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1.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 33(9): 1133-1135, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839876

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of tracheotomy high-flow oxygen therapy (THFO) on the clinical efficacy of non-mechanically ventilated patients undergoing a tracheotomy. METHODS: Sixty adult patients with tracheotomy and non-mechanical ventilation who were diagnosed and treated from January 2019 to December 2020 in Fenyang Hospital of Shanxi Province were enrolled. According to the random number table, the patients were divided into Venturi oxygen therapy group and THFO group, 30 cases in each group. The THFO group was given oxygen therapy with THFO; the Venturi group (without mask) was given Venturi connected the MR850 base and the ventilator tube. Observe the changes of two groups at 7 AM within 5 days, including body temperature which was 1 centigrade higher than the baseline, white blood cell count (WBC) which was 2×109/L higher than baseline, oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2) < 300 mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa), the occurrence of lower respiratory tract infections (based on radiography), and changes in sputum indexing and sputum formation. RESULTS: Compared with the Venturi oxygen therapy group, the body temperature increased > 1 centigrade, WBC increased by 2×109/L, PaO2/FiO2 < 300 mmHg, and the proportion of lower respiratory tract infection in THFO group decreased significantly [body temperature increased > 1 centigrade: 10.0% (3/30) vs. 13.3% (4/30), WBC increased by 2×109/L: 10.0% (3/30) vs. 30.0% (9/30), PaO2/FiO2 < 300 mmHg: 3.3% (1/30) vs. 10.0% (3/30), the proportion of lower respiratory tract infection: 6.7% (2/30) vs. 13.3% (4/30), all P < 0.05]. The proportion of patients with sputum scab formation and sputum viscosity of I degree were significantly increased [sputum scab formation: 16.7% (5/30) vs. 6.7% (2/30), sputum viscosity of I degree: 30.0% (9/30) vs. 20.0% (6/30), both P < 0.05]. CONCLUSIONS: THFO during non-mechanical ventilation of adult patients with tracheotomy can maintain a higher oxygen partial pressure and ideally control the temperature and humidity of the inhaled gas, promote the discharge of sputum with degree I and II viscosity, thereby reducing the tracheotomy complications such as lower respiratory tract infections.


Assuntos
Oxigenoterapia , Traqueotomia , Gasometria , Humanos , Oxigênio , Traqueostomia
2.
J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 50(1): 59, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the early part of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Canadian Society of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery (CSO-HNS) task force published recommendations on performance of tracheotomy. Since then, our understanding of the virus has evolved with ongoing intensive research efforts. New literature has helped us better understand various aspects including patient outcomes and health care worker (HCW) risks associated with tracheotomy during the COVID-19 pandemic. Accordingly, the task force has re-evaluated and revised some of the previous recommendations. MAIN BODY: Based on recent evidence, a negative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) COVID-19 swab status is no longer the main deciding factor in the timing of tracheotomy. Instead, tracheotomy may be considered as soon as COVID-19 swab positive patients are greater than 20 days beyond initial symptoms and 2 weeks of mechanical ventilation. Furthermore, both open and percutaneous surgical techniques may be considered with both techniques showing similar safety and outcome profiles. Additional recommendations with discussion of current evidence are presented. CONCLUSION: These revised recommendations apply new evidence in optimizing patient and health care system outcomes as well as minimizing risks of COVID-19 transmission during aerosol-generating tracheotomy procedures. As previously noted, additional evidence may lead to further evolution of these and other similar recommendations.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções , Otolaringologia , Traqueotomia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/transmissão , Canadá , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Seleção de Pacientes , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
3.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666447

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinical diagnosis and treatment of congenital laryngotracheoesophageal cleft (LTEC) in children. Methods: The clinical data of 8 children (including 7 males and 1 female)with congenital laryngotracheoesophageal cleft from January 2016 to June 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The median diagnosing age was 3.75 months (5 days to 12 months). According to the modified Benjamin Inglis classification proposed by Sandu in 2006,there were 3 cases of type Ⅱ, 3 cases of type Ⅲa, 1 case of type Ⅲb and 1 case of type Ⅳa. All children were followed up regularly. Results: Six patients were treated for recurrent bronchopneumonia and aspiration during feeding. The patients were first treated in the pneumology departmentt or intensive care unit. Six patients combined with other malformations. Endoscopic repair operations were performed in 6 cases (3 cases of type Ⅱ, 3 cases of type Ⅲ a), 1 case of LTEC was operated through cervical approach, and 1 case of type IVa LTEC associated with VACTERL was repaired under thoracoscope combined with suspension laryngoscope. Seven patients underwent tracheotomy before or during the repair operations. Gastrostomy was performed in 2 children. The operations were successfully performed in all cases. Three children with type Ⅱ LTEC recovered well and decannulated. One case of type Ⅲa was followed up for 5 months with occasionally choking while feeding. Two cases of type Ⅲa, 1 case of type Ⅲb and 1 case of type Ⅳa died due to severe reflux, tracheomalacia or respiratory failure. Conclusions: Congenital LTEC is a rare congenital malformation which is difficult to diagnose for the poor specificity of clinical manifestations. LTEC needs to be classified by endoscopy examination under general anesthesia. Severe cases of LTEC have poorer outcomes than the mild cases, and the perioperative managements need multi-disciplinary cooperation to reduce the mortality.


Assuntos
Laringe , Traqueia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Laringe/cirurgia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Traqueostomia , Traqueotomia
4.
Head Neck ; 43(12): 3743-3756, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimal timing for tracheotomy for critically ill COVID-19 patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) is not established. METHODS: Multicenter prospective cohort including all COVID-19 patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) in 36 hospitals who required tracheotomy during first pandemic wave. With a target emulation trial framework, we studied the causal effects of early (7-10 days) versus late (>10 days) tracheotomy (LT) on time from tracheotomy to weaning, postoperative mortality, and tracheotomy complications. RESULTS: Of 696 patients, 20.4% received early tracheotomy (ET). ET was associated with faster weaning (hazard ratio [HR] [95% confidence interval, CI]: 1.25 [1.00-1.56]) without differences in mortality (HR [95% CI]: 0.85 [0.60-1.21]) or complications (adjusted rate ratio [95% CI]: 0.56 [0.23-1.33]). CONCLUSIONS: ET had a similar or lower post-tracheotomy weaning time than LT, potentially shortening IMV and ICU stays, without changing complication or mortality rates in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Respiração Artificial , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Traqueotomia
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(30): e26712, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397703

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: In oral cancer surgery, the decision to perform a tracheotomy is often determined by the surgeon. In this study, we investigated the competency of clinical scoring systems in identifying patients who require tracheotomy and examined the degree of agreement between the surgeon's decision and the indications of various scoring systems. We identified 110 patients who were surgically treated for oral cancer. Of these, 67 patients (44 men and 23 women) who underwent resection and reconstruction were retrospectively analyzed. To derive the score, we evaluated the endpoint of the airway management score using clinical records and images. We divided the patients into two groups based on the Cameron and Gupta scores (tracheotomy and no-tracheotomy groups) and evaluated the degree of agreement with the surgeon's decision by calculating the κ coefficient. The κ coefficients of the Gupta and Cameron scores were 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.40-0.82) and 0.60 (95% CI: 0.38-0.82), respectively. The clinical evaluation of the κ coefficient indicated that the Cameron and Gupta scores agreed fairly with the surgeon's decision. In this study, the Cameron and Gupta scores fairly agreed with the decision of experienced surgeons and were confirmed as acceptable guides for making clinical judgments.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Bucais/cirurgia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Traqueotomia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 150: 110864, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411868

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Risk factors for middle ear disease necessitating myringotomy with tympanostomy tube placement after a tracheostomy have not been thoroughly explored. This study investigates the incidence and risk factors for ear tube placement in pediatric patients with a tracheostomy. METHODS: Pediatric patients under age 18 who underwent tracheotomy between 2002 and 2010 at two institutions were identified. Patients were excluded if they had undergone myringotomy prior to, or at the same time as, the tracheotomy, or did not have at least two years of follow-up clinic visits. The presence of other comorbidities was recorded. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used to assess the impact of clinical characteristics on outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 214 patients met inclusion criteria. Median patient age at time of tracheotomy was 6 months (IQR 2-17), median patient age at time of myringotomy with tubes was 12 months (IQR8-17), and median time between tracheotomy and myringotomy with tube placement was 8 months (IQR 5-11). Sixty-seven (31%) patients required myringotomy with tympanostomy tube placement within the first two years after tracheotomy. Fifty-eight (87%) patients who underwent myringotomy with tympanostomy tubes were younger than 2 years at the time of the procedure. Logistical regression found younger age at time of tracheotomy to be a risk factor (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.5-0.9, p < 0.006). The combination of tracheostomy with gastric tube increased the risk of requiring myringotomy with tubes 2.79 fold (p < 0.009). Craniofacial abnormalities (p < 0.001), known genetic syndrome (p = 0.009), cleft palate (p < 0.001), age at time of tracheotomy (p < 0.001) and gastric tubes (p = 0.002) were all independently found to increase risk of myringotomy with tubes. Patients' gestational age (p = 0.411), ventilator dependence (p = 0.33), and airway structural abnormalities (p = 0.632) did not increase this risk. CONCLUSION: This study reports a high incidence of myringotomy with tubes in children with tracheostomy relative to the general pediatric population. Many comorbid conditions that often accompany the need for tracheotomy place these patients at a higher risk for ear disease requiring surgical intervention. Risk factors for operative middle ear disease in this population included age at time of tracheostomy, craniofacial abnormalities, and presence of a G-tube.


Assuntos
Otopatias , Otite Média com Derrame , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Ventilação da Orelha Média , Otite Média com Derrame/cirurgia , Traqueostomia , Traqueotomia/efeitos adversos
9.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): 279-284, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281012

RESUMO

La decanulación es el proceso de retirar la cánula de traqueotomía de forma definitiva, una vez que la patología original que motivó la traqueotomía se haya resuelto o mejorado significativamente.La predicción del éxito de decanulación es difícil debido a la influencia de varios factores. No existe un protocolo universalmente aceptado. Existen diversos protocolos y la elección depende, en gran medida, de cada institución y de la situación individual de cada paciente. Sin embargo, para lograr la decanulación exitosa deben tenerse en cuenta varios criterios esenciales que deben cumplirse independientemente del protocolo elegido.Se señalan las características que debe reunir el paciente apto para la decanulación y se presentan recomendaciones sobre los pasos necesarios para lograr el retiro de la cánula de traqueotomía en el niño de manera segura y minimizando el riesgo de fracaso.


Decannulation is the process of removing the tracheotomy cannula permanently, once the original pathology that led to the tracheotomy has been resolved or significantly improved. The prediction of decannulation success is difficult due to the influence of several factors. There is no universally accepted decannulation protocol. There are several protocols and the choice depends, largely, on each institution and the individual situation of each patient. However, in order to achieve successful decannulation, several essential criteria must be taken into account, which must be fulfilled regardless of the chosen protocol.We indicate the characteristics that the patient must meet for decannulation, and we present recommendations on the necessary steps to achieve the removal of the tracheotomy cannula in a child safely and minimizing the risk of failure.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Traqueotomia , Remoção de Dispositivo/métodos , Pediatria , Protocolos , Cânula
13.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 119(4): 279-284, 2021 08.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309322

RESUMO

Decannulation is the process of removing the tracheotomy cannula permanently, once the original pathology that led to the tracheotomy has been resolved or significantly improved. The prediction of decannulation success is difficult due to the influence of several factors. There is no universally accepted decannulation protocol. There are several protocols and the choice depends, largely, on each institution and the individual situation of each patient. However, in order to achieve successful decannulation, several essential criteria must be taken into account, which must be fulfilled regardless of the chosen protocol. We indicate the characteristics that the patient must meet for decannulation, and we present recommendations on the necessary steps to achieve the removal of the tracheotomy cannula in a child safely and minimizing the risk of failure.


Assuntos
Pediatria , Traqueotomia , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Traqueia , Traqueostomia
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2277: 175-185, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080152

RESUMO

The Protoporphyrin IX-Triplet State Lifetime Technique (PpIX-TSLT) has been proposed by us as a potential clinical noninvasive tool for monitoring mitochondrial function. We have been working on the development of mitochondrial respirometry for monitoring mitochondrial oxygen tension (mitoPO2) and mitochondrial oxygen consumption (mitoVO2) in skin. In this work, we describe the principles of the method in small experimental animals.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Ácido Aminolevulínico/farmacologia , Animais , Temperatura Corporal , Desenho de Equipamento , Medições Luminescentes/instrumentação , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Protoporfirinas/química , Ratos Wistar , Respiração Artificial , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Traqueotomia
15.
Semin Pediatr Surg ; 30(3): 151059, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172205

RESUMO

Tracheal resection is an uncommon procedure in children. It was described many years ago and many surgeons still rely on historical reports when performing the procedure, despite the technological and clinical advancements achieved during the last decades. We consider complex tracheal resections those resections of 30 to 50% of tracheal length, corresponding to at least 6-7 rings. With proper intra and post-operative management, this surgery is safe in children. In this review, we focused on the experience with this procedure of 3 reference centers, with 49 patients operated. We present a management algorithm for these patients, describing pre-operative evaluations, decision on surgical approach, need of tracheotomy, type of intra-operative oxygenation, surgical steps, and post-operative care.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Estenose Traqueal , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Traqueia/cirurgia , Estenose Traqueal/cirurgia , Traqueostomia , Traqueotomia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Ann Surg ; 274(2): 234-239, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029231

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes of tracheostomy in patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Tracheostomy has an essential role in managing COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure who require prolonged mechanical ventilation. However, limited data are available on how tracheostomy affects COVID-19 outcomes, and uncertainty surrounding risk of infectious transmission has led to divergent recommendations and practices. METHODS: It is a multicenter, retrospective study; data were collected on all tracheostomies performed in COVID-19 patients at 7 hospitals in 5 tertiary academic medical systems from February 1, 2020 to September 4, 2020. RESULT: Tracheotomy was performed in 118 patients with median time from intubation to tracheostomy of 22 days (Q1-Q3: 18-25). All tracheostomies were performed employing measures to minimize aerosol generation, 78.0% by percutaneous technique, and 95.8% at bedside in negative pressure rooms. Seventy-eight (66.1%) patients were weaned from the ventilator and 18 (15.3%) patients died from causes unrelated to tracheostomy. No major procedural complications occurred. Early tracheostomy (≤14 days) was associated with decreased ventilator days; median ventilator days (Q1-Q3) among patients weaned from the ventilator in the early, middle and late groups were 21 (21-31), 34 (26.5-42), and 37 (32-41) days, respectively with P = 0.030. Compared to surgical tracheostomy, percutaneous technique was associated with faster weaning for patients weaned off the ventilator [median (Q1-Q3): 34 (29-39) vs 39 (34-51) days, P = 0.038]; decreased ventilator-associated pneumonia (58.7% vs 80.8%, P = 0.039); and among patients who were discharged, shorter intensive care unit duration [median (Q1-Q3): 33 (27-42) vs 47 (33-64) days, P = 0.009]; and shorter hospital length of stay [median (Q1-Q3): 46 (33-59) vs 59.5 (48-80) days, P = 0.001]. CONCLUSION: Early, percutaneous tracheostomy was associated with improved outcomes compared to surgical tracheostomy in a multi-institutional series of ventilated patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração Artificial , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/virologia , Traqueostomia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Traqueotomia/métodos , Estados Unidos
20.
Laryngoscope ; 131(11): E2802-E2809, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021601

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Airway access in the setting of unsuccessful ventilation and intubation typically involves emergent cricothyrotomy or tracheotomy, procedures with associated significant risk. The potential for such emergent scenarios can often be predicted based on patient and disease factors. Planned tracheotomy can be performed in these cases but is not without its own risks. We previously described a technique of pre-tracheotomy or exposing the tracheal framework without entering the trachea, as an alternative to planned tracheostomy in such cases. In this way, a tracheotomy can be easily completed if needed, or the wound can be closed if it is not needed. This procedure has since been used in an array of indications. We describe the clinical situations where pre-tracheotomy was performed as well as subsequent patient outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective series of patients undergoing a pre-tracheotomy from 2015 to 2020. Records were reviewed for patient characteristics, indication, whether the procedure was converted to tracheotomy or closed at the bedside, and any post-procedural complications. RESULTS: Pre-tracheotomy was performed in 18 patients. Indications included failed extubation after head and neck reconstruction, subglottic stenosis, laryngeal masses, laryngeal edema, thyroid masses, and an oropharyngeal bleed requiring operative intervention. Tracheotomy was avoided in 10 patients with wound closed at the bedside; procedure was converted to tracheotomy in the remaining eight. There were no complications. Indications for conversion included failed extubation, intraoperative hemorrhage, significant stridor with dyspnea, and inability to ventilate. CONCLUSION: Pre-tracheotomy offers simplified airway access and provides a valuable option in scenarios where tracheotomy may, but not necessarily, be needed. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:E2802-E2809, 2021.


Assuntos
Conversão para Cirurgia Aberta/efeitos adversos , Traqueia/cirurgia , Traqueostomia/efeitos adversos , Traqueotomia/efeitos adversos , Técnicas de Fechamento de Ferimentos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Extubação/efeitos adversos , Extubação/estatística & dados numéricos , Cervicoplastia/efeitos adversos , Conversão para Cirurgia Aberta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hemorragia/complicações , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Hemorragia/cirurgia , Humanos , Edema Laríngeo/complicações , Edema Laríngeo/diagnóstico , Edema Laríngeo/cirurgia , Neoplasias Laríngeas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Laríngeas/patologia , Neoplasias Laríngeas/cirurgia , Laringoestenose/complicações , Laringoestenose/epidemiologia , Laringoestenose/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orofaringe/patologia , Orofaringe/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Ferida Cirúrgica , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/complicações , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Técnicas de Fechamento de Ferimentos/estatística & dados numéricos
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