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1.
Reprod Health ; 19(1): 88, 2022 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are major infectious diseases worldwide. Around one million people get STIs every day and among them a high burden of the diseases seen in Sub-Saharan African countries. In most developing countries, including Ethiopia, STIs are diagnosed only using syndromic methods, although there seems to be no consensus between syndromic and laboratory-based research. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of a syndromic versus laboratory-based approach in the diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections, especially Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Treponema palladium (TP), infections among those attending a public health center in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2019 to March 2020, at selected health centers STIs clinics in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 325 study participants were involved. From each participant after having socio-demographic data, additional blood, urethral and vaginal discharge was collected. Then serological, Gram stain, culture, and biochemical tests were performed. SPSS version 23 was used to enter and analyze data. All relevant bodies provided ethical approval, and each study participant gave written informed consent. RESULTS: Among the total participants 167 (51.4%) were males; 177 (54.5%) between ages of 26 and 35; and 178(54.8%) single. Of the total 325 NG, and 125 TP syndromic managed suspected cases, only 163 (50%) and 38 (30.4%) were laboratory- confirmed positive cases respectively. However, there was no statistically significant difference between NG and TP syndromic versus laboratory diagnostic confirmed cases (P-value > 0.005). CONCLUSION: The present study indicated that even if, there were no statistical differences between syndromic versus Laboratory diagnosis confirmed NG and TP cases, more than half of syndromic cases could not be confirmed by laboratory diagnosed tests. Thus, to strengthen the present findings, further large-scale studies are recommended.


Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are the leading infectious diseases worldwide, and the majority of cases are recorded in developing countries, including Ethiopia. However, diagnosis of STIs in most developing countries done syndromic based, since the laboratory-based tests are relatively expensive, need skilled manpower, and time taking. Therefore regular assessments on how closely related STIs syndromic versus laboratory-based diagnosis should be done, for the proper management of the diseases. In this regard, the present study demonstrated that there was no statistically significant difference between syndromic versus laboratory-based diagnosis of some certain STIs infections; Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Treponema pallidum (TP), in selected public health centers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. However, more than half of syndromic cases could not be confirmed by laboratory diagnosed tests. Thus, to narrow the gap between the two diagnostic approaches, regular training, updates, and similar studies need to cascade in the country. In the meantime, in other developing countries too, regular assessment on STIs syndromic versus laboratory-based diagnosis should be done, to control and prevent STIs infections worldwide.


Assuntos
Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Paládio , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Treponema
2.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(4): e24318, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35274369

RESUMO

Pathogens can affect host cells in various ways, and the same effect can be found in the Treponema pallidum acting on the endothelium of host vessels, and the mechanism is often complex and multiple. Based on the existing T. pallidum of a cognitive framework, the first concerns involving T. pallidum or the bacteria protein directly acted on vascular endothelial cells of the host, the second concerns mainly involved in the process of T. pallidum infection in vivo blood lipid change, secretion of cytokines and the interactions between immune cells indirectly. Through both direct and indirect influence, this study explores the role of host by T. pallidum infect in the process of the vascular endothelium.


Assuntos
Sífilis , Treponema pallidum , Células Endoteliais , Endotélio Vascular , Globo Pálido , Humanos , Treponema
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e058605, 2022 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35351731

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Yaws, caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue, is a neglected tropical disease targeted for eradication by 2030. Improved diagnostics will be essential to meet this goal. Diagnosis of yaws has relied heavily on clinical and serological tools. However, the presence of coendemic cutaneous skin ulcer diseases, such as lesions caused by Haemophilus ducreyi (HD), means these techniques do not provide a reliable diagnosis. Thus, new diagnostic tools are needed. Molecular tools such as PCR are ideal, but often expensive as they require trained technicians and laboratory facilities, which are often not available to national yaws programmes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The LAMP4yaws project is a cross-sectional, observational, diagnostic accuracy study of a combined Treponema pallidum (TP) and HD loop mediated isothermal amplification (TPHD-LAMP) test performed under real world conditions in three endemic countries in West Africa. Individuals with serologically confirmed yaws will be recruited in Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana. Each participant will provide paired swabs, one of which will be sent to the respective national reference laboratory for yaws quantitative PCR and the other will be tested for both TP and HD using the TPHD-LAMP test at local district laboratories. Sensitivity and specificity of the TPHD-LAMP test will be calculated against the reference standard qPCR. We will also assess the acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the test. We anticipate that results from this study will support the adoption of the TPHD-LAMP test for use in global yaws eradication efforts. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: We have received ethical approval from all relevant institutional and national ethical committees. All participants, or their parents or guardians, must provide written informed consent prior to study enrolment. Study results will be published in an open access journal and disseminated with partners and the World Health Organization. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04753788.


Assuntos
Haemophilus ducreyi , Úlcera Cutânea , Bouba , Estudos Transversais , Gana , Haemophilus ducreyi/genética , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Treponema , Treponema pallidum/genética , Bouba/diagnóstico , Bouba/epidemiologia , Bouba/microbiologia
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5284, 2022 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347182

RESUMO

Peri-implantitis has a polymicrobial etiology and is a major cause of dental implant loss. Various clinical protocols for its prevention and treatment have been proposed; however, some cases show a rapid progression with non-resolving clinical symptoms. To clear a means of differentiating between such cases, the implants with peri-implantitis in this study were categorized as the active group and the remission group and that two kinds of samples were obtained from the same subjects (n = 20). The microbiome was analyzed through pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. From LEfSe results, Porphyomonas, Fusobacterium, Treponema, Tannerella, and other periodontal pathogens were abundant in the active group, while lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillales and Bifidobacterium) were abundant in the remission group.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Peri-Implantite , Fusobacterium/genética , Humanos , Microbiota/genética , Peri-Implantite/etiologia , Peri-Implantite/terapia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Treponema/genética
5.
N Engl J Med ; 386(1): 47-56, 2022 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue causes yaws. Strategies to better control, eliminate, and eradicate yaws are needed. METHODS: In an open-label, cluster-randomized, community-based trial conducted in a yaws-endemic area of Papua New Guinea, we randomly assigned 38 wards (i.e., clusters) to receive one round of mass administration of azithromycin followed by two rounds of target treatment of active cases (control group) or three rounds of mass administration of azithromycin (experimental group); round 1 was administered at baseline, round 2 at 6 months, and round 3 at 12 months. The coprimary end points were the prevalence of active cases of yaws, confirmed by polymerase-chain-reaction assay, in the entire trial population and the prevalence of latent yaws, confirmed by serologic testing, in a subgroup of asymptomatic children 1 to 15 years of age; prevalences were measured at 18 months, and the between-group differences were calculated. RESULTS: Of the 38 wards, 19 were randomly assigned to the control group (30,438 persons) and 19 to the experimental group (26,238 persons). A total of 24,848 doses of azithromycin were administered in the control group (22,033 were given to the participants at round 1 and 207 and 2608 were given to the participants with yaws-like lesions and their contacts, respectively, at rounds 2 and 3 [combined]), and 59,852 doses were administered in the experimental group. At 18 months, the prevalence of active yaws had decreased from 0.46% (102 of 22,033 persons) at baseline to 0.16% (47 of 29,954 persons) in the control group and from 0.43% (87 of 20,331 persons) at baseline to 0.04% (10 of 25,987 persons) in the experimental group (relative risk adjusted for clustering, 4.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.90 to 8.76). The prevalence of other infectious ulcers decreased to a similar extent in the two treatment groups. The prevalence of latent yaws at 18 months was 6.54% (95% CI, 5.00 to 8.08) among 994 children in the control group and 3.28% (95% CI, 2.14 to 4.42) among 945 children in the experimental group (relative risk adjusted for clustering and age, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.12 to 3.70). Three cases of yaws with resistance to macrolides were found in the experimental group. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in the community prevalence of yaws was greater with three rounds of mass administration of azithromycin at 6-month intervals than with one round of mass administration of azithromycin followed by two rounds of targeted treatment. Monitoring for the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance is needed. (Funded by Fundació "la Caixa" and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03490123.).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Azitromicina/administração & dosagem , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Bouba/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Haemophilus ducreyi/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Papua Nova Guiné/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Úlcera Cutânea/microbiologia , Treponema/isolamento & purificação , Bouba/epidemiologia
6.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 153: 109897, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670182

RESUMO

TprK is a key virulence factor of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (T. pallidum) due to its ability to undergo intra-strain antigenic variation through gene conversion. This mechanism can generate millions of tprK gene and protein variants to allow immune evasion and pathogen persistence during infection. In silico structural modeling supports that TprK is an outer membrane ß-barrel with porin function and with several surface-exposed loops, seven of which corresponding to the variable regions. No definitive structural of functional data, however, exist for this protein aside from its role in immune evasion. Studies to elucidate TprK biological function as a porin, are hindered by the evidence that TprK is not abundant on T. pallidum outer membrane, and by the fragility of T. pallidum envelope. To gain insight onto TprK structure and possible function as a porin, we used an Escherichia coli - based expression system that yielded highly pure full-length TprK without any intermediate denaturation step, and proceeded to reconstitute it in detergents and lipid nanodiscs. Visualization of TprK in nanodiscs using negative staining electron microscopy supported that TprK is a monomeric porin in an artificial lipid environment mimicking T. pallidum membrane. Our work provided evidence that TprK is a possible porin transporter of T. pallidum, a biological function compatible with its structural models. These results bring us closer to a comprehensive understanding of the function of this important virulence factor in syphilis pathogenesis and T. pallidum biology.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Porinas , Treponema , Escherichia coli/genética , Lipídeos , Porinas/genética , Treponema/genética
7.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(3): 444-450, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836779

RESUMO

Bejel, caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. Endemicum (TEN), is a locally transmitted disease among children and juveniles in hot and dry regions. The number of adult cases of TEN infection outside of endemic areas has recently increased. We clinically examined five cases of TEN infection among adult cases previously reported in Japan. TEN infection mainly developed among young to middle-aged men who have sex with men (MSM). The clinical features of cases of TEN infection were similar to those of primary- and secondary-stage T. pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA) infection. Genital lesions were common as the primary lesion. The clinical features and laboratory parameters of cases of TEN infection were similar to those of TPA infection. Most of the isolated strains had the A2058G mutation in 23S rDNA, which is responsible for resistance to macrolides. We also performed the systemic literature review of the TEN cases outside the endemic countries. The recent reported cases diagnosed with molecular methods shared the clinical features, occurred in young-to middle-aged sexually active persons in urban areas of developed countries and often accompanied with genital lesions, which were distinct from the classic description of bejel. This case series and the literature review provides important clinical insights and will contribute to the clinical detection of this rarely identified disease in developed countries. The surveillance of treponematoses, including TEN infection, using molecular diagnostic techniques is also warranted in developed countries, for the purpose of grasping the epidemic situation and control the local transmission.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Sífilis , Infecções por Treponema , Adulto , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/tratamento farmacológico , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Treponema , Treponema pallidum/genética
8.
Sex Transm Infect ; 98(2): 95-100, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608479

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) may be at a higher risk of repeat syphilis, have different clinical manifestations and have a different serological response to treatment compared with HIV-negative MSM. The objective of this study was to assess whether HIV-negative and HIV-positive MSM with infectious syphilis (primary, secondary or early latent) differed in history of previous syphilis episodes, disease stage and non-treponemal titre of initial and repeat episodes, and the titre response 6 and 12 months after treatment. Furthermore, determinants associated with an inadequate titre response after treatment were explored. METHODS: This retrospective analysis used data of five longitudinal studies (four cohorts; one randomised controlled trial) conducted at the STI clinic in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants were tested for syphilis and completed questionnaires on sexual risk behaviour every 3-6 months. We included data of participants with ≥1 syphilis diagnosis in 2014-2019. Pearson's χ² test was used to compare HIV-negative and HIV-positive MSM in occurrence of previous syphilis episodes, disease stage of initial and repeat syphilis episode and non-treponemal titre treatment responses. RESULTS: We included 355 participants with total 459 syphilis episodes. HIV-positive MSM were more likely to have a history of previous syphilis episodes compared with HIV-negative MSM (68/90 (75.6%) vs 96/265 (36.2%); p<0.001). Moreover, HIV-positive MSM with repeat syphilis were less often diagnosed with primary syphilis (7/73 (9.6%) vs 36/126 (28.6%)) and more often diagnosed with secondary syphilis (16/73 (21.9%) vs 17/126 (13.5%)) and early latent syphilis (50/73 (68.5%) vs 73/126 (57.9%)) (p=0.005). While not significantly different at 12 months, HIV-negative MSM were more likely to have an adequate titre response after 6 months compared with HIV-positive MSM (138/143 (96.5%) vs 66/74 (89.2%); p=0.032). CONCLUSIONS: In repeat syphilis, HIV infection is associated with advanced syphilis stages and with higher non-treponemal titres. HIV infection affects the serological outcome after treatment, as an adequate titre response was observed earlier in HIV-negative MSM.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/imunologia , Treponema/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Análise de Dados , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Assunção de Riscos , Testes Sorológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual
9.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 163(12): 871-875, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34881719

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Since the spread of classical digital dermatitis (DD) lesions within the cattle population, frequency of infections of interdigital hyperplasia (IH) lesions with DD-associated Treponema spp. (IH+DD) increased. The aim of the present case series is to describe an alternative treatment technique to surgical lesion removal or local treatment of HI+DD lesions with antibiotics. In this report, the effect of repeated local administration of salicylic acid paste, protected by a water repellent bandage was described and assessed for the treatment of four dairy cows with IH+DD lesions. Milker's fat Eutra was applied to the unaffected skin adjacent to the lesion to protect healthy skin from the keratolytic properties of salicylic acid paste. Treatment was repeated at weekly intervals in all four cases until the IH+DD lesions had completely clinically healed. Two cows additionally showed classical DD lesions between the heels. Clinical healing was defined as remission of IH and complete healing of the DD lesions located on IH lesions and between the heels. Complete healing was evident at three weeks of treatment in all four cases. Weekly repeated topical application of salicylic acid paste under bandage may be recommended as an alternative to surgical or antibiotic treatment of IH+DD lesions.


INTRODUCTION: Depuis la propagation des lésions classiques de dermatite digitale (DD) dans la population bovine, on constate une multiplication des hyperplasies interdigitées infectées par des Treponema spp. associés à la DD (IH+DD). Le but de cette étude de cas est de décrire une méthode alternative de traitement des lésions IH+DD en remplacement de l'excision chirurgicale resp. du traitement local avec des antibiotiques. L'effet d'une application locale répétée sous pansement d'une pâte à base d'acide salicylique pour le traitement de quatre vaches présentant des lésions IH+DD est décrit et évalué dans ce rapport. De la graisse à traire a été appliquée sur la peau saine adjacente, afin de la protéger des effets kératolytiques de la pâte à base d'acide salicylique. Le traitement a été répété à intervalles d'une semaine jusqu'à guérison clinique complète des lésions IH+DD pour les quatre cas. Deux vaches présentaient en plus des lésions classiques de DD dans la région des talons. La guérison clinique a été définie comme l'involution de l'hyperplasie interdigitée et la guérison complète des lésions de DD situées en surface et entre les talons. La durée jusqu'à la guérison clinique complète était dans les quatre cas de trois semaines. Une application topique répétée de pâte à bas d'acide salicylique sous pansement peut être recommandée comme alternative au traitement chirurgical et antibiotique de lésions IH+DD.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Dermatite Digital , Animais , Antibacterianos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite Digital/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Hiperplasia/veterinária , Treponema
10.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 71(10)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672919

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, obligatory anaerobic spirochaete (RCC2812T) was isolated from a faecal sample obtained from an individual residing in a remote Amazonian community in Peru. The bacterium showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the pig intestinal spirochete Treponema succinifaciens (89.48 %). Average nucleotide identity values between strain RCC2812T and all available Treponema genomes from validated type strains were all <73 %, thus clearly lower than the species delineation threshold. The DNA G+C content of RCC2812T was 41.24 mol%. Phenotypic characterization using the API-ZYM and API 20A systems confirmed the divergent position of this bacterium within the genus Treponema. Strain RCC2812T could be differentiated from the phylogenetically most closely related T. succinifaciens by the presence of alkaline phosphatase and α -glucosidase activities. Unlike T. succinifaciens, strain RCC2812T grew equally well with or without serum. Strain RCC2812T is the first commensal Treponema isolated from the human faecal microbiota of remote populations, and based on the collected data represents a novel Treponema species for which the name Treponema peruense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RCC2812T (=LMG 31794T=CIP 111910T).


Assuntos
Fezes , Filogenia , Treponema/classificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Peru , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Treponema/isolamento & purificação
11.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 723821, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616690

RESUMO

Ancient dental calculus, formed from dental plaque, is a rich source of ancient DNA and can provide information regarding the food and oral microbiology at that time. Genomic analysis of dental calculus from Neanderthals has revealed the difference in bacterial composition of oral microbiome between Neanderthals and modern humans. There are few reports investigating whether the pathogenic bacteria of periodontitis, a polymicrobial disease induced in response to the accumulation of dental plaque, were different between ancient and modern humans. This study aimed to compare the bacterial composition of the oral microbiome in ancient and modern human samples and to investigate whether lifestyle differences depending on the era have altered the bacterial composition of the oral microbiome and the causative bacteria of periodontitis. Additionally, we introduce a novel diagnostic approach for periodontitis in ancient skeletons using micro-computed tomography. Ancient 16S rDNA sequences were obtained from 12 samples at the Unko-in site (18th-19th century) of the Edo era (1603-1867), a characteristic period in Japan when immigrants were not accepted. Furthermore, modern 16S rDNA data from 53 samples were obtained from a database to compare the modern and ancient microbiome. The microbial co-occurrence network was analyzed based on 16S rDNA read abundance. Eubacterium species, Mollicutes species, and Treponema socranskii were the core species in the Edo co-occurrence network. The co-occurrence relationship between Actinomyces oricola and Eggerthella lenta appeared to have played a key role in causing periodontitis in the Edo era. However, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. vincentii, and Prevotella pleuritidis were the core and highly abundant species in the co-occurrence network of modern samples. These results suggest the possibility of differences in the pathogens causing periodontitis during different eras in history.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Periodontite , Actinobacteria , Actinomyces , Fusobacterium , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Japão , Periodontite/diagnóstico , Periodontite/história , Periodontite/microbiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Prevotella , Treponema , Microtomografia por Raio-X
12.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0070121, 2021 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585987

RESUMO

More than 75 species/species-level phylotypes belonging to the genus Treponema inhabit the human oral cavity. Treponema denticola is commonly associated with periodontal disease, but the etiological roles and ecological distributions of other oral treponemes remain more obscure. Here, we compared the clinical distributions of phylogroup 1 and 2 oral treponemes in subgingival plaque sampled from Chinese subjects with periodontitis (n = 10) and gingivitis (n = 8) via sequence analysis of the highly conserved pyrH housekeeping gene. Two PCR primer sets that targeted oral phylogroup 1 and 2 treponeme pyrH genes were used to construct plasmid clone amplicon libraries for each subject, and the libraries were sequenced for bioinformatic analysis. A total of 1,204 quality-filtered, full-length pyrH gene sequences were obtained from the cohort (median number, 61.5 cloned pyrH sequences per subject; range, 59 to 83), which were assigned to 34 pyrH genotypes (designated pyrH001 to pyrH034; 97% sequence identity cutoff). Eighteen pyrH genotypes (536 pyrH sequences) corresponded to phylogroup 1 treponeme taxa (including Treponema vincentii and Treponema medium). Sixteen pyrH genotypes (668 pyrH sequences) corresponded to T. denticola and other phylogroup 2 treponemes. Samples from periodontitis subjects contained a greater diversity of phylogroup 2 pyrH genotypes than did samples from gingivitis subjects (Mann-Whitney U test). One T. denticola pyrH genotype (pyrH001) was highly prevalent, detected in 10/10 periodontitis and 6/8 gingivitis subjects. Several subjects harbored multiple T. denticola pyrH genotypes. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling and permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) revealed no significant differences in overall pyrH genotype compositions between periodontitis and gingivitis subjects. Taken together, our results show that subjects with periodontitis and gingivitis commonly harbor highly taxonomically diverse communities of oral treponemes. IMPORTANCE Periodontal diseases, such as periodontitis, are highly complex, multifactorial inflammatory infectious diseases affecting the gums and tooth-supporting structures. They are caused by chronic accumulations of dental plaque below the gum line that typically comprise hundreds of different bacterial species. Certain species of spiral-shaped bacteria known as treponemes, most notably Treponema denticola, are proposed to play key roles in the development and progression of periodontal disease. In our study, we characterized the genetic lineages of T. denticola, Treponema vincentii, Treponema medium, and related species of treponeme bacteria that were present in dental plaque samples from Chinese subjects with periodontal disease. Our results revealed that individual subjects commonly harbored multiple genetic lineages (strains) of T. denticola and other species of treponeme bacteria. Taken together, our results indicate that highly diverse and complex populations of oral treponemes may be present in dental plaque, which may potentially play important roles affecting periodontal health status.


Assuntos
Gengivite/microbiologia , Periodontite/microbiologia , Filogenia , Treponema denticola/classificação , Treponema/classificação , Infecções por Treponema/microbiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Microbiota , Boca/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Treponema/genética , Treponema denticola/genética
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(9): e0009753, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492041

RESUMO

Immune evasion by Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum (T. pallidum) has been attributed to antigenic variation of its putative outer-membrane protein TprK. In TprK, amino acid diversity is confined to seven variable (V) regions, and generation of sequence diversity within the V regions occurs via a non-reciprocal segmental gene conversion mechanism where donor cassettes recombine into the tprK expression site. Although previous studies have shown the significant role of immune selection in driving accumulation of TprK variants, the contribution of baseline gene conversion activity to variant diversity is less clear. Here, combining longitudinal tprK deep sequencing of near clonal Chicago C from immunocompetent and immunosuppressed rabbits along with the newly developed in vitro cultivation system for T. pallidum, we directly characterized TprK alleles in the presence and absence of immune selection. Our data confirm significantly greater sequence diversity over time within the V6 region during syphilis infection in immunocompetent rabbits compared to immunosuppressed rabbits, consistent with previous studies on the role of TprK in evasion of the host immune response. Compared to strains grown in immunocompetent rabbits, strains passaged in vitro displayed low level changes in allele frequencies of TprK variable region sequences similar to that of strains passaged in immunosuppressed rabbits. Notably, we found significantly increased rates of V6 allele generation relative to other variable regions in in vitro cultivated T, pallidum strains, illustrating that the diversity within these hypervariable regions occurs in the complete absence of immune selection. Together, our results demonstrate antigenic variation in T. pallidum can be studied in vitro and occurs even in the complete absence of immune pressure, allowing the T. pallidum population to continuously evade the immune system of the infected host.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Porinas/metabolismo , Treponema/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Variação Antigênica , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Porinas/genética , Coelhos , Sífilis/microbiologia , Transcriptoma
14.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 685861, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34336713

RESUMO

Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is a significant cause of infectious lameness and economic losses in cattle production across the world. There is a lack of a consensus across different 16S metagenomic studies on DD-associated bacteria that may be potential pathogens of the disease. The goal of this meta-analysis was to identify a consistent group of DD-associated bacteria in individual DD lesions across studies, regardless of experimental design choices including sample collection and preparation, hypervariable region sequenced, and sequencing platform. A total of 6 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Raw sequences and metadata were identified on the NCBI sequence read archive and European nucleotide archive. Bacterial community structures were investigated between normal skin and DD skin samples. Random forest models were generated to classify DD status based on microbial composition, and to identify taxa that best differentiate DD status. Among all samples, members of Treponema, Mycoplasma, Porphyromonas, and Fusobacterium were consistently identified in the majority of DD lesions, and were the best genera at differentiating DD lesions from normal skin. Individual study and 16S hypervariable region sequenced had significant influence on final DD lesion microbial composition (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that members of Treponema, Mycoplasma, Porphyromonas, and/or Fusobacterium may have significant roles in DD pathogenesis, and should be studied further in respect to elucidating DD etiopathogenic mechanisms and developing more effective treatment and mitigation strategies.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Dermatite Digital , Microbiota , Animais , Bovinos , Metagenômica , Treponema/genética
15.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 967-976, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414771

RESUMO

Aim: To implement the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) methodology in syphilis samples previously characterized by enhanced CDC typing (ECDCT) and macrolide resistance. Materials & methods: MLST was performed on genital ulcer and blood samples by analyzing a region of the tp0136, tp0548 and tp0705 loci using Sanger sequencing. Results: Up to 59/85 (69.4%) of genital ulcer and 4/39 (10.3%) of whole blood samples were fully typed. The most frequent profiles were 1.3.1 (56%) and 1.1.1 (11%). All the 1.3.1 samples typed carried the A2058G mutation, responsible for macrolide resistance. MLST and ECDCT showed similar overall typing yields. Conclusion: Several allelic profiles of T. pallidum subsp. pallidum were identified and classified into two major genetic clades in Barcelona. Our results were similar to that described in Europe.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Sífilis/microbiologia , Treponema/classificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Humanos , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Espanha , Úlcera
16.
Acta Vet Scand ; 63(1): 29, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is considered widespread in the United Kingdom but was only recently reported in mainland Europe, as one outbreak in Germany. The disease can cause severe lameness in sheep and, if left untreated, can lead to total avulsion of the hoof capsule. CODD is considered to have multifactorial and polymicrobial aetiology, in which Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii phylogroup, Treponema phagedenis phylogroup and Treponema pedis are believed to play a significant role. Footrot and CODD have a close connection and footrot is considered an important risk factor for CODD. CASE: Lameness, mainly in lambs aged 1.5 months, was reported on a farm in Sweden in spring 2018. The animals showed no signs of footrot and the causative agent, Dichelobacter nodosus, was not found. CODD was suspected but not confirmed, and the clinical signs subsided when the animals were turned out to pasture. In February 2019, young lambs and ewes were lame again and this time CODD was diagnosed. After treatment, the whole flock was slaughtered later in 2019 due to CODD. In autumn 2020, CODD was diagnosed on another Swedish farm, this time as part of a mixed infection with D. nodosus. The animals were treated with footbaths in zinc sulphate 10% by the farmer, but lameness recurred soon afterwards. The animals were treated, but ultimately the whole flock was slaughtered. No connection was found between the two farms. CONCLUSION: The first two outbreaks of CODD in Sweden have been diagnosed and are described in this case report. If it spreads, CODD could have a negative impact on the Swedish sheep industry in terms of animal welfare, production and antibiotic use.


Assuntos
Dichelobacter nodosus , Dermatite Digital , Pododermatite Necrótica dos Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Dermatite Digital/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Feminino , Pododermatite Necrótica dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia , Treponema
17.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255921, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370779

RESUMO

A newly-discovered foot disease of unknown origin in captive European Bison (Bison bonasus) was recently detected at Berne Animal Park. Dermatitis of the interdigital cleft of varying degrees of severity was diagnosed in all animals (n = 10). The aim of this study was to describe the gross and histological lesions of the interdigital cleft found in 10 captive European bison and to identify involved potential pathogens in affected feet using molecular-based methods for Treponema spp., Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Lesions were scored according to the degree of gross pathology at limb level. In a single animal, the gross lesions were restricted to focal lesions on the dorsal aspect of the digital skin of each foot (score 1), whereas all other animals showed at least one foot with extended lesions including the interdigital cleft (score 2). The presence of viable spirochaetes was observed in all animals using dark field microscopy. Applying fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) on biopsies, Treponema spp. were identified, infiltrating the skin lesions in varying numbers in nine animals. Nested PCRs for Treponema medium, Treponema phagedenis and Treponema pedis of swab samples showed three positive animals out of ten for the latter two, whereas pooled biopsy samples were positive in all ten animals for at least T. phagedenis (9/10) and/or T. pedis (7/10), while all samples were negative for T. medium. However, none of these Treponema species could be isolated and sequence analysis of the amplified products showed 100% match of 365 base pairs (bp) to Treponema phylotype PT3 and almost full match (530 of 532 bp, 99.6%) to Treponema phylotype PT13. The presence of T. phagedenis, PT3 and PT13 phylotypes was confirmed by FISH analyses. The phylotypes of T. phagedenis were present in all hybridized positive biopsies of Treponema spp., and PT13 and PT3 were less abundant. Neither D. nodosus nor F. necrophorum were detected. The histological Treponema score was mostly mild. Digital dermatitis in captive European Bison is contagious and differs from bovine digital dermatitis, concerning associated pathogens as well as gross appearance.


Assuntos
Dermatite Digital , Treponema , Animais , Bison , Bovinos
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(29): 8268-8275, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231359

RESUMO

Cellobiose 2-epimerase (CE) can catalyze bioconversion of lactose to its prebiotic derivative epilactose. The catalytic property of a novel CE from Treponema brennaborense (Trbr-CE) was investigated. Trbr-CE showed the highest catalytic efficiency of epimerization toward lactose among all of the previously reported CEs. This enzyme's specific activity could reach as high as 208.5 ± 5.3 U/mg at its optimum temperature, which is 45 °C. More importantly, this enzyme demonstrated a considerably high activity at low temperatures, suggesting Trbr-CE as a promising enzyme for industrial low-temperature production of epilactose. This structurally flexible enzyme exhibited a comparatively high binding affinity toward substrates, which was confirmed by both experimental verification and computational analysis. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and binding free energy calculations were applied to provide insights into molecular recognition upon temperature changes. Compared with thermophilic CEs, Trbr-CE presents a more negative enthalpy change and a higher entropy change when the temperature drops.


Assuntos
Celobiose , Racemases e Epimerases , Lactose , Racemases e Epimerases/genética , Temperatura , Treponema
19.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(7): e1009612, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228757

RESUMO

Despite more than a century of research, genetic manipulation of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (T. pallidum), the causative agent of syphilis, has not been successful. The lack of genetic engineering tools has severely limited understanding of the mechanisms behind T. pallidum success as a pathogen. A recently described method for in vitro cultivation of T. pallidum, however, has made it possible to experiment with transformation and selection protocols in this pathogen. Here, we describe an approach that successfully replaced the tprA (tp0009) pseudogene in the SS14 T. pallidum strain with a kanamycin resistance (kanR) cassette. A suicide vector was constructed using the pUC57 plasmid backbone. In the vector, the kanR gene was cloned downstream of the tp0574 gene promoter. The tp0574prom-kanR cassette was then placed between two 1-kbp homology arms identical to the sequences upstream and downstream of the tprA pseudogene. To induce homologous recombination and integration of the kanR cassette into the T. pallidum chromosome, in vitro-cultured SS14 strain spirochetes were exposed to the engineered vector in a CaCl2-based transformation buffer and let recover for 24 hours before adding kanamycin-containing selective media. Integration of the kanR cassette was demonstrated by qualitative PCR, droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of transformed treponemes propagated in vitro and/or in vivo. ddPCR analysis of RNA and mass spectrometry confirmed expression of the kanR message and protein in treponemes propagated in vitro. Moreover, tprA knockout (tprAko-SS14) treponemes grew in kanamycin concentrations that were 64 times higher than the MIC for the wild-type SS14 (wt-SS14) strain and in infected rabbits treated with kanamycin. We demonstrated that genetic manipulation of T. pallidum is attainable. This discovery will allow the application of functional genetics techniques to study syphilis pathogenesis and improve syphilis vaccine development.


Assuntos
Engenharia Genética/métodos , Treponema/genética , Animais , Masculino , Coelhos , Spirochaetales/genética
20.
Acta Vet Hung ; 69(2): 161-168, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106876

RESUMO

At a commercial farrow-to-feeder pig system with 2,100 sows in Serbia, lesions resembling porcine ear necrosis syndrome were observed in 80% of the weaned pigs at 45-50 days of age. Pathomorphological examinations were carried out on 10 pigs that had been found dead. The gross lesions ranged from mild, superficial dermatitis to severe, deep inflammation with exudation, ulceration and necrosis. Histopathological examination revealed erosive and ulcerative dermatitis of the pinna with neutrophilic and lymphocytic infiltration and bacterial colonies in the crusts. Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strain), Staphylococcus hyicus and Streptococcus group C were cultivated from eight, S. hyicus from two ear tissue scraping samples. All 10 samples were positive for treponemes and phylogenetic analysis of two polymerase chain reaction products confirmed the relationship to Treponema (T.) medium/vincentii and Treponema pedis. Treponemes were also detected in seven oral swabs that were analysed to obtain evidence of the transmission of this bacterium by ear biting. The contribution of non-infectious factors to this misbehaviour could not be ruled out as the crude protein concentration of the feed was inappropriate and the climate of the pig house was suboptimal. The concentrations of selected mycotoxins in the feed were not elevated. However, the contribution of both infectious and non-infectious factors to the onset of disease was most probable.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Feminino , Necrose/veterinária , Filogenia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Treponema
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