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1.
Neuropsychol Rehabil ; 31(7): 1130-1144, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419607

RESUMO

Visual neglect is a frequent and disabling consequence of right brain damage. Traditional paper-and pencil tests of neglect have limited sensitivity and ecological validity. The Baking Tray Task (BTT), instead, approaches real-life situations, because it requires participants to place 16 physical objects on a board. The number of objects placed on the left and right portions of the board provides a clinical index of visual neglect. Here we present E-TAN, a technology-enhanced platform for BTT (E-BTT). E-BTT automatically determines the object locations on the board, and also records the sequence and timing of their placement. We used E-BTT to test 9 patients with right hemisphere damage and compared their performance with that obtained by 115 healthy participants. To this end, we developed a new method of analysis of participants' performance, based on the use of the convex hull described by the objects on the board. This measure provides an estimate of the portion of space processed by each participant and can effectively discriminate neglect patients from patients without neglect. E-TAN allows clinicians to assess visuospatial performance by using a convenient, fast, and relatively automatized procedure, that patients can even perform at home to follow-up the effects of rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Transtornos da Percepção , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Córtex Cerebral , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Transtornos da Percepção/diagnóstico , Tecnologia , Triacetonamina-N-Oxil
2.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 49(2): 84-95, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1115648

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: In the last 20 years of clinical practice, the senior author has identified these 2 rare cases in which the patients needed extremely high doses of drugs metabolized by CYP3A4 to reach and maintain serum therapeutic concentrations. Methods: The high metabolic ability of these 2 patients was demonstrated by the low concentration-to-dose ratios (C/D ratios) of several drugs metabolized by CYP3A4. Results: Case 1 was characterized by a history of high carbamazepine doses (up to 2,000 mg/day) and needed 170 mg/day of diazepam in 2 days to cooperate with dental cleaning. The high activity of the CYP3A4 isoenzyme was manifested by fast metabolism for quetiapine and diazepam, which took more than 1 year to normalize after the inducer, phenytoin, was stopped. Case 2 was also very sensitive to CYP3A4 inducers as indicated by very low C/D ratios for carbamazepine, risperidone and paliperidone. The carbamazepine (2,800 mg/day) and risperidone (20 mg/day) dosages for this second patient are the highest doses ever seen for these drugs by the senior author. Risperidone induction appeared to last for many months and metabolism was definitively normal 3 years after stopping carbamazepine. On the other hand, olanzapine C/D ratios were normal for induction. Conclusions: The literature has never described similar cases of very high doses of drugs metabolized by CYP3A4. We speculate that these 2 patients may have unusual genetic profiles at the nuclear receptor levels; these receptors regulate induction of drugs.


RESUMEN Introducción: Durante sus últimos 20 años de práctica, el último autor ha identificado estos 2 infrecuentes casos que necesitaban dosis extremadamente altas de medicaciones metabolizadas por el CYP3A4 para alcanzar y mantener concentraciones séricas terapéuticas. Métodos: La gran capacidad metabólica de estos 2 pacientes se demostró por los bajos cocientes entre concentración y dosis (C/D) de varias medicaciones metabolizadas por el CYP3A4. Resultados: El caso 1 se caracterizaba por una historia de altas dosis de carbamazepina (1.500 mg/día) y la necesidad de tomar 170 mg de diazepam en 2 días para facilitar una limpieza dental. La gran actividad de la isoenzima CYP3A4 se manifestó por una gran capacidad metabólica de quetiapina y diazepam, cuya normalización tardó más de 1 año tras la toma de un inductor, fenitoína. El caso 2 tambien era muy sensible a la inducción, lo cual se demuestra por los bajos cocientes C/D de carbamazepina, risperidona y paliperidona. Las dosis de carbamazepina (2.800 mg/día) y risperidona (20 mg/día) de este segundo paciente son las más altas nunca vistas por el último autor. La inducción de risperidona duró muchos meses y su metabolismo era normal 3 años después de interrumpir la carbamazepina. El cociente C/D de olanzapina era normal para la inducción. Conclusiones: Nunca se habían descrito casos similares de dosis tan altas de medicaciones metabolizadas por el CYP3A4. Se especula con que estos pacientes podrían tener unos perfiles genéticos inusuales en los receptores nucleares que regulan la inducción de medicamentos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A , Indutores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A , Triacetonamina-N-Oxil , Carbamazepina , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares , Risperidona , Diazepam , Dosagem , Fumarato de Quetiapina , Palmitato de Paliperidona , Olanzapina , Métodos
3.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 48(2): e234, abr.-jun. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126622

RESUMO

La caries dental es tan antigua como la humanidad misma, es considerada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud como el primer problema de salud bucal, su incremento se ha asociado al desarrollo social y a las variaciones en los hábitos dietéticos de las poblaciones. En estudios realizados en los últimos años, se ha determinado una tendencia a la disminución de esta enfermedad. El problema fundamental en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la caries dental es la decisión de cuándo y cómo obturar un diente afectado por caries. El objetivo primario es ampliar la visión sobre las posibilidades terapéuticas y profundizar en los conocimientos teóricos y prácticos sobre los tratamientos preventivos, curativos no invasivos e invasivos utilizados contra la caries dental. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de textos impresos y búsqueda en internet sobre caries dental, frecuencia y conducta adecuada por parte los estomatólogos generales. Se concluye que todo estomatólogo general, debe conocer la importancia de la promoción y la prevención permanente en los pacientes para evitar las caries dentales, así como las indicaciones, técnica de empleo y los requisitos para aplicar en la práctica diaria, los materiales restaurativos(AU)


Dental caries is as old as human race, it is considered by the World Health Organization as the first oral health problem, its increase has been associated with social development and variations in dietary habits of populations. In studies carried out in recent years, a tendency to decrease this disease has been determined. The fundamental problem in the diagnosis and treatment of dental caries is the decision of when and how to seal a tooth affected by caries. The primary objective is to broaden the vision of the therapeutic possibilities and to deepen the theoretical and practical knowledge about preventive, non-invasive and invasive curative treatments used against dental caries. A literature review of printed texts and internet search on dental caries, frequency and appropriate behavior of general stomatologists was carried out. It is concluded that every general stomatologist should know the importance of the promotion and permanent prevention in patients to avoid tooth decay, as well as the indications, technique of use and requirements to apply restorative materials in daily practice.


Assuntos
Humanos , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Triacetonamina-N-Oxil , Saúde Bucal/educação , Cárie Dentária , Diagnóstico
4.
J Magn Reson ; 293: 1-8, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800785

RESUMO

In rapid scan EPR the rapidly-changing magnetic field induces a background signal that may be larger than the EPR signal. A method has been developed to correct for that background signal by acquiring two sets of data, denoted as scan 1 and scan 2. In scan 2 the external field B0 is reversed and the data acquisition trigger is offset by one half cycle of the scan field relative to the settings used in scan 1. For data acquired with a cross-loop resonator subtraction of scan 2 from scan 1 cancels the background and enhances the EPR signal. Experiments were performed at an EPR frequency of about 258 MHz, which is in the range that is commonly used for in vivo imaging. Samples include nitroxide radicals, a trityl radical, a dinitroxide, and a nitroxide in the presence of a magnetic field gradient. This method has the advantage that no assumption is made about the shape of the background signal, and it provides an approach to automating the background correction.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Óxidos N-Cíclicos/química , Campos Eletromagnéticos , Radicais Livres/química , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/química , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Triacetonamina-N-Oxil/química
5.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 47(1): 1-1, ene.-mar. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-960161

RESUMO

El tema de las alteraciones mentales en la infancia está diagnosticado desde el estudio nacional realizado ya hace más de 10 años, y no hay propuestas ni políticas en tal sentido. Solo 3 posgrados de psiquiatría infantil en Colombia no serán respuesta a esta situación; escasos programas de promoción de salud, y prevención de alteraciones en la niñez se realizan, y las consecuencias han llegado a extremos en las cuales estamos observando escaso desarrollo de estilos de vida sanos, con adquisición de valores que permitan luego en la vida adulta una mejor capacidad adaptativa, una mejor tolerancia a la frustración y un mejor funcionamiento con capacidad de enfrentar conflictos. Es tan dramática la situación que las conductas suicidas han empezado a proliferar en este grupo etéreo.


The issue of mental disorders in childhood has been diagnosed from the national study carried out more than 10 years ago, and there are no proposals or policies in this regard. Only 3 postgraduate programs in child psychiatry in Colombia will not be an answer to this situation; Few programs for health promotion and prevention of alterations in childhood are carried out, and the consequences have reached extremes in which we are observing little development of healthy lifestyles, with the acquisition of values ​​that allow later in adult life a better adaptive capacity, a better tolerance to frustration and a better functioning with the capacity to face conflicts. The situation is so dramatic that suicidal behaviors have begun to proliferate in this ethereal group.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Criança , Adolescente , Psiquiatria Infantil , Saúde Mental , Políticas , Triacetonamina-N-Oxil , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Promoção da Saúde , Transtornos Mentais
6.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 23(2): 29-33, jul.-dic. 2017. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-902077

RESUMO

El cultivo de Helicobacter pylori es indispensable para estudiar la sensibilidad de las cepas a distintos agentes antimicrobianos, realizar pruebas diagnósticas y evaluar su toxicidad y virulencia, además, preservar los aislamientos con fines inve stigati vos futuros. Bajo condiciones óptimas, el cultivo posee una sensibilidad cercana al 90% y una especificad de 100%, pero las tasas de aislamiento de los individuos infectados pueden variar entre 23,5% a 97%, dependiendo de un número de factores como los componentes del medio de cultivo, el transporte de las biopsias, automedicación con inhibidores de bomba de protones/antibióticos y los métodos de toma de la biopsia. Por esta razón, el objetivo del estudio de la investigación fue comparar diferentes medios de cultivo y las condiciones de transporte, manejo y procesamiento de las biopsias para el aislamiento de Helicobacter pylori. Se analizaron 27 biopsias gástricas de antro y cuerpo del estómago obtenidas de pacientes dispépticos; fueron sembradas por duplicado en tres medios de cultivo diferentes designados como A, B y C y bajo dos condiciones de siembra de la biopsia por Impresión (Touch) y por maceración, el transporte de las biopsias se realizó en medio de transporte con y sin suplementos y antibióticos. Los resultados de la tasa de recuperación en el medio de cultivo A fue 59,2%, en el B fue 37% y en el C fue de 18,5%. Tanto el medio A como en el B se evidenció un crecimiento vigoroso de H. pylori, caso contrario en el medio de cultivo C, en donde las colonias no se observaron tan brillantes y evidentes. La siembra por maceración en laboratorio y el medio de cultivo A proporcionaron las mejores condiciones para la recuperación de H. pylori.


Helicobacter pylori cultivation is essential to study the sensitivity of isolates to various antimicrobial agents, diagnostic testing and evaluating toxicity and virulence also preserve isolates with future research purposes. Under optimum conditions, cultivation has a sensitivity approaching 90% and a specificity of 100%, but the rates of isolation of infected individuals may vary between 23.5% to 97%, depending on a number of factors such as components culture medium, transporting biopsies, self-medication with proton-pump inhibitor / antibiotics and methods of making the biopsy. For this reason, the aim of the research study was to compare different culture media and conditions of transport, handling and processing of biopsies for the isolation of Helicobacter pylori. 27 antrum's gastric biopsies and body 's gastric biopsies obtained from dyspeptic patients were analyzed; were seeded for duplicate on three different culture's mediums designated as A, B and C and under two culture's conditions. The biosies were seeded for Printing (Touch) in the endoscopy unit and maceration in the microbiology's laboratory. The biopsies were transported in transport medium with and without supplements and antibiotics. The results of the recovery rate in the culture medium A was 59.2%, in the B was 37% and in the C was 18.5%. In the culture médium A and B were observed a vigorous growth of H. pylori, otherwise in the culture medium C, the colonies were not observed as bright. Seeding by maceration in laboratory culture medium and A provided the best conditions for recovery of H. pylori.


Assuntos
Humanos , Estômago , Biópsia , Helicobacter pylori , Anti-Infecciosos , Antibacterianos , Automedicação , Triacetonamina-N-Oxil , Virulência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Endoscopia , Microbiologia
7.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 45(3): 214-223, jul.-sep. 2016. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-830374

RESUMO

Introducción: El trastorno explosivo intermitente (TEI) es un trastorno externalizante que se caracteriza por episodios recurrentes de agresividad. Aunque es un trastorno descrito desde hace varias décadas, y que ocasiona consecuencias personales y sociales, la producción bibliográfica sobre este tema es sorprendentemente escasa. Objetivo: Realizar una conceptualización sobre el TEI a partir de la revisión y el análisis bibliométrico de los artículos científicos disponibles. Material y métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos con los términos en inglés intermittent explosive disorder, impulse control disorders [MeSH] en combinación con otros términos. Se realizó un análisis bibliométrico utilizando los datos obtenidos en el buscador GoPubMed®. Discusión: La prevalencia del TEI oscila entre el 1,4 y el 7%, con mayor frecuencia durante la adolescencia media, y con más repercusiones notorias en varones que en mujeres. El núcleo psicopatológico del TEI es la conducta agresiva impulsiva que se presenta en forma de «ataques¼ que ocurren en respuesta a un estímulo precipitante menor. Las publicaciones científicas sobre el TEI son pocas, relativamente recientes, y la mayoría de Estados Unidos (56,56%), en cabeza un solo autor. Este hecho resalta la necesidad de repetir los hallazgos descritos sobre el TEI para demostrar validez y confiabilidad de sus criterios diagnósticos. Es posible que las dudas sobre la existencia del diagnóstico estén conduciendo a que se publique tan escasamente sobre el TEI. Conclusiones: Los estudios disponibles sobre TEI permiten caracterizar un grupo de sujetos con episodios de agresividad impulsiva, pero esta descripción requiere que se repita en latitudes diferentes.


Introduction: Intermittent explosive disorder (IED) is aan externalizing externalising disorder characterized characterised by recurrent aggression episodes. Even though this disorder was described several decades ago, and it carries personal and social consequences, there is little in the medical scientific literature on this. bibliographic production about it is scanty. Objective: To perform a conceptualization conceptualisation of this disorder, through the review and bibliometric analysis of the available scientific articles. Material and methods: A search was performed in databases with the english English terms intermittent explosive disorder, impulse disorders control [MeSH], in combination with other terms. A bibliometric analysis in the GoPubMed® search engineer was also performed using all data obtained in the search. was also perfomed. Discussion: IED prevalence ranges from 1.4% to 7%, it presents more frequently during middle adolescence, and with more noticeable repercussions in men males than in womenfemales. The psychopathological core of IED is the impulsive aggressive behaviour that presents in the form of «attacks¼ that occurs in response to a lower precipitating stimulus. Scientific publications about IED are few and relatively recent, and the vast majority is provided bycomes from the United States (56.56%), and headed by a single author. This fact highlights the need to replicate the findings described about the IED in order to demonstrate the validity and reliability of its diagnostic criteria. It is possible that doubts about the existence of a diagnosis lead have led to such a scant literature about the IED. Conclusions: Available studies about IED allow have allowed characterizing a group of subjects with episodes of impulsive aggression to be characterised, but this description requires replication in different latitudes needs to be repeated in different areas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Agressão , Diagnóstico , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta , Triacetonamina-N-Oxil , Bibliometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Chem Biol Interact ; 232: 85-93, 2015 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25813935

RESUMO

Data on medical applications of cerium oxide nanoparticles CeO2 (CONP) are promising, yet information regarding their action in cells is incomplete and there are conflicting reports about in vitro toxicity. Herein, we have studied cytotoxic effect of CONP in several cancer and normal cell lines and their potential to change intracellular redox status. The IC50 was achieved only in two of eight tested cell lines, melanoma 518A2 and colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29. Self-propagating room temperature method was applied to produce CONP with an average crystalline size of 4 nm. The results confirmed presence of Ce(3+) and O(2-) vacancies. The induction of cell death by CONP and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analyzed by flow-cytometry. Free radicals related antioxidant capacity of the cells was studied by the reduction of stable free radical TEMPONE using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. CONP showed low or moderate cytotoxicity in cancer cell lines: adenocarcinoma DLD1 and multi-drug resistant DLD1-TxR, non-small cell lung carcinoma NCI-H460 and multi-drug resistant NCI-H460/R, while normal cell lines (keratinocytes HaCaT, lung fetal fibroblasts MRC-5) were insensitive. The most sensitive were 518A2 melanoma and HT-29 colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines, with the IC50 values being between 100 and 200 µM. Decreased rate of TEMPONE reduction and increased production of certain ROS species (peroxynitrite and hydrogen peroxide anion) indicates that free radical metabolism, thus redox status was changed, and antioxidant capacity damaged in the CONP treated 518A2 and HT-29 cells. In conclusion, changes in intracellular redox status induced by CONP are partly attributed to the prooxidant activity of the nanoparticles. Further, ROS induced cell damages might eventually lead to the cell death. However, low inhibitory potential of CONP in the other human cell lines tested indicates that CONP may be safe for human usage in industry and medicine.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Cério/farmacologia , Nanopartículas , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Cério/química , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Células HT29/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Nanopartículas/química , Oxirredução , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Triacetonamina-N-Oxil/metabolismo , Triacetonamina-N-Oxil/farmacologia
9.
J Phys Chem B ; 119(7): 3185-93, 2015 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25594422

RESUMO

The X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) of a stable, spherical nitroxide spin probe, perdeuterated 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxopiperidine-1-oxyl (pDTO) has been used to study the nanostructural organization of a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquids (ILs) with alkyl chain lengths from two to eight carbons. By employing nonlinear least-squares fitting of the EPR spectra, we have obtained values of the rotational correlation time and hyperfine coupling splitting of pDTO to high precision. The rotational correlation time of pDTO in ILs and squalane, a viscous alkane, can be fit very well to a power law functionality with a singular temperature, which often describes a number of physical quantities measured in supercooled liquids. The viscosity of the ILs and squalane, taken from the literature, can also be fit to the same power law expression, which means that the rotational correlation times and the ionic liquid viscosities have similar functional dependence on temperature. The apparent activation energy of both the rotational correlation time of pDTO and the viscous flow of ILs and squalane increases with decreasing temperature; in other words, they exhibit strong non-Arrhenius behavior. The rotational correlation time of pDTO as a function of η/T, where η is the shear viscosity and T is the temperature, is well described by the Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) law, while the hydrodynamic probe radii are solvent dependent and are smaller than the geometric radius of the probe. The temperature dependence of hyperfine coupling splitting is the same in all four ionic liquids. The value of the hyperfine coupling splitting starts decreasing with increasing alkyl chain length in the ionic liquids in which the number of carbons in the alkyl chain is greater than four. This decrease together with the decrease in the hydrodynamic radius of the probe indicates a possible existence of nonpolar nanodomains.


Assuntos
Líquidos Iônicos/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Boratos/química , Deutério , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica/métodos , Hidrazonas/química , Hidrodinâmica , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Dinâmica não Linear , Rotação , Esqualeno/análogos & derivados , Esqualeno/química , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Triacetonamina-N-Oxil , Viscosidade
10.
J Magn Reson ; 247: 67-71, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25240151

RESUMO

X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of immobilized nitroxides were obtained by rapid scan at 293 K. Scan widths were 155 G with 13.4 kHz scan frequency for (14)N-perdeuterated tempone and for T4 lysozyme doubly spin labeled with an iodoacetamide spirocyclohexyl nitroxide and 100 G with 20.9 kHz scan frequency for (15)N-perdeuterated tempone. These wide scans were made possible by modifications to our rapid-scan driver, scan coils made of Litz wire, and the placement of highly conducting aluminum plates on the poles of a Bruker 10″ magnet to reduce resistive losses in the magnet pole faces. For the same data acquisition time, the signal-to-noise for the rapid-scan absorption spectra was about an order of magnitude higher than for continuous wave first-derivative spectra recorded with modulation amplitudes that do not broaden the lineshapes.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica/métodos , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/química , Deutério , Campos Eletromagnéticos , Indicadores e Reagentes , Muramidase/química , Radioisótopos de Nitrogênio , Marcadores de Spin , Triacetonamina-N-Oxil/química
11.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 43(3): 146-153, jul.-sep. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-735107

RESUMO

Introducción: El síndrome de burnout se define como una respuesta al estrés crónico y continuo del ambiente laboral, caracterizado por agotamiento emocional, despersonalización y realización personal. Sus estudios han incluido en su mayoría aplicaciones en docentes y personal de salud. Sin embargo, existen limitaciones en el desarrollo de estudios en guardianes penitenciarios que visualicen ese problema. Objetivo: Esta investigación ofrece una caracterización de los guardianes penitenciarios y pretende dar a conocer el comportamiento de los constructos del burnout según el perfil sociodemográfico y laboral. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en 111 guardianes penitenciarios de la ciudad de Bucaramanga. Se aplicó el instrumento Maslach Burnout Inventory.De igual manera, se tuvo en cuenta las consideraciones éticas pertinentes. Se realizó análisis univariable y bivariable de los datos. Resultados: El promedio de edad era 35,8 años, el 76% tiene experiencia laboral mayor que 10 años y el 24% tiene alguna actividad académica adicional a su trabajo. Solo el 3,7% tuvo el síndrome como tal. En agotamiento emocional, el 25,2% está catalogado como en riesgo alto; en despersonalización, el 30% y en logro personal, el 16%. Dentro del logro personal, el grupo con más de 20 años de experiencia es el que tenía puntuación crítica (ANOVA x², p = 0,002). De los que tenían puntuación de riesgo de despersonalización, el 67% tenía más de 240 laboradas al mes (odds ratio [OR] bruta = 4,66; p = 0,033; OR ajustada por edad =4,65; p = 0,035). Conclusiones: El burnout en este gremio laboral no fue tan prevalente como en otras publicaciones. A su vez, de los tres constructos, el más comprometido es despersonalización y no se observó un notorio agotamiento emocional. Las variables laborales más comprometidas fueron el número de horas laboradas y la experiencia laboral.


Introduction: Burnout syndrome is defined as a chronic stress response and sustained work environment, characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. Most studies have included teaching and health personnel. However, there are limitations in the development of studies on prison guards to observe this problem. Objective: This study provides some characteristics of prison guards and seeks to highlight the behavior of the constructs of burnout according to demographic and occupational profile. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study on 111 prison guards in the city of Bucaramanga. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was applied, as well as taking ethical considerations into account. A univariate and bivariate analysis was performed on the data. Results: The mean age was 35.8 years, 76% had more than 10 years work experience, 24% have some additional academic activities at work. Only 3.7% had burnout syndrome as such. In emotional exhaustion, 25.2% are classified as high risk, 30% in depersonalization, and 16% personal accomplishment. Within the personal achievement, the group with more than 20 years experience were those who had a critical score (ANOVA x², P = .002). Of those who had a risk score for depersonalization, 67% had worked more than 240 extra hours a month, with a crude odds ratio (OR) = 4.66 (P = .033) and age-adjusted OR = 4.65 (P = .035). Conclusions:Burnout in this occupational group was not as prevalent as in that found in other publications. In turn, of the three constructs, the most significant was depersonalization and no notable emotional burnout was observed. The most significant work variables were the number of hours worked and work experience.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Prisões , Síndrome , Esgotamento Psicológico , Triacetonamina-N-Oxil , Ambiente de Trabalho , Risco , Estudos Transversais , Análise de Variância , Colômbia , Despersonalização , Categorias de Trabalhadores
12.
J Phys Chem B ; 118(25): 7128-35, 2014 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24874024

RESUMO

Bimolecular collision rate constants of a model solute are measured in water at T = 259-303 K, a range encompassing both normal and supercooled water. A stable, spherical nitroxide spin probe, perdeuterated 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxopiperidine-1-oxyl, is studied using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), taking advantage of the fact that the rotational correlation time, τ(R), the mean time between successive spin exchanges within a cage, τ(RE), and the long-time-averaged spin exchange rate constants, K(ex), of the same solute molecule may be measured independently. Thus, long- and short-time translational diffusion behavior may be inferred from K(ex) and τ(RE), respectively. In order to measure K(ex), the effects of dipole-dipole interactions (DD) on the EPR spectra must be separated, yielding as a bonus the DD broadening rate constants that are related to the dephasing rate constant due to DD, W(dd). We find that both K(ex) and W(dd) behave hydrodynamically; that is to say they vary monotonically with T/η or η/T, respectively, where η is the shear viscosity, as predicted by the Stokes-Einstein equation. The same is true of the self-diffusion of water. In contrast, τ(RE) does not follow hydrodynamic behavior, varying rather as a linear function of the density reaching a maximum at 276 ± 2 K near where water displays a maximum density.


Assuntos
Hidrodinâmica , Água/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Modelos Teóricos , Resistência ao Cisalhamento , Temperatura , Triacetonamina-N-Oxil/química , Viscosidade
13.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 16(19): 8795-800, 2014 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24695794

RESUMO

We show that at low concentrations (≤5 mM) TEMPONE radicals in liquid toluene exhibit higher DNP efficiency than in water. In spite of reduced coupling factors, the improved DNP performance in toluene results from favourable saturation and leakage factors, as determined by pulse electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) and NMR relaxation, respectively. The extracted coupling factors at 0.35 Tesla support theoretical predictions of the Overhauser mechanism.


Assuntos
Tolueno/química , Triacetonamina-N-Oxil/química , Radicais Livres/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
14.
Respir Med ; 108(2): 395-404, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24411834

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Identification of the causative pathogen(s) of pneumonia would allow the selection of effective antibiotics and thus reduce the mortality rate and the emergence of drug-resistant pathogens. To identify such pathogens and to obtain these benefits, it is necessary that a clinical test is rapid, accurate, easily performed, and cost-effective. Here, we devised a PCR-based test, named HIRA-TAN, which is able to discriminate therapeutic targets from commensal organisms (e.g. Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae) and to detect foreign organisms (e.g. Mycoplasma pneumoniae or Legionella pneumophila) in the sputum. The utility of this system was validated in a prospective study, using sputum samples from patients with pneumonia. 568 patients were enrolled and the HIRA-TAN assay identified the causative pathogens with an accuracy of 96.7% for H. influenzae; 93.2% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa; 80.6% for Klebsiella pneumoniae; 90.9% for Moraxella catarrhalis; 87.5% for Escherichia coli; 78.1% for MRSA and 91.6% for S. pneumoniae. Overall the HIRA-TAN procedure was able to identify the causative pathogens of pneumonia in 60% of the cases. Additionally, this procedure was able to determine when the pneumonia-causing organism was a commensal organism or a foreign organism in a single assay. The HIRA-TAN approach yielded reproducible results and provided valuable information to plan the course of treatment of pneumonia. Through the rapid identification of the causative pathogens, the HIRA-TAN will promote targeted treatments for pneumonias. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: UMIN000001694.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Escarro/microbiologia , Simbiose , Triacetonamina-N-Oxil , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 8(3): e58970, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23527059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The radiation-induced energy metabolism dysfunction related to injury and radiation doses is largely elusive. The purpose of this study is to investigate the early response of energy metabolism in small intestinal tissue and its correlation with pathologic lesion after total body X-ray irradiation (TBI) in Tibet minipigs. METHODS AND RESULTS: 30 Tibet minipigs were assigned into 6 groups including 5 experimental groups and one control group with 6 animals each group. The minipigs in these experimental groups were subjected to a TBI of 2, 5, 8, 11, and 14 Gy, respectively. Small intestine tissues were collected at 24 h following X-ray exposure and analyzed by histology and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). DNA contents in this tissue were also examined. Irradiation causes pathologic lesions and mitochondrial abnormalities. The Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) content-corrected and uncorrected adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) and total adenine nucleotides (TAN) were significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner by 2-8 Gy exposure, and no further reduction was observed over 8 Gy. CONCLUSION: TBI induced injury is highly dependent on the irradiation dosage in small intestine and inversely correlates with the energy metabolism, with its reduction potentially indicating the severity of injury.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/efeitos da radiação , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/efeitos da radiação , Lesões por Radiação/metabolismo , Porco Miniatura/metabolismo , Nucleotídeos de Adenina/metabolismo , Animais , Dano ao DNA/efeitos da radiação , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos da radiação , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Doses de Radiação , Suínos , Fatores de Tempo , Triacetonamina-N-Oxil/metabolismo , Irradiação Corporal Total
16.
J Phys Chem A ; 117(7): 1466-73, 2013 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23320940

RESUMO

Picosecond rotational correlation times of perdeuterated tempone (PDT) are found in alkane and aromatic liquids by directly using the spectral width of the central electron paramagnetic resonance line. This is done by mathematically eliminating the nonsecular spectral density from the spectral parameter equations, thereby removing the need to assume a particular form for it. This is preferable to fitting a constant correction factor to the spectral density, because such a factor does not fit well in the low picosecond range. The electron-nuclear spin dipolar interaction between the probe and solvent is shown to be negligible for the very rapid rotation of PDT in these liquids at the temperatures of the study. The rotational correlation times obtained with the proposed method generally agree to within experimental uncertainty with those determined by using the traditional parameters. Using the middle line width offers greater precision and smoother trends. Previous work with the central line width is discussed, and past discrepancies are explained as possibly resulting from residual inhomogeneous broadening. The rotational correlation time almost forms a common curve across all of the solvents when plotted with respect to isothermal compressibility, which shows the high dependence of rotation on liquid free volume.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Marcadores de Spin , Rotação , Fatores de Tempo , Triacetonamina-N-Oxil/química
17.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 19(1): 31-40, ene.-jun. 2013. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-729616

RESUMO

Introducción/Métodos: En el presente artículo se presentan los hallazgos encontrados mediante un estudio descriptivo y analítico de corte transversal, aplicado a una muestra de doscientas setenta (270) mujeres entre las edades de 18 a 60 años de edad, en el Municipio de Alto Baúdo (Choco), con el objeto de determinar la relación entre el uso de una herramienta cultural denominada “El Rallo”, empleada para el lavado de ropa por generaciones femeninas y el índice de incapacidad e intensidad del dolor, producto de la lumbalgia mecánica, que consiste en una enfermedad caracterizada en generar dolor en la región lumbar, la cual limita funcional y estructuralmente al paciente, y que tiene capacidad de concebir complicaciones severas; la principal causa son las posiciones inadecuadas, especialmente la de flexión anterior, para ello se utilizó como instrumento de medición, el Cuestionario de Roland Morris y la Escala de Oswestry reconocidos a nivel mundial para tal fin. Resultados/ Discusión: Al desarrollar la investigación, por medio de la recopilación, graficación y análisis de datos, se pudo observar claramente que existe una estrecha relación “Causa - Efecto”, en el uso de esta herramienta, bien sea por el uso repetitivo en la realización de esta actividad, en las mujeres que la utilizan como instrumento de lavado, y la forma en que se ve afectada su salud, reflejándose en el aumento del número de consultas e incapacidades en el centro de salud; lo difícil de entender, es como son tan arraigadas ciertas costumbres que a pesar de afectar la salud, aún las defienden y continúan con sus prácticas por generaciones.


Introduction/Methods: This article presents the findings, a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional, applied to a sample of two hundred seventy (270) women between the ages of 18-60 years old, in the municipality of Alto Baudo (Choco), in order to determine the relationship between the culture using a tool called “the Rallo”, used for washing clothes and female generations disability index and intensity of pain, lumbago mechanical product, which is a disease characterized generate pain in the lumbar region, which limits the patient functionally and structurally, and has ability to conceive severe complications, the leading cause is improper positions, especially of flexion, for it was used as a measuring tool, the Roland Morris questionnaire and the Oswestry scale globally recognized for that purpose. Results/Discussion: To develop research, through the collection, graphing and data analysis, it became clear that there is a close relationship “cause - effect” on the use of this tool, either by repetitive use in conducting this activity in women who use it as a tool for cleaning, and how their health is affected, reflected in the increasing number of inquiries and disabilities in the health center, so difficult to understand, it is because they are so ingrained despite certain customs that affect health even defend them and continue their practice for generations.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Dor Lombar , Pesquisa , Triacetonamina-N-Oxil , Mulheres , Causalidade , Análise de Dados , Região Lombossacral
18.
J Magn Reson ; 225: 52-7, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23123770

RESUMO

Electron spin relaxation times of perdeuterated tempone (PDT) 1 and of a nitronyl nitroxide (2-(4-carboxy-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-3-oxide-1-oxyl) 2 in aqueous solution at room temperature were measured by 2-pulse electron spin echo (T(2)) or 3-pulse inversion recovery (T(1)) in the frequency range of 250 MHz to 34 GHz. At 9 GHz values of T(1) measured by long-pulse saturation recovery were in good agreement with values determined by inversion recovery. Below 9 GHz for 1 and below 1.5 GHz for 2,T(1)~T(2), as expected in the fast tumbling regime. At higher frequencies T(2) was shorter than T(1) due to incomplete motional averaging of g and A anisotropy. The frequency dependence of 1/T(1) is modeled as the sum of spin rotation, modulation of g and A-anisotropy, and a thermally-activated process that has maximum contribution at about 1.5 GHz. The spin lattice relaxation times for the nitronyl nitroxide were longer than for PDT by a factor of about 2 at 34 GHz, decreasing to about a factor of 1.5 at 250 MHz. The rotational correlation times, τ(R) are calculated to be 9 ps for 1 and about 25 ps for 2. The longer spin lattice relaxation times for 2 than for 1 at 9 and 34 GHz are due predominantly to smaller contributions from spin rotation that arise from slower tumbling. The smaller nitrogen hyperfine couplings for the nitronyl 2 than for 1 decrease the contribution to relaxation due to modulation of A anisotropy. However, at lower frequencies the slower tumbling of 2 results in a larger value of ωτ(R) (ω is the resonance frequency) and larger values of the spectral density function, which enhances the contribution from modulation of anisotropic interactions for 2 to a greater extent than for 1.


Assuntos
Óxidos de Nitrogênio/química , Marcadores de Spin , Triacetonamina-N-Oxil/química , Anisotropia , Deutério , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Indicadores e Reagentes , Oxigênio/química , Soluções , Água
19.
J Phys Chem A ; 116(11): 2855-66, 2012 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22288424

RESUMO

The work in part 6 of this series (J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113, 4930), addressing the task of separating the effects of Heisenberg spin exchange (HSE) and dipole-dipole interactions (DD) on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of nitroxide spin probes in solution, is extended experimentally and theoretically. Comprehensive measurements of perdeuterated 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxopiperidine-1-oxyl (pDT) in squalane, a viscous alkane, paying special attention to lower temperatures and lower concentrations, were carried out in an attempt to focus on DD, the lesser understood of the two interactions. Theoretically, the analysis has been extended to include the recent comprehensive treatment by Salikhov (Appl. Magn. Reson. 2010, 38, 237). In dilute solutions, both interactions (1) introduce a dispersion component, (2) broaden the lines, and (3) shift the lines. DD introduces a dispersion component proportional to the concentration and of opposite sign to that of HSE. Equations relating the EPR spectral parameters to the rate constants due to HSE and DD have been derived. By employing nonlinear least-squares fitting of theoretical spectra to a simple analytical function and the proposed equations, the contributions of the two interactions to items 1-3 may be quantified and compared with the same parameters obtained by fitting experimental spectra. This comparison supports the theory in its broad predictions; however, at low temperatures, the DD contribution to the experimental dispersion amplitude does not increase linearly with concentration. We are unable to deduce whether this discrepancy is due to inadequate analysis of the experimental data or an incomplete theory. A new key aspect of the more comprehensive theory is that there is enough information in the experimental spectra to find items 1-3 due to both interactions; however, in principle, appeal must be made to a model of molecular diffusion to separate the two. The permanent diffusion model is used to illustrate the separation in this work. In practice, because the effects of DD are dominated by HSE, negligible error is incurred by using the model-independent extreme DD limit of the spectral density functions, which means that DD and HSE may be separated without appealing to a particular model.


Assuntos
Óxidos de Nitrogênio/química , Esqualeno/análogos & derivados , Triacetonamina-N-Oxil/química , Difusão , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Cinética , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Modelos Químicos , Teoria Quântica , Soluções/química , Esqualeno/química , Temperatura , Termodinâmica , Viscosidade
20.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 60(1): 31-6, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22223372

RESUMO

To develop an estimation method of gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, the effect of concentration of Gd compounds on the ESR spectrum of nitroxyl radical was examined. A solution of either 4-oxo-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPONE) or 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPOL) was mixed with a solution of Gd compound and the ESR spectrum was recorded. Increased concentration of gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid chelate (Gd-DTPA), an MRI contrast agent, increased the peak-to-peak line widths of ESR spectra of the nitroxyl radicals, in accordance with a decrease of their signal heights. A linear relationship was observed between concentration of Gd-DTPA and line width of ESR signal, up to approximately 50 mmol/L Gd-DTPA, with a high correlation coefficient. Response of TEMPONE was 1.4-times higher than that of TEMPOL as evaluated from the slopes of the lines. The response was slightly different among Gd compounds; the slopes of calibration curves for acua[N,N-bis[2-[(carboxymethyl)[(methylcarbamoyl)methyl]amino]ethyl]glycinato(3-)]gadolinium hydrate (Gd-DTPA-BMA) (6.22 µT·L/mmol) and gadolinium-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid chelate (Gd-DOTA) (6.62 µT·L/mmol) were steeper than the slope for Gd-DTPA (5.45 µT·L/mmol), whereas the slope for gadolinium chloride (4.94 µT·L/mmol) was less steep than that for Gd-DTPA. This method is simple to apply. The results indicate that this method is useful for rough estimation of the concentration of Gd contrast agents if calibration is carried out with each standard compound. It was also found that the plot of the reciprocal square root of signal height against concentrations of contrast agents could be useful for the estimation if a constant volume of sample solution is taken and measured at the same position in the ESR cavity every time.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/análise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Gadolínio/química , Animais , Complexos de Coordenação/análise , Complexos de Coordenação/sangue , Óxidos N-Cíclicos/química , Gadolínio DTPA/análise , Gadolínio DTPA/sangue , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Marcadores de Spin , Triacetonamina-N-Oxil/química
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