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1.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP1397-NP1423, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35467444

RESUMO

Child sex trafficking (CST), the unlawful recruitment of any minor to engage in commercial sexual exploitation through force, fraud, or coercion, is a growing epidemic worldwide. Sex trafficking can have devastating consequences for children, including long-lasting physical and psychological trauma. Counselors working in clinical and school settings have first-hand access to a number of at-risk populations due to the nature of their work. Yet, counselors in the United States report lack of training on CST as a limitation to their ability to identify and effectively work with CST victims. Limited training derives from the absence of competency standards to guide counselors working with CST victims. To address this critical gap, this research study utilized expert consensus to develop an initial list of CST competencies for counselors working in the United States. A heterogeneous sample of 19-CST experts participated in a four-round Delphi process. The expert panel reached a consensus on 128 CST competency statements organized into five domains: (a) intervention strategies and the helping relationship, (b) trauma and sex trafficking, (c) assessment of risk factors and indicators, (d) ethical practice, and (e) cultural diversity and human growth and development. This article assists in identifying standards of practice necessary for counselors to detect, prevent, and assist sex-trafficked youth. Creating an initial list of competency standards can serve as guiding points for clinical practice training curricula, and quality control assessments for counselors, and possibly other mental health professionals, working with CST.


Assuntos
Tráfico de Pessoas , Criança , Adolescente , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Tráfico de Pessoas/prevenção & controle , Técnica Delfos , Currículo , Comportamento Sexual , Aconselhamento
2.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 41(1): 101-116, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36424035

RESUMO

Intimate partner violence and human trafficking commonly affect patients presenting to the emergency department including the trauma bay. Although these forms of violence and exploitation are not always the underlying cause of that particular emergency department encounter, screening is important regardless of the presenting condition because this presentation may be the only opportunity to receive help and ultimately plants the seed for future access to help regardless of what a patient chooses to do following this first encounter. There are important medical care considerations in these patients beyond trauma bay procedures that can make the difference in saving a life.


Assuntos
Tráfico de Pessoas , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Humanos , Violência , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência
3.
Int Emerg Nurs ; 65: 101228, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human trafficking is a form of modern slavery, exploiting people across all cultures and ethnic groups. Human trafficking victims (HTV) are at increased risk for neglect, physical, and psychological harm. LOCAL PROBLEM: Approximately 68% of HTV report seeking medical treatments in the emergency department at some point during their captivity. Many emergency department nurses today are however not well prepared to identify potential HTV in day to day practice. METHODS: The purpose of this quality improvement (QI) project was to improve emergency room nurses' self-efficacy in victim identification through education and implementation of a screening tool. Self-efficacy in victim identification was measured through a pre- and post- implementation survey. INTERVENTIONS: The intervention for this QI project included education delivered asynchronously online and in person across all shifts as well as a victim screening assessment. The screening assessment was imbedded in the pre-existing safety assessment of the electronic medical record. RESULTS: Using the mean response of pre- and post- implementation surveys, a paired t-test analysis allowed comparison indicating a significant improvement to self-reported levels of self-efficacy in nursing staff. CONCLUSION: A statistically significant change in mean practice self-efficacy scores reinforced the importance of education and screening in victim identification.


Assuntos
Tráfico de Pessoas , Melhoria de Qualidade , Humanos , Autoeficácia , Escolaridade , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência
5.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 143: 108897, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215910

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Understanding substance use and treatment needs for survivors of human trafficking remains an underdeveloped area in the field of substance use treatment. This study assessed the nature of substance use among survivors of all types of human trafficking and identified treatment barriers and needs, as reported by human trafficking service providers in one Midwest major metropolitan area. METHODS: Participants were purposively selected from agencies that served foreign-born and domestic-born survivors of human trafficking. The study interviewed fifteen key informants across 13 agencies directly serving survivors of trafficking. RESULTS: Providers highlighted frequent use of alcohol and marijuana, as well as polysubstance use. They noted survivors' significant use of opioids, associated concerns regarding fentanyl-related deaths, and increased frequency of stimulant use. Barriers for addressing substance use problems with survivors included low self-perceptions of need, lack of available residential or inpatient treatment options, and prioritizing basic needs such as housing over substance use treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Results underscore how broader trends in substance use and overdose in a region can mirror substance use patterns and treatment needs of human trafficking survivors. Further, a need exists for broader substance use screening and low-barrier referral services to address emergent needs of survivors of trafficking.


Assuntos
Tráfico de Pessoas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Tráfico de Pessoas/prevenção & controle , Sobreviventes , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia
6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 987159, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36203682

RESUMO

Disinformation has endangered the most vulnerable communities within our world. The anti-trafficking movement in particular has been adversely impacted by disinformation tactics advanced through the QAnon campaign. QAnon's extremist messaging exacerbates gendered, racist, and xenophobic manifestations of trafficking victimization as well as problematic responses to trafficking that underpin historic structural inequities built into the United States' response to trafficking. We describe an overview of mechanisms used by the QAnon campaign to spread disinformation and illustrate how these mechanisms adversely affect the anti-trafficking movement. Given the critical role of healthcare providers in both the identification and connection to care for trafficked persons, as well as their susceptibility to disinformation, we provide several recommendations for the health sector to leverage their educational and advocacy power to combat trafficking disinformation while addressing the root causes of human trafficking.


Assuntos
Tráfico de Pessoas , Desinformação , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Estados Unidos
7.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274991, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36166446

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There has been limited research on sex trafficking in Canada from a health and health care perspective, despite U.S. research which points to health care providers as optimally positioned to identify and help those who have been sex trafficked. We aim to better understand health care providers' knowledge about, attitudes towards, and care of those who have been sex trafficked in Ontario, Canada. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Using a semi-structured interview guide, we will interview physicians, nurses, and social workers working in a health care setting in Ontario until data saturation is reached. An intersectional lens will be applied to the study; analysis will follow the six analytic phases outlined by Braun and Clarke. In the development of this study, we consulted the consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ) with regards to reflexivity and study design. We will continue to consult this checklist as the study progresses and in the writing of our analysis and findings. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this will be the first study of its kind in Canada. The results hold the potential to inform the development of standardized training on sex trafficking for health care providers. Results of the study may be useful in addressing sex trafficking in other jurisdictions.


Assuntos
Tráfico de Pessoas , Médicos , Canadá , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Ontário , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Assistentes Sociais
8.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9927

RESUMO

La trata de personas es un delito que viola los derechos humanos. Se comete cuando una persona capta a otra sin importar su género edad, origen, nivel económico o educativo, para ser explotada, generalmente, en otro lugar.


Assuntos
Tráfico de Pessoas , Emigração e Imigração , Saúde Mental
9.
Public Health Rep ; 137(1_suppl): 46S-52S, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35775907

RESUMO

Human trafficking has long-lasting implications for the well-being of trafficked people, families, and affected communities. Prevention and intervention efforts, however, have been stymied by a lack of information on the scale and scope of the problem. Because trafficked people are mostly hidden from view, traditional methods of establishing prevalence can be prohibitively expensive in the recruitment, participation, and retention of survey participants. Also, trafficked people are not randomly distributed in the general population. Researchers have therefore begun to apply methods previously used in public health research and other fields on hard-to-reach populations to measure the prevalence of human trafficking. In this topical review, we examine how these prevalence methods used for hard-to-reach populations can be used to measure the prevalence of human trafficking. These methods include network-based approaches, such as respondent-driven sampling and the network scale-up method, and venue-based methods. Respondent-driven sampling is useful, for example, when little information about the trafficked population has been produced and when an adequate sampling frame does not exist. The network scale-up method is unique in that it does not target the hidden population directly. The implications of our work internationally include the need for documenting and validating the various prevalence estimation methods in the United States in a more robust way than was done in existing efforts. In providing this roadmap for estimating the prevalence of human trafficking, our overarching goal is to promote the equitable treatment and overall well-being of the socially disadvantaged populations who disproportionately experience human trafficking.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Tráfico de Pessoas , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Public Health Rep ; 137(1_suppl): 83S-90S, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35775908

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: People experiencing trafficking often seek health care but are not identified. Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention added new International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) codes specific to human trafficking (hereinafter, HT ICD-10-CM codes) that could systematize the identification and documentation of human trafficking in US health care settings, the extent of their use is unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate (1) the frequency of HT ICD-10-CM code use in US health care organizations (HCOs) and (2) demographic data associated with HT ICD-10-CM codes using a large clinical database. METHODS: This retrospective study used deidentified data collected from October 1, 2018, through March 30, 2021, from a clinical database (N = 69 740 144 patients) network (TriNetX) of 48 collaborating US HCOs. Data included number of patients with ≥1 HT ICD-10-CM code, diagnoses, and demographic characteristics (age, sex, race, ethnicity, and region). RESULTS: HT ICD-10-CM codes were associated with 298 patients in US HCOs, most of whom were young (mean [SD] age, 26 [16] y), White (53.0%; n = 158), and female (87.9%; n = 262). Thirty-seven of 48 (77.1%) participating HCOs used ≥1 HT ICD-10-CM code. The most frequently used HT ICD-10-CM codes were "forced sexual exploitation, suspected" (32.2%; n = 96) and "personal history of forced labor or sexual exploitation" (27.1%; n = 81). Labor trafficking codes were noted in approximately 3.7% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: HT ICD-10-CM codes are being used by health care professionals, as confirmed by large databases. Further research is needed to understand variation in code use and risk factors associated with human trafficking.


Assuntos
Tráfico de Pessoas , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Tráfico de Pessoas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
11.
Public Health Rep ; 137(1_suppl): 63S-72S, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35775913

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although many screening tools, resources, and programs for identifying victims of human trafficking exist, consensus is lacking on which tools are most useful, which have been validated, and whether they are effective. The objectives of this study were to determine what tools exist to identify or screen for victims of human trafficking in health care settings and whether these tools have been validated. METHOD: We conducted a scoping review of the literature on human trafficking identification in health care settings following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) protocol for scoping reviews. We searched the MEDLINE, PsycInfo, Embase, and Scopus databases without language or date limitations. Two independent reviewers screened each citation. We included human research studies in English with populations of all ages, all genders, all geographic locations, and using quantitative and/or qualitative research methods. We excluded studies that were not conducted in a health care setting, review articles, and meta-analyses. We summarized additional screening tools available online and identified through hand-searching. RESULTS: Database searches yielded 8730 studies, of which 4806 remained after removing duplicates. We excluded 4720 articles based on title/abstract review, we reviewed 85 full-text studies for eligibility, and we included 8 articles. Hand-searching revealed 9 additional screening tools not found in the literature. Through our search for validated screening tools, only 6 had been studied for validation in health care settings. CONCLUSIONS: Few studies have evaluated screening tools for identifying victims of human trafficking in health care settings. The absence of a gold standard for human trafficking screening and lack of consensus on the definition of human trafficking make screening tool validation difficult. Further research is required for the development of safe, effective approaches to patient screening.


Assuntos
Tráfico de Pessoas , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Tráfico de Pessoas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pesquisa
12.
Public Health Rep ; 137(1_suppl): 30S-37S, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35775914

RESUMO

Although human trafficking is recognized as a public health issue, research on the health effects of human trafficking and best intervention practices is limited. We describe 2 citywide collaborative victim services models, the THRIVE (Trafficking, Healthcare, Resources, and Interdisciplinary Victim Services and Education) Clinic at the University of Miami and Jackson Health System in Miami, Florida, and the Greater Houston Area Pathways for Advocacy-based, Trauma-Informed Healthcare (PATH) Collaborative at Baylor College of Medicine, CommonSpirit Health, and San Jose Clinic in Houston, Texas, funded in part by the Office for Victims of Crime, which focus on trauma-informed health care delivery for victims of human trafficking. From June 2015 through September 2021, the THRIVE Clinic served 214 patients with an average age of 28.7 years at the time of their first visit. From October 2017 through September 2021, the PATH Collaborative received 560 suspected trafficking referrals, 400 of which screened positive for labor or sex trafficking. These models serve as a framework for replication of interdisciplinary practices to provide health care for this unique population and preliminary information about the strategies put in place to assist victims during their recovery. Key lessons include the importance of a citywide needs assessment, patient navigators, interdisciplinary care, and building community partnerships to ensure safe housing, transportation, identification, health insurance, vocation services, input from survivors, peer-to-peer mentorship, and medical-legal services. Further research is needed to understand the detrimental health effects of trafficking and the health care needs of victims. In addition, a need exists to develop optimal models of care for recovery and reintegration for this patient population and to address public health, legal, and medical policies to ensure access to and sustainability of comprehensive, trauma-informed, interdisciplinary victim services.


Assuntos
Tráfico de Pessoas , Adulto , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Sobreviventes/psicologia
17.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270103, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35767522

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Thousands of youth are sexually trafficked each year worldwide. Increased public attention to the commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) of children has resulted in the rapid deployment of hybrid community public health and social service programs for these vulnerable youth. Research on the effectiveness of these advocacy programs is lacking, particularly whether they decrease psychosocial distress and increase readiness to leave CSE. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Cisgender girls under age 18 at the time of CSE, and who were identified as at-risk for sex trafficking revictimization, were included in an evaluation of an anti-trafficking advocacy program in the North Texas region of the United States. The program includes crisis response, case management, referral, and mentoring services in collaboration with multi-disciplinary team (MDT) responses to identified youth sex trafficking. Case management notes, needs assessments and individualized treatment plans were collected at intake and every 30 days until study conclusion. Standardized surveys, including the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), the Coping Self-Efficacy Scale, and the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) were collected at intake and every 180 days until the study concluded. Analyses included descriptive statistics, paired t-tests, chi-square, multivariate linear and logistic regressions, Poisson regressions, and latent profile analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the Texas Christian University's Institutional Review Board (IRB). Results of this study will be presented to the scientific community at conferences and in peer-reviewed journals and non-scholarly outlets such as public health and social service conferences.


Assuntos
Tráfico de Pessoas , Comportamento Sexual , Adolescente , Administração de Caso , Criança , Feminino , Tráfico de Pessoas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Apoio Social , Serviço Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
18.
J Pediatr Nurs ; 66: 95-103, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35689954

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the perspectives of youth survivors of sex trafficking on healthcare to improve care for this vulnerable and often unrecognized population. DESIGN AND METHODS: Semi-structured focus groups were conducted with eight survivors in Southern California who interacted with the healthcare system while being sex trafficked. Interviews were audio- and/or video-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The analysis utilized a grounded theory approach, where researchers reviewed the data collected, then inductively generated codes and themes based on the findings from the interviews. RESULTS: The focus group interviews revealed the following themes: unequal treatment, barriers to patient care, risk identifiers, support, and survivor recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Youth survivors seeking healthcare reported multiple barriers based on their interaction with healthcare providers, such as the lack of provider awareness, education, training, feelings of shame, judgment, fear, racial biases, and lack of empathy. Improving patient outcomes relies on understanding the complexities of human trafficking and implementing an approach to decrease barriers to care. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: This study resulted in invaluable survivor recommendations with practical solutions on addressing human trafficking and exploitation in the healthcare system. The solutions proposed by participants included strengthening relationships and experiences with healthcare providers by increasing awareness, establishing rapport, creating a safe space, asking questions about their safety and situation, using a non-judgmental approach, and providing resources.


Assuntos
Tráfico de Pessoas , Adolescente , Atenção à Saúde , Empatia , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Sobreviventes
19.
Pediatr Emerg Med Pract ; 19(7): 1-24, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35737593

RESUMO

Labor and sex trafficking impact children of all ages, genders, and nationalities. Trafficked patients present to the emergency department for illnesses and injuries both related and unrelated to their trafficking experiences. Emergency clinicians are not meant to be experts in labor and sex trafficking, but they must know enough to be able to identify patients at risk for trafficking and ensure that these patients have the opportunity to be connected to relevant services and support. This issue reviews the ways in which youth are trafficked, the indicators of trafficking, and the evidence-based and best-practice recommendations for addressing suspected or confirmed trafficking in the pediatric and adolescent patient populations.


Assuntos
Tráfico de Pessoas , Adolescente , Criança , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Am J Orthopsychiatry ; 92(5): 616-621, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35771507

RESUMO

Child trafficking is one of the most egregious violations of children's rights and well-being. In 2014, the Global Alliance for Behavioral Health and Social Justice formed a task force to focus on the issue. After completing two comprehensive reviews and consultations with experts in the field, the task force identified the need for a coherent framework, which conceptualized the primary prevention of child trafficking, which includes children vulnerable to being trafficked and becoming traffickers. This article describes the process undertaken to develop the primary prevention framework, an innovative, aspirational plan for communities to be absent of trafficking. It describes the framework in detail, including the theories that underlie it and the principles that guide it. The framework's flexibility is evident in its application to such worldwide challenges as racism, inequities, and a pandemic. Although the full consequences of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children are not yet known, this article describes certain trends, which have been identified and discusses critical lessons for applying a dynamic framework, as global disruptors will continue. The article ends with examples of how the framework could be implemented by all stakeholders in the community, to address the primary prevention of child trafficking in both the physical and the virtual world. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Tráfico de Pessoas , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Tráfico de Pessoas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias , Prevenção Primária , Justiça Social
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