of triglyceride, "and "inflammatory markers" were included in the study. The effect of glutamine supplementation on cardio-metabolic risk factors and inflammatory markers was assessed using a standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Heterogeneity between among studies was assessed using Cochran Q-statistic and I-square. Random/fixed-effects meta-analysis method was used to estimate the pooled SMD. The risk of bias for the included trials was evaluated using the Cochrane quality assessment tool. RESULTS: In total, 12 studies that assessed the effect of glutamine supplementation on cardio-metabolic risk factors were included in the study. Meta-analysis showed that glutamine supplementation significantly decreased significantly serum levels of FPG [SMD: - 0.73, 95% CI - 1.35, - 0.11, I2: 84.1%] and CRP [SMD: - 0.58, 95% CI - 0.1, - 0.17, I2: 0%]. The effect of glutamine supplementation on other cardiometabolic risk factors was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that glutamine supplementation might have a positive effect on FPG and CRP; both of which are crucial as cardio-metabolic risk factors. However, supplementation had no significant effect on other cardio-metabolic risk factors.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/tratamento farmacológico , Glutamina/uso terapêutico , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/sangue , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/diagnóstico , Glutamina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 90, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have reported the effects of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components on atrial fibrillation (AF), but the results remain controversial. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between MetS and AF risk. METHODS: Studies were searched from the Cochrane library, PubMed, and Embase databases through May 2020. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and its corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted and then pooled by using a random effects model. RESULTS: A total of 6 observational cohort studies were finally included. In the pooled analysis, MetS was associated with an increased risk of AF (HR 1.57; 95% CI 1.40-1.77; P < 0.01). And the components of MetS including abdominal obesity (HR 1.37; 95% CI 1.36-1.38; P < 0.01), elevated blood pressure (HR 1.56; 95% CI 1.46-1.66; P < 0.01), elevated fasting glucose (HR 1.18; 95% CI 1.15-1.21; P < 0.01) and low high density cholesterol (HDL) (HR 1.18; 95% CI 1.06-1.32; P < 0.01) was also associated with an increased risk of AF, while high triglyceride (HR 0.99; 95% CI 0.87-1.11, P = 0.82) was not. CONCLUSIONS: Our present meta-analysis suggested that MetS, as well as its components including abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting glucose and low HDL cholesterol were associated with an increase in the risk of AF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/diagnóstico , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 28(2): 141-150, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453048

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Modelling of associations of systolic blood pressure (BP) and blood glucose (BG) with their explanatory factors in separate regressions treats them as having independent biological mechanisms. This can lead to statistical inferences that are unreliable because the substantial overlap in their etiologic and disease mechanisms is ignored. AIM: This study aimed to examine the relationship of systolic blood pressure (BP) and blood glucose (BG) with measures of obesity and central fat distribution and other factors whilst taking account of the inter-dependence between them. METHODS: Participants (n = 14706, 53.5 % females) aged 25-64 years were selected by multi-stage stratified cluster sampling from eight provinces each representing one of the eight geographical regions of Vietnam. Measurements were made using the World Health Organization STEPS protocols. RESULTS: Structural modelling identified direct effects for BG (men P = 0.000, women P = 0.029), age (men P = 0.000, women P = 0.000) and body mass index (BMI) (men P = 0.000, women P = 0.000) in the estimation of systolic BP, and for systolic BP (men P = 0.036, women P = 0.000) and waist circumference (WC) (men P = 0.032, women P = 0.009) in the estimation of BG. There were indirect effects of age, cholesterol, physical activity and tobacco smoking via their influence on WC and BMI. The errors in estimation of systolic BP and BG were correlated (men P = 0.000, women P = 0.004), the stability indices (men 0.466, women 0.495) showed the non-recursive models were stable, and the proportion of variance explained was mid-range (men 0.553, women 0.579). CONCLUSION: This study provided statistical evidence of a feedback loop between systolic BP and BG. BMI and WC were confirmed to be their primary explanatory factors. Saturated fat intake and physical activity were identified as possible targets of intervention for overweight and obesity, and indirectly for reducing systolic BP and BG. Harmful/hazardous alcohol intake was identified as a target of intervention for systolic BP.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/sangue , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura
16.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e929626, 2021 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Angiopoietinlike protein 5 (ANGPTL5) is an adipocytokine and has an important role in metabolic processes including lipid metabolism, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. On the basis of these roles, the present study aimed to investigate the level and role of plasma ANGPTL5 in metabolic syndrome (MS) patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 139 participants was enrolled in this study; 69 of them were diagnosed with MS. Plasma ANGPTL5 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sex, age, and other laboratory tests were compared statistically. Correlations between ANGPTL5 and biochemical parameters such as lipid levels and insulin resistance were all evaluated statistically. RESULTS In patients with MS, plasma ANGPTL5 levels were higher than in those without MS (P<0.05). Moreover, after adjusting for the glucose profiles, positive correlations were found between plasma ANGPTL5 levels and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio (WHR); a weak negative correlation was found between ANGPTL5 concentration and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. After controlling the lipid profiles, positive correlations were found between ANGPTL5 concentration and BMI, WHR, fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, glycated hemoglobin, and homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) of insulin resistance; a negative correlation was found between plasma ANGPTL5 concentration and HOMA of ß-cell function. The area under the curve was approximately 0.912 in receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. CONCLUSIONS The findings in the present study showed that plasma ANGPTL5 was more positively correlated with glucose metabolism disorders than with lipid metabolism disorders in patients with MS, which suggested that ANGPTL5 might serve as a potential and useful clinical predictor of MS.


Assuntos
Proteínas Semelhantes a Angiopoietina/sangue , Proteínas Semelhantes a Angiopoietina/genética , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/sangue , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/genética , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Feminino , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 65(6): e2000859, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502107

RESUMO

SCOPE: Consumption of red meat, particularly processed red meat, has been reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes risk, and oxidized proteins and amino acids may be involved in this process. This study explores the effects of pork with varying degrees of oxidative injury caused by cooking on glucose metabolism in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cooked pork is freeze-dried to prepare animal feed. Mice are fed either a control diet (CON), a low- (LOP), or a high-oxidative injury pork diet (HOP) for 12 weeks. Intake of HOP causes hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, and impaired glucose tolerance, indicating a glucose metabolism disorder. Accumulation of oxidation products increases oxidative stress and inflammatory response, which impairs pancreatic islet ß cells function and reduces insulin secretion. Moreover, HOP-mediated hyperglycemia can be partly attributed to elevated hepatic glucose output, as indicated by increased gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, and decreased glycolysis and glycogen content. Changes in these processes may be regulated by reduced insulin levels and suppression of the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway and its downstream signaling molecules. CONCLUSION: HOP intake induces disorders of glucose metabolism by impairing pancreatic insulin secretion and increasing hepatic glucose output. Protein oxidation plays a key role in abnormal glucose metabolism induced by HOP.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/etiologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Carne de Porco/efeitos adversos , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Culinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Glucagon/sangue , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Inflamação/etiologia , Insulina/sangue , Secreção de Insulina , Células Secretoras de Insulina/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo
18.
J Diabetes Investig ; 12(6): 940-949, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058513

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), glycated albumin (GA) and 1,5-anhydro-d-glucitol (1,5-AG) are used as indicators of glycemic control, whereas continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is used to assess daily glucose profiles. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between CGM metrics, such as time in range (TIR), and glycemic control indicators. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out retrospective CGM and blood tests on 189 outpatients with impaired glucose tolerance (n = 22), type 1 diabetes mellitus (n = 67) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 100). RESULTS: In type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, HbA1c and GA were negatively correlated with TIR, whereas 1,5-AG was positively correlated with TIR. In type 1 diabetes mellitus patients, a TIR of 70% corresponded to HbA1c, GA and 1,5-AG of 6.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.5-7.2%), 20.3% (95% CI 19.0-21.7%) and 6.0 µg/mL (95% CI 5.1-6.9 µg/mL), respectively. In type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, a TIR of 70% corresponded to HbA1c, GA and 1,5-AG of 7.1% (95% CI 7.0-7.3%), 19.3% (95% CI 18.7-19.9%) and 10.0 µg/mL (95% CI 9.0-11.0 µg/mL), respectively. TIR values corresponding to HbA1c levels of 7.0% were 56.1% (95% CI 52.3-59.8%) and 74.2% (95% CI 71.3-77.2%) in type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed that the estimated HbA1c corresponding to a TIR of 70% was approximately 7.0% for both type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, and that the estimated 1,5-AG calculated from the TIR of 70% might be different between type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.


Assuntos
Desoxiglucose/análise , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Controle Glicêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Albumina Sérica/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Automonitorização da Glicemia/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/sangue , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 133: 110994, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197764

RESUMO

High fat diet (HFD) is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome which is characterized by overt glucose dysmetabolism and tissue derangement. The liver and pancreas are important metabolic tissues with anatomical proximity sharing splanchnic and mesenteric circulation but it is unclear whether, there is an associated metabolic status between the two organs in health and disease. Uric acid (UA) hypersecretion and ectopic lipid accumulation are characteristic pathophysiology of an array of non-communicable diseases. Sodium butyrate (BUT) is reputed for therapeutic roles in metabolic derangement. Therefore, the present study investigated synchrony in hepatic and pancreatic UA and lipid metabolic status in HFD-induced glucose dysregulation and probed the beneficial effects of BUT. Twenty-four female Wistar rats were treated with normal rat chow and distilled water (po) or sodium butyrate (200 mg/kg; po) or high fat diet and distilled water (po) or high fat diet and sodium butyrate. Results showed that HFD increased plasma, pancreatic and hepatic triglyceride, triglyceride-glucose index, malondialdehyde, uric acid (UA), lactate dehydrogenase but reduced glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Histological analysis revealed hepatic and pancreatic architectural derangement and cellular degeneration in HFD-fed animals. However, BUT reversed the HFD-induced systemic, pancreatic and hepatic synchronous dysmetabolism with evidence of improved histology. HFD-induced lipid and UA alterations were synchronous in the pancreas and liver. BUT elicits beneficial effects on systemic and tissue HFD-induced deleterious metabolic changes which were synchronized in pancreas and liver of rats.


Assuntos
Ácido Butírico/farmacologia , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Dislipidemias/patologia , Feminino , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/sangue , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/etiologia , Hiperuricemia/sangue , Hiperuricemia/etiologia , Hiperuricemia/patologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Pâncreas/patologia , Ratos Wistar
20.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; 129(1): 7-13, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Macroprolactinemia is a condition associated with the presence of large amounts of high molecular weight complexes of prolactin. Despite high prevalence, clinical significance of macroprolactin remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess cardiometabolic risk in men with isolated macroprolactinemia. METHODS: The study population included 11 men with isolated macroprolactinemia, 14 subjects with monomeric hyperprolactinemia and 14 men with prolactin levels within the reference range. Glucose homeostasis markers, plasma lipids, as well as plasma levels of uric acid, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, homocysteine and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were determined in all included patients. RESULTS: Compared to healthy counterparts, men with isolated macroprolactinemia had higher levels of 2-h postchallenge glucose, hsCRP and fibrinogen, lower levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and reduced insulin sensitivity. Patients with monomeric hyperprolactinemia were characterized by increased plasma levels of 2-h postchallenge glucose, triglycerides, uric acid, hsCRP, fibrinogen and homocysteine, reduced insulin sensitivity and decreased plasma concentrations of HDL cholesterol and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Subjects with isolated macroprolactinemia differed from patients with monomeric hyperprolactinemia in postchallenge plasma glucose, insulin sensitivity, uric acid, hsCRP, fibrinogen, homocysteine and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. In men with monomeric hyperprolactinemia, uric acid, hsCRP, fibrinogen, homocysteine and 25-hydroxyvitamin D, while in men with elevated levels of macroprolactin, uric acid, hsCRP, fibrinogen and 25-hydroxyvitamin D correlated with a content of monomeric prolactin or macroprolactin, respectively, as well as with a degree of insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results suggest that macroprolactinemia may increase cardiometabolic risk but to a lesser extent than monomeric hyperprolactinemia.


Assuntos
Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/sangue , Hiperprolactinemia/sangue , Prolactina/sangue , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hiperprolactinemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Polônia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
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