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1.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102449, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481946

RESUMO

Trichinellosis is a potentially deadly parasitic zoonosis that is contracted by consuming undercooked infected meat. Reliable detection of infectious Trichinella spp. larvae in meat is therefore pivotal to ensure consumer's safety. The recently authorised PrioCHECK™ Trichinella Alternative Artificial Digestion (AAD) test kit appears promising when used with the standard magnetic stirrer method, but evaluation with other apparatus types is lacking. In this study, the performance of the AAD kit in an adapted Trichomatic-35 (TM35) instrument was evaluated, first, at the Swiss National Reference Laboratory for trichinellosis (NRL); second, in a ring trial involving four Swiss official laboratories. Proficiency pork samples spiked with larvae of Trichinella spiralis, T. britovi, or T. pseudospiralis were tested with the AAD kit and with the reference pepsin-HCl digestion method in TM35 instruments. At the NRL, both methods yielded identical qualitative and similar quantitative results independently of the Trichinella species. In the ring trial, satisfactory results were obtained for 47/50 (94.0%) (AAD) and 62/67 (92.5%) (reference method) of the analysed samples. Technical problems impairing analysis were more frequently observed with the AAD kit (n = 22) than with the reference method (n = 5) and were mainly (16/22) reported by one of the external labs. When no technical issues were recorded, the performance of both methods was comparable, in agreement with the observations at the NRL; however, these results suggest a need for further training with the kit and standardisation of the adapted TM35 instruments.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/instrumentação , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Carne de Porco/parasitologia , Trichinella/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Trichinella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trichinella spiralis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trichinella spiralis/isolamento & purificação
2.
Korean J Parasitol ; 59(5): 497-499, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724769

RESUMO

Trichinellosis (trichinosis) is a parasitic infection caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Pigs are the most common source of human infection. We describe a case of a 47-year-old woman presented with a wide range of intermittent symptoms including prolonged fever, dry cough, diarrhea, rash, myalgias and arthralgias. The patient was attended by physicians with various medical specialties such as dermatologists, rheumatologists and allergiologists, but they did not establish a certain diagnosis because of the gradual onset of symptoms, raising the suspicion of a systematic disease. After extensive work up, the diagnosis of trichinosis was established with femoral muscle biopsy compatible with inflammatory myopathy of parasitic etiology with trichinosis to be the predominant diagnosis. Despite the significant delay of diagnosis for almost three months, patient was treated successfully with no further complications. Trichinellosis is a food-borne treatable infection. Preventive measures include community education especially in zones where parasite prevalence is increased, improvement of farming and cooking techniques.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/diagnóstico , Triquinelose , Animais , Biópsia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Diarreia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Suínos , Trichinella , Triquinelose/diagnóstico
3.
Vet Parasitol ; 297: 109543, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384643

RESUMO

Trichinellosis is a foodborne parasitic disease caused by Trichinella spp. Different methods, such as cooking, freezing and irradiation, have been suggested to inactivate the parasite in meat infected with Trichinella spp. The International Commission on Trichinellosis (ICT) recommends an irradiation dose of 0.3 kGy to inactivate Trichinella spp. larvae, but its effectiveness in all Trichinella species has not yet been demonstrated. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of gamma radiation in treating wild boar meat to inactivate Trichinella pseudospiralis and Trichinella spiralis. Two wild boars (Sus scrofa) were each inoculated per os (PO) with 20,000 muscle larvae (ML) of Trichinella. One wild boar was inoculated with T. pseudospiralis and the other one with T. spiralis. Both wild boars were euthanized 20 weeks post infection (pi). A 250░g sample from each selected muscle type (side ribs, shoulder and upper forelegs) was obtained in duplicate from each animal. One group of samples was not irradiated (Gc; n░=░6) while the other group of samples was irradiated (Gt; n░=░6) at the Atomic Centre of the Argentinean National Commission of Atomic Energy (CNEA) with a minimum and maximum dose of 0.32-0.41 kGy. Twenty gram of each muscle from Gt and Gc were taken at 24░h, 7 days, 14 days and 21 days post-irradiation, and all samples were individually processed by means of artificial digestion. The ML were then inoculated into mice to evaluate the intestinal phase and the muscular phase. All recovered larvae from Gt and Gc samples showed integrity of the cuticle and active motility. Adult worms and ML were recovered from all mice inoculated with ML from Gc. However, no adult worms or ML were obtained in mice inoculated with ML from Gt. These results show the efficacy of irradiation to inhibit the development of T. pseudospiralis and T. spiralis in the host, which could possibly be extended to other non-encapsulated species, but further studies are needed to demonstrate this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Roedores , Doenças dos Suínos , Trichinella spiralis , Trichinella , Triquinelose , Animais , Raios gama , Carne , Camundongos , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Triquinelose/veterinária
4.
Vet Parasitol ; 297: 109540, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384644

RESUMO

Trichinella spp. causes human trichinellosis by means of the consumption of raw or inadequately treated meat from domestic or game animals. In the Americas, as well as in other continents, Trichinella infection is a health issue for humans and has a negative impact on the pork meat market, generated by people's fear of becoming infected with the parasite. The distribution of human cases and the sources of this disease in humans and animals were analysed in this report, which summarizes the information available regarding Trichinella infection in animals and humans in South America. Within South America, human infection with Trichinella was documented in Argentina and Chile during the period 2005-2019. Trichinellosis is endemic in these countries for, with human cases and foci in domestic and wild animals. In Argentina, human cases occur throughout the country, with foci found in pigs and wild animals. In Argentina, during the period 2012-2018, the number of suspected human cases reached 6,662. T. spiralis was identified in one South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) from Patagonia, Argentina, for the first time in the region in 2018. In Chile, 258 human cases of trichinellosis were confirmed during the period 2005-2015; out of those 258 cases, most samples which tested positive for Trichinella spp. (29.5 %) were detected in the Metropolitan district (Santiago de Chile and outskirts), and 17.4 % in The Lake district. Regarding age brackets, people between 30-49 years of age showed the most cases (40.1 %). In Brazil, the infection is absent in domestic species but it has been found in wild boars (Sus scrofa) but limited to one or more region of the country. Within the animal species destined for food in South America, those that showed higher parasitical loads were pigs and wild boars, while armadillos (Chaetophractus villosus) and peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) showed very low Trichinella spp. larvae loads (0.04-0.1 larvae/g). Antibodies against Trichinella spp. have been detected in pigs from Ecuador and Bolivia. In Bolivia, antibodies were also found in humans. Peru, Colombia and Uruguay have no documented presence of Trichinella spp. in animals and humans. There is insufficient information regarding the presence of Trichinella spp. in domestic and wild animals, as well as in humans, since only a very limited number of surveys have been carried out. No papers with information on Trichinella spp. circulating in animals or humans have been published regarding the situation in Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana, Venezuela and Paraguay. Considering the growth of the guinea pig meat market in the Andean region, and the high prevalence of the disease reported in free range pigs and wild boars, as well as other game animal species, it is important to focus on the role of biosecurity and risk management, while improving meat market regulations, and detection of infection prior to consumption, in order to reduce the risk of transmission of this zoonotic disease to humans.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Suínos , Trichinella , Triquinelose , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Brasil , Cobaias , Carne , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Triquinelose/epidemiologia , Triquinelose/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
5.
Vet Parasitol ; 297: 109545, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389191

RESUMO

The European badger, Meles meles (Carnivora, Mustelidae) is a widespread opportunistic omnivorous mammal. Its food spectrum comprises a wide variety of plants and small animals, occasionally including rodents, such as mice or rats. Considering that rodents are known to play a key role in the life cycle of Trichinella spp., the aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of these parasites in badgers from Romania and to identify the species. Overall, 61 badgers originating from 14 counties were examined by trichinoscopy and artificial digestion. For species determination, the positive muscle samples, and the larvae recovered from the artificial digestion were used for DNA isolation, and further processed by multiplex PCR. A single badger, originating from Sibiu County, Central Romania, was found positive for Trichinella spp. Five cysts were identified using trichinoscopy: four in the diaphragm and one in the foreleg muscles. Artificial digestion revealed an infection rate of 70 larvae/100 g of muscle. The PCR indicated the occurrence of T. britovi, which is the most commonly detected species in wild carnivores in temperate areas. Although T. britovi has previously been reported in Romania, this represents the first report of its occurrence in the European badger in the country. However, the low prevalence indicates a minor reservoir role of this species.


Assuntos
Carnívoros , Mustelidae , Doenças dos Roedores , Trichinella , Triquinelose , Animais , Camundongos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/veterinária , Ratos , Romênia/epidemiologia , Trichinella/genética , Triquinelose/epidemiologia , Triquinelose/veterinária
6.
Vet Parasitol ; 297: 109547, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389192

RESUMO

The metabolism of Trichinella spp. is primarily anoxybiotic in nature. Their main energy source is glycogen, which is stored in the stichocites at the muscular stage of the larval development. When subject to tow temperatures the Trichinella larvae consume glycogen and neutral fats to provide for basal metabolism until the energy supplies reach the critical level. The present study establishes the glycogen concentration as well the invasive activity of T. nativа when affected by low temperatures in natural conditions. The carcasses of infected laboratory rats were placed in containers beneath the snow cover, in the natural conditions of a game husbandry in Central Russia. The viability, invasive capacity and the glycogen level were monitored in the Trichinella larvae monthly. The invasive capacity of Trichinella larvae was established based on the presence of the larvae in the muscular tissue of laboratory mice after the peroral administration of the helminth larvae. On the 45 day of the experiment, the mice were euthanized by cervical dislocation, and if the Trichinella larvae could be discovered in the muscular tissue with the help of the trichinelloscopic compression method, the invasive capacity of the Trichinella larvae was viewed as positive. To establish the quantitative value of glycogen content in Trichinella larvae a modified method was used. In order to measure the glycogen level in the T. nativa larvae isolated by fermentation larvae were counted in one drop of the suspended sedimentation in the Migacheva-Kotelnikov chamber. To establish the quantitative value of glycogen content in Trichinella larvae a method based on the treatment of glycogen with iodine, optical density measurement with a refractometer MКMФ-02 was used. For the purpose of measuring the concentration of glycogen in Trichinella larvae in the suspended sedimentation a calibration curve was used. The studies showed that the viability indicator of the Trichinella larvae which had been preserved in natural conditions in the four months of the winter-spring period, in the muscular tissue of laboratory rats remained high (over 90 %). The glycogen concentration in one helminth larva was 0.041 µg in January, 0.033 µg in February, 0.015 µg in April. The invasive capability of the preserved Trichinella larvae was considerably reduced to 33.3 %. In the winter period, under temperatures below 0 °C, a decrease in the glycogen concentration in the Trichinella larvae was observed.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Roedores , Trichinella , Triquinelose , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Glicogênio , Larva , Camundongos , Ratos , Estações do Ano , Triquinelose/veterinária
7.
Vet Parasitol ; 297: 109544, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389193

RESUMO

Processing of meat is one possible approach to control meat-borne parasites. Processing methods such as freezing, cooking and irradiation are recommended for the control of Trichinella in pork, horse or game meat if specific technical conditions are fulfilled. Curing is a widely used preservation process influencing product characteristics such as shelf life, food safety, and taste. As curing methods are characterized by high parameter variability and predictions about inactivation of parasitic stages in raw meat products are difficult, curing and smoking are not recommended for Trichinella control. The objective of this study was to investigate the survival of T. spiralis in cured raw sausages taking into account water activity (aw-value), pH value, temperature, and time. For this purpose, four different types of sausage (Knackwurst, vacuum packed Knackwurst, short ripened salami, long ripened salami) were produced using T. spiralis infested batter. After production, the sausages were stored at product specific conditions for up to 35 days. During storage, pH value and aw-value of the sausages were monitored over time. Further, sausages of each type were digested using the magnetic stirrer method and the viability of the isolated larvae was assessed using a previously published larval motility test as a proxy for viability and infectivity of Trichinella larvae. In this context, we also introduce a three-level rated infectivity score (RIS) with a clear categorization scheme allowing the assessment of the infectivity of larvae. Based on the RIS, larvae isolated from the salamis were regarded as potentially infective until day 2 (short ripened salami) or day 3 (long ripened salami) post ripening, whereas in Knackwurst, potentially infective larvae were still found by day 8 post ripening. In contrast potentially infective larvae were detected in vacuum-packed Knackwurst until day 24 post ripening. Finally, using the RIS approach, data from previously published studies were collected and subjected to a correlation analysis to identify matrix factors linked to short Trichinella inactivation times.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Produtos da Carne , Trichinella spiralis , Trichinella , Triquinelose , Animais , Congelamento , Cavalos , Carne , Triquinelose/veterinária
8.
Vet Parasitol ; 297: 109542, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391612

RESUMO

In Argentina, trichinellosis is an endemic disease acquired mainly through consumption of raw pork infected with nematodes larvae from the Trichinella genus. For years, the only species involved in outbreaks in humans and pig foci in Argentina was Trichinella spiralis. In 2008 the presence of a new Trichinella taxon from a cougar (Puma concolor) was detected and recorded in the province of Rio Negro, Argentina, and the finding was established as a new species in 2012: Trichinella patagoniensis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no information available on the intestinal phase and antibody response in a susceptible host during T. patagoniensis infection. Therefore, our research has been designed to study experimental infection with T. patagoniensis compared to infection with T. spiralis in BALB/c mice. One hundred and twenty eight BALB/c mice were divided into two groups and individuals in each group were infected per os with 500 larvae of T. patagoniensis or 500 larvae of T. spiralis, respectively. After that, they were euthanized on different days. Adult worm recovery from small intestines and artificial digestion of each carcass was performed. Histopathology of small intestines was performed using hematoxylin-eosin staining. Systemic cytokines and antibody kinetics were evaluated. Intestinal adult worm recovery of T. patagoniensis and T. spiralis took place until day 17 and 25, respectively. Systemic IFN-γ, IL-10, and TNF showed significant variations in T. patagoniensis infected mice. Seroconversion was detected in animals as from 15 days post-infection (pi) for both T. patagoniensis and T. spiralis, reaching the highest OD value at 42 days pi. Similar microscopic lesions were observed in the small intestine from mice infected with the same dose of T. spiralis and T. patagoniensis. Our findings contribute new information regarding the intestinal phase and the antibody kinetics of T. patagoniensis in BALB/c mice.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Roedores , Doenças dos Suínos , Trichinella spiralis , Trichinella , Triquinelose , Animais , Larva , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Suínos , Triquinelose/veterinária
9.
Parasitol Int ; 84: 102413, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166785

RESUMO

Experimental infection with Trichinella pseudospiralis larvae in red-eared slider Trachemys scripta was carried out. Ten turtles were divided into 3 groups and kept at different temperature (38, 32 and 28 °C). The turtles were fed mice muscles which were infected with T. pseudospiralis larvae (444 - 23,013 larvae/mouse), kept in the aforementioned temperature and necropsied at day 30 after infection. At necropsy, the tongue, forelimbs, hindlimbs and spinal column muscles of turtles were removed separately for pepsin digestion, and the larvae counted. Larvae were found from all 3 turtles kept at 38 °C. Larvae per gram of muscle were highest in the tongue. No larvae were recovered from turtles kept at 32 and 28 °C. The result suggested that T. pseudospiralis is able to infect the red-eared slider in a high temperature environment. We speculated that environmental temperature play an important role in altering the physiological condition of the turtle to facilitate the infection of T. pseudospiralis.


Assuntos
Trichinella/fisiologia , Triquinelose/veterinária , Tartarugas , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Temperatura Alta , Triquinelose/parasitologia
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 282, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039413

RESUMO

Trichinellosis is a foodborne disease caused by several Trichinella species around the world. In Chile, the domestic cycle was fairly well-studied in previous decades, but has been neglected in recent years. The aims of this study were to analyze, geographically, the incidence of trichinellosis in Chile to assess the relative risk and to analyze the incidence rate fluctuation in the last decades. Using temporal data spanning 1964-2019, as well as geographical data from 2010 to 2019, the time series of cases was analyzed with ARIMA models to explore trends and periodicity. The Dickey-Fuller test was used to study trends, and the Portmanteau test was used to study white noise in the model residuals. The Besag-York-Mollie (BYM) model was used to create Bayesian maps of the level of risk relative to that expected by the overall population. The association of the relative risk with the number of farmed swine was assessed with Spearman's correlation. The number of annual cases varied between 5 and 220 (mean: 65.13); the annual rate of reported cases varied between 0.03 and 1.9 cases per 105 inhabitants (mean: 0.53). The cases of trichinellosis in Chile showed a downward trend that has become more evident since the 1980s. No periodicities were detected via the autocorrelation function. Communes (the smallest geographical administrative subdivision) with high incidence rates and high relative risk were mostly observed in the Araucanía region. The relative risk of the commune was significantly associated with the number of farmed pigs and boar (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758). The results allowed us to state that trichinellosis is not a (re)emerging disease in Chile, but the severe economic poverty rate of the Mapuche Indigenous peoples and the high number of backyard and free-ranging pigs seem to be associated with the high risk of trichinellosis in the Araucanía region.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Triquinelose/epidemiologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Chile/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Mapeamento Geográfico , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Incidência , Medição de Risco , Suínos , Trichinella , Triquinelose/história
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 338, 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031761

RESUMO

The protozoan parasites Theileria equi and Babesia caballi, transmitted by ticks, cause equine piroplasmosis, the most prevalent tick-borne disease in equids. Trichinellosis is a worldwide food-borne zoonosis caused by helminth Trichinella spp. that can lead to serious disease in humans, with fatal outcome. Although the infection is rare in horses, it deserves attention due to the increasing use of horse meat as a source of protein for humans. Horse trichinellosis is caused by several Trichinella species, most commonly by T. spiralis. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to T. equi, B. caballi and Trichinella spp. in equids from three states of Northern Nigeria. Serum samples were collected from 139 clinically healthy animals, comprising 115 horses and 24 donkeys. Antibodies to T. equi and B. caballi were detected in serum by competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) and antibodies to Trichinella spp. by ELISA. Antibodies to T. equi were detected in 34% of equids (41% horses and 0% donkeys), antibodies to B. caballi in 9% of equids (8% horses and 13% donkeys), and antibodies to Trichinella spp. in 4% of equids (4% horses and 0% donkeys). There was co-infection of T. equi and B. caballi in 1% of horses and co-infection of T. equi and Trichinella spp. in 2.6% of horses. This is the first report on seroprevalence of Trichinella spp. in equids from Northern Nigeria.


Assuntos
Babesia , Babesiose , Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças dos Cavalos , Theileria , Theileriose , Trichinella , Triquinelose , África Ocidental , Animais , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Equidae , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Theileriose/epidemiologia , Triquinelose/epidemiologia , Triquinelose/veterinária
12.
Parasitol Res ; 120(6): 2287-2290, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932154

RESUMO

Trichinella pseudospiralis is a non-encapsulated species infecting both mammals and birds. In Italy, this species has been reported so far only in central regions (two nocturnal birds of prey, one red fox, and one wild boar) and in northeast regions (four wild boars). In November 2020, Trichinella sp. larvae were isolated by enzymatic digestion from muscle tissues of a red kite (Milvus milvus) specimen belonging to a population residing in the Basilicata region (Southern Italy). The parasite was identified as T. pseudospiralis by multiplex PCR, and the sequencing of the expansion segment V (ESV) region of the nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA showed, in the microsatellite region, the polymorphism characteristic of the Palearctic population. This represents the first record of T. pseudospiralis in a red kite and the first report of this parasite in Southern Italy. The isolation of the parasite in a resident bird confirms that T. pseudospiralis is present, even if at low prevalence, in the Italian avifauna.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves/parasitologia , Trichinella/isolamento & purificação , Triquinelose/veterinária , Animais , Itália , Larva , Músculos/parasitologia , Polimorfismo Genético , Prevalência , Suínos , Trichinella/classificação , Triquinelose/parasitologia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946210

RESUMO

Novel evidence is presented allowing further clarification of the mechanism of the slow-binding thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibition by N4-hydroxy-dCMP (N4-OH-dCMP). Spectrophotometric monitoring documented time- and temperature-, and N4-OH-dCMP-dependent TS-catalyzed dihydrofolate production, accompanying the mouse enzyme incubation with N4-OH-dCMP and N5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate, known to inactivate the enzyme by the covalent binding of the inhibitor, suggesting the demonstrated reaction to be uncoupled from the pyrimidine C(5) methylation. The latter was in accord with the hypothesis based on the previously presented structure of mouse TS (cf. PDB ID: 4EZ8), and with conclusions based on the present structure of the parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis, both co-crystallized with N4-OH-dCMP and N5,10-methylenetetrahdrofolate. The crystal structure of the mouse TS-N4-OH-dCMP complex soaked with N5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate revealed the reaction to run via a unique imidazolidine ring opening, leaving the one-carbon group bound to the N(10) atom, thus too distant from the pyrimidine C(5) atom to enable the electrophilic attack and methylene group transfer.


Assuntos
Desoxicitidina Monofosfato/análogos & derivados , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Timidilato Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Trichinella/enzimologia , Animais , Cristalografia por Raios X , Desoxicitidina Monofosfato/química , Desoxicitidina Monofosfato/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Espectrofotometria , Timidilato Sintase/química , Timidilato Sintase/metabolismo , Triquinelose/parasitologia
14.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(3): e002821, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037188

RESUMO

Trichinellosis is a zoonosis caused by nematodes of the Trichinella genus, of which 10 species have been described. Species identification when larvae is found is only possible using molecular tools. Meat from pigs and game animals not subjected to veterinary inspection are the main sources of human infections. The hunting of native carnivores is prohibited in Chile due to conservation issues and the fact that those animals favor pest control. The illegal hunting of a cougar (Puma concolor) occurred in September 2020. Herein, the molecular identification of Trichinella larvae, by analyzing nuclear (expansion segment V) and mitochondrial (cytochrome C oxidase subunit I) sequences are described. Both the amplification of the expansion segment V region and the phylogenetic analysis of a segment of a fragment of the cytochrome c-oxidase subunit I sequence confirmed that the larvae belonged to T. spiralis. The case described herein represents the first evidence of illegal hunting of a protected mammal infected with Trichinella in Chile, highlighting the 'One Health' perspective to face this disease in the rural-sylvatic interphase.


Assuntos
Puma , Doenças dos Suínos , Trichinella spiralis , Trichinella , Triquinelose , Animais , Chile , Filogenia , Suínos , Triquinelose/veterinária
15.
Vet Parasitol ; 297: 109308, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858726

RESUMO

Trichinella spp. is considered as one of the most widespread food-borne zoonotic parasites globally. The disease it causes impacts human public health, pig production, and food safety. Unfortunately in the Philippines, there is still insufficient research on the presence of Trichinella among livestock. This study aims to update its status and records in the country, by verifying the presence of Trichinella spp. IgG antibodies from the selected province, Bulacan, and link its potential presence to known animal husbandry and farm practices. This study was conducted in purposively selected slaughterhouses. Pigs were randomly selected for each slaughterhouse. Blood samples were collected and serum samples were harvested from each pig samples (n = 555). Sera were tested using ELISA for the detection of Trichinella spp. IgG antibodies. For serologically positive pigs, farm-based exposure assessment was conducted to evaluate potential routes of infection. For this study, a total of 555 blood sera, wherein three blood sera were detected to be serologically positive (low prevalence of 0.54 %, 95 % CI = 0.11-1.57). Potential infection routes point towards outdoor housing management, pigs with unknown origin, pig farms presence with rodents, and pigs fed with waste as important risks. In summary, the present paper confirms that Trichinella spp. antibodies were detected in very low prevalence in Bulacan, Philippines and demonstrated the potential utilization of antibody detection as an efficient and complementary early screening tool in Trichinella detection among pigs without immediately sacrificing livestock for the sake of testing. These results merit calls for a wider screening, testing, and isolation of Trichinella spp. in pigs from other Philippine provinces.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Suínos , Trichinella , Triquinelose , Matadouros , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos , Fazendas , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Triquinelose/diagnóstico , Triquinelose/epidemiologia , Triquinelose/veterinária
16.
J Wildl Dis ; 57(2): 429-433, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822166

RESUMO

Trichinella spp. nematodes are commonly found in bear species (Ursidae) and can pose severe health risks to humans when infective first-stage larvae are ingested in meat. Samples of tongue or masseter muscle from 22 male and 11 female American black bears (Ursus americanus; mean age 6.5 yr, range 1-16 yr) and 22 male, eight female, and one unknown sex grizzly bears (Ursus arctos; mean age 8.8 yr, range 2-28 yr), from Yukon, Canada, were tested to determine prevalence and intensity of Trichinella spp. infection. For black bears, prevalence was 20% and mean intensity was 401 larvae per gram of tissue (LPG), whereas for grizzly bears, prevalence was 71%, and mean infection intensity was 35 LPG. Isolates from all positive samples were identified as genotype Trichinella-T6 by multiplex PCR. For black bears, prevalence is the highest reported in Canada and infection intensity the highest recorded in North America. One black bear had a larval burden of 1,173 LPG, the second highest recorded in any host species. The prevalence in grizzly bears was the highest reported in Canada for this host. In total, 90% (27 of 30) of infected bears had infection burdens above the human food safety threshold of ≥1 LPG, reinforcing the importance of communicating the health risks to people consuming bear meat.


Assuntos
Trichinella/isolamento & purificação , Triquinelose/veterinária , Ursidae/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Triquinelose/epidemiologia , Triquinelose/parasitologia , Yukon/epidemiologia
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 146, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Species of Trichinella are globally important foodborne parasites infecting a number of domestic and wild vertebrates, including humans. Free-ranging carnivores can act as sentinel species for detection of Trichinella spp. Knowledge of the epidemiology of these parasites may help prevent Trichinella spp. infections in northern Canadian animals and people. Previous research on Trichinella spp. in wildlife from Yukon did not identify risk factors associated with infection, or the diversity and identity of species of Trichinella in regional circulation, based on geographically extensive sampling with large sample sizes. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we determined the prevalence, infection intensity, risk factors, and species or genotypes of Trichinella in wolverine (Gulo gulo) in two regions of Yukon, Canada, from 2013-2017. A double separatory funnel digestion method followed by mutiplex PCR and PCR-RFLP were used to recover and identify species of Trichinella, respectively. RESULTS: We found larvae of Trichinella in the tongues of 78% (95% CI 73-82) of 338 wolverine sampled. The odds of adult (≥ 2 years) and yearling (1 year) wolverine being Trichinella spp.-positive were four and two times higher, respectively, compared to juveniles (<1 year). The odds of Trichinella spp. presence were three times higher in wolverine from southeast than northwest Yukon. The mean intensity of infection was 22.6 ± 39 (SD, range 0.1-295) larvae per gram. Trichinella T6 was the predominant genotype (76%), followed by T. nativa (8%); mixed infections with Trichinella T6 and T. nativa (12%) were observed. In addition, T. spiralis was detected in one wolverine. Out of 22 isolates initially identified as T. nativa in multiplex PCR, 14 were analyzed by PCR-RFLP to distinguish them from T. chanchalensis, a recently discovered cryptic species, which cannot be distinguished from the T. nativa on multiplex PCR. Ten isolates were identified either as T. chanchalensis alone (n = 7), or mixed infection with T. chanchalensis and T. nativa (n = 2) or T. chanchalensis and Trichinella T6 (n = 1)]. CONCLUSIONS: Wolverine hosted high prevalence, high larval intensity, and multiple species of Trichinella, likely due to their scavenging habits, apex position in the food chain, and wide home range. Wolverine (especially adult males) should be considered as a sentinel species for surveys for Trichinella spp. across their distributional range.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Mustelidae/parasitologia , Trichinella/genética , Triquinelose/epidemiologia , Triquinelose/veterinária , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Língua/parasitologia , Trichinella/classificação , Yukon/epidemiologia
18.
Exp Parasitol ; 224: 108099, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trichinellosis is caused by consumption of raw or undercooked meat containing infective Trichinella muscle larvae (ML). Only few studies on heat-inactivation of Trichinella ML are available in literature and more validated data concerning heat inactivation is needed to improve the risk estimation. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the two in vitro methods "staining" and "morphological examination" as proxies for Trichinella ML heat inactivation in comparison with the mouse bioassay method to get more insight in the relationship between heat, heating time and inactivation of Trichinella ML. The second aim was to evaluate whether these methods could replace the bioassay in the light of ongoing animal use reduction in lifescience research. Tubes containing quantified live Trichinella ML were exposed to heat profiles ranging from 40 to 80 °C. Subsequently, inactivation was evaluated using both methylene blue staining and morphological examination, which was validated by bioassay. Results were used to model Trichinella inactivation. RESULTS: Trichinella muscle larvae exposed to 60 °C or higher for 12-12.5 min were not infective to mice. We found that morphological examination was more consistent with the bioassay than methylene blue staining. Modelled inactivation fitted experimental data consistently. Moreover, this study shows that larval Trichinella morphology may be used in situations where bioassays are not possible or prohibited. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between heat and inactivation of larvae obtained from this study could be used in Trichinella QMRA models to improve quantification of the risk of Trichinella infection.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Músculos/parasitologia , Trichinella/fisiologia , Animais , Bioensaio , Culinária/normas , Temperatura Alta , Azul de Metileno , Camundongos , Coloração e Rotulagem , Fatores de Tempo
19.
J Wildl Dis ; 57(1): 211-214, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635979

RESUMO

Little information exists on the occurrence of Trichinella spp. in cougars (Puma concolor) throughout North and South America. However, species distribution models (SDM) can be used to predict suitable habitat for elusive species with limited occurrence data. In 2018, we used existing occurrence data to estimate the suitable habitat and ecological drivers of Trichinella species in cougars from the southwestern region of Colorado, US from winter months. Environmental layers were constructed and an SDM was then created for the southwestern region of Colorado. The final model (area under the curve=0.73) found areas of suitable habitat for Trichinella spp. to be associated with lower elevation, lower temperature, and higher proportions of evergreen needleleaf forests and grasslands. These results might indicate potential transmission hotspots for Trichinella spp. in the southwestern region of Colorado for where cougars are consuming infected hosts and where cougars can transmit to other hosts, including humans. However, due to limited occurrence data, more suitable habitat likely exists.


Assuntos
Puma/parasitologia , Trichinella/isolamento & purificação , Triquinelose/veterinária , Animais , Colorado , Triquinelose/epidemiologia , Triquinelose/parasitologia
20.
J Wildl Dis ; 57(1): 116-124, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635991

RESUMO

Herbivores can be accidental hosts for the zoonotic nematode parasites Trichinella spp., which are endemic at high prevalence in wildlife in northeastern Europe. Using direct and indirect detection methods for Trichinella spp., we investigated samples from 463 wild moose (Alces alces) harvested by hunters in Estonia in 2015. A total of 460 moose were tested directly by artificial digestion of diaphragm muscle, 463 moose were tested indirectly by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and 34 moose also by western blot. Positive-control reference sera were from other host species. Nematode larvae were found in six muscle samples; five of which were pooled samples. None of the larvae were identified as Trichinella spp., based on their morphology and molecular analyses. Twelve moose (2.6%) were positive by ELISA, but none were positive by the western blot test. Trichinella spp. infection was not detected, but ELISA results may suggest Trichinella spp. exposure in a small proportion of moose in Estonia.


Assuntos
Cervos/parasitologia , Trichinella/isolamento & purificação , Triquinelose/veterinária , Animais , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Estônia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Triquinelose/epidemiologia , Triquinelose/parasitologia
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