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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248032, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278557

RESUMO

Abstract A new species of nematode parasite of the subfamily Pudicinae (Heligmosomoidea: Heligmonellidae) is described from the small intestine of Proechimys simonsi (Rodentia: Echimyidae) from the locality of Nova Cintra in the municpality of Rodrigues Alves, Acre state, Brazil. The genus Pudica includes 15 species parasites of Neotropical rodents of the families Caviidae, Ctenomyidae, Dasyproctidae, Echimyidae, Erethizontidae, and Myocastoridae. Four species of this nematode were found parasitizing three different species rodents of the genus Proechimys in the Amazon biome. Pudica wandiquei n. sp. can be differentiated from all other Pudica species by the distance between the ends of rays 6 and 8 and the 1-3-1 pattern of the caudal bursa in both lobes.


Resumo Uma nova espécie de nematódeo da subfamília Pudicinae (Heligmosomoidea: Heligmonellidae) é descrito parasitando o intestino delgado de Proechimys simonsi (Rodentia: Echimyidae) em Nova Cintra, município de Rodrigues Alves, Estado do Acre, Brasil. O gênero Pudica inclui 15 espécies parasitas de roedores Neotropicais das famílias: Caviidae, Ctenomyidae, Dasyproctidae, Echimyidae, Erethizontidae e Myocastoridae. Destas, quatro espécies de nematódeos foram encontradas parasitando três diferentes espécies do roedor Proechimys no bioma Amazônia. Pudica wandiquei n. sp. é diferente das outras espécies de Pudica pela distância entre os raios 6 e 8 e pelo tipo da bolsa caudal, que é 1-3-1 em ambos os lados.


Assuntos
Animais , Parasitos , Trichostrongyloidea , Nematoides , Roedores , Brasil
2.
J Parasitol ; 108(5): 435-440, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36197731

RESUMO

A new species of AlippistrongylusDigiani and Kinsella, 2014, was found in the intestines of the elegant rice rat, Euryoryzomys nitidus, collected in the Amazon rainforest. These mammals were preserved in alcohol and archived in the Colección Científica de Mamíferos del Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad Mayor de San Marcos and accessed for the observation and investigation for the diversity of their endo-parasites. A total of 857 worms were recovered from the 3 individuals examined. Morphological investigations and comparisons with the only known species of the genus indicate that this is an undescribed species. These nematodes feature the diagnostic characteristic of the genus, being a bifurcated posterior end that consists of a tail and a conical appendage near the level of the vulva and uninterrupted ridges in the synlophe of unequal size. However, the orientation of this conical appendage on the female tail, features of the synlophe, and shape of the copulatory bursa warrant the proposal of an amended diagnosis to include character variability detected in the new species.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Trichostrongyloidea , Animais , Feminino , Peru/epidemiologia , Sigmodontinae/parasitologia , Trichostrongyloidea/anatomia & histologia
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 341, 2022 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36167594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wildlife hosts may serve as reservoirs for strongyles, which can be transmitted to domestic livestock. Therefore, studies evaluating nemabiome compositions in wildlife ruminants are of great use in assessing the possibility of transmission of important nematode pathogens to domestic sheep in Sweden. METHODS: First, fecal samples were collected from roe deer (n = 125), fallow deer (n = 106), red deer (n = 18) and mouflon (n = 13) in south central Sweden during the hunting season in 2019. Second, after fecal examination samples were cultured and the larvae were harvested, followed by DNA extractions. Third, all samples were barcoded and processed for sequence analysis on the PacBio platform. Finally, bioinformatic sequence analysis was conducted with DADA2, while species diversity and richness, as well as interactions between the different hosts, were calculated and analyzed in R. RESULTS: Nematode ITS2 sequences were found in 225 of 262 (86%) samples. In total, 31 taxa were identified, among which 26 (86%) to the species level. These were found in different combinations, among which 24 (77%) occurred in roe deer, 19 (61%) in fallow deer, 20 (65%) in red deer and 10 (32%) in mouflon. Five of the species found are known to be associated with livestock (Chabertia ovina, Haemonchus contortus, Oesophagostomum venulosum, Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus axei). However, in the present study the relative abundance and prevalence of most of these species were low. The most striking exception was T. axei, which was relatively abundant in all wildlife hosts. Mostly a wide range of wildlife specific nematodes such as Ostertagia leptospicularis and Spiculopteragia spp. were identified including the invasive nematode Spiculopteragia houdemeri, which was found for the first time in red deer, fallow deer, and mouflon in Sweden. The difference in the number of shared species between mouflon and all cervids (n = 6) was less than among all three cervids (n = 8). CONCLUSION: In this study, we investigated the community structure of parasitic intestinal nematodes in four wildlife hosts, and we found that the majority of the parasite species identified were wildlife specific. We also found a new, potentially invasive species not reported before. After comparing the nemabiome of the wildlife hosts in this study with a previous study in sheep from the same geographical region, we conclude that the horizontal transmission potential appears to be relatively low. Still, cross-infections of nematodes between game and sheep cannot be completely ignored.


Assuntos
Cervos , Nematoides , Infecções por Nematoides , Parasitos , Trichostrongyloidea , Adenosina Desaminase , Animais , Animais Selvagens , DNA , Cervos/parasitologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Ostertagia , Ruminantes , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico , Suécia/epidemiologia , Trichostrongyloidea/genética
4.
Vet Parasitol ; 310: 109777, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35985170

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are amongst the most important pathogens of grazing ruminants worldwide, resulting in negative impacts on cattle health and production. The dynamics of infection are driven in large part by the influence of climate and weather on free-living stages on pasture, and computer models have been developed to predict infective larval abundance and guide management strategies. Significant uncertainties around key model parameters limits effective application of these models to GIN in cattle, however, and these parameters are difficult to estimate in natural populations of mixed GIN species. In this paper, recent advances in molecular biology, specifically ITS-2 rDNA 'nemabiome' metabarcoding, are synthesised with a modern population dynamic model, GLOWORM-FL, to overcome this limitation. Experiments under controlled conditions were used to estimate rainfall constraints on migration of infective L3 larvae out of faeces, and their survival in faeces and soil across a temperature gradient, with nemabiome metabarcoding data permitting species-specific estimates for Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora in mixed natural populations. Results showed that L3 of both species survived well in faeces and soil between 0 and 30 °C, and required at least 5 mm of rainfall daily to migrate out of faeces, with the proportion migrating increasing with the amount of rainfall. These estimates were applied within the model using weather and grazing data and use to predict patterns of larval availability on pasture on three commercial beef farms in western Canada. The model performed well overall in predicting the observed seasonal patterns but some discrepancies were evident which should guide further iterative improvements in model development and field methods. The model was also applied to illustrate its use in exploring differences in predicted seasonal transmission patterns in different regions. Such predictive modelling can help inform evidence-based parasite control strategies which are increasingly needed due climate change and drug resistance. The work presented here also illustrates the added value of combining molecular biology and population dynamics to advance predictive understanding of parasite infections.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Nematoides , Infecções por Nematoides , Trichostrongyloidea , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Larva , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Ostertagia/genética , Dinâmica Populacional , Solo , Trichostrongyloidea/genética
5.
Ann Parasitol ; 68(2): 297-304, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35810362

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal nematodes are leading causes of loss in livestock and are the primary restriction to its profitable production, worldwide. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence and diversity of sheep abomasum nematode species in Urmia (Iran) and Soran (Iraq) slaughterhouses from October 2019 to January 2021. A total of 280 abomasa (each city 140 samples) were randomly collected from the slaughtered sheep. The abomasal content and mucosa were removed and washed. The collected nematodes were morphologically identified. Genomic DNA was extracted from identified nematodes and a fragment from the internal transcribed spacer 2 ribosomal ribonucleic acid (ITS2-rDNA) gene was amplified. In Urmia city, two species including Teladorsagia circumcincta (40.7%), and two morphotypes of Marshallagia species; Marshallagia marshalli (35.0%) and M. trifida (4.3%) were identified. In Urmia city, 52.9% of the examined sheep were infected with at least one species of nematodes. The overall prevalence of abomasa infection with nematodes in Soran city was 91.4%. In the examined sheep abomasa in Soran city, four species of nematodes were identified, including Marshallagia species with two morphotypes, M. marshalli (85.0%) and M. trifida (20.7%), Teladorsagia circumcincta (32.1%), Parabronema skrjabini (1.4%), and Haemonchus contortus (0.7%). Except for H. contortus, all the other identified nematode species were confirmed using molecular techniques. It was concluded that abomasal nematode infections are widespread in sheep particularly in Soran city. Marshallagia marshalli and T. circumcincta were most prevalent nematodes in both regions. In addition, further molecular studies are recommended to understand the intra-specific variations in the genus Marshallagia and more accurate identification of morphotypes in these regions.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Infecções por Nematoides , Doenças dos Ovinos , Trichostrongyloidea , Abomaso , Animais , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Iraque/epidemiologia , Nematoides/genética , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9796, 2022 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35697723

RESUMO

The developing brain is particularly vulnerable to factors including maternal infection during pregnancy. Establishment of neural networks critical for memory and cognition begins during the perinatal period, when Heligmosomoides bakeri, a gastrointestinal (GI) nematode restricted to the maternal mouse intestine, has been shown to upregulate expression of long-term potentiation genes in the young rodent pup brain. We explored the impact of maternal infection during pregnancy and early lactation on the spatial behavior of uninfected male and female juvenile mice. Pre-weaned pups of H. bakeri infected dams exhibited less exploratory behaviour compared to pups of uninfected dams on postnatal day (PD) 16 but not PD 17, possibly reflecting a transient fear of an unfamiliar environment and/or a brief neurodevelopmental delay. Our two spatial memory tests show for the first time an enhancement of spatial memory in response to maternal nematode infection regardless of pup sex. At PD 17, pups of infected dams expressed object location memories after 3 h in the Object Location Test whereas offspring of uninfected mothers did not. In addition, at PD 34, juveniles of infected mothers retained their ability to find the escape hole in the Barnes Maze Test for one week whereas offspring from uninfected mothers did not. This finding is even more striking given that spatial memory was positively associated with pup length, yet this maternal infection impaired linear growth of pups. Thus, the positive impact of maternal infection on spatial memory countered any impairment associated with the shorter length of the pups. Overall, these novel findings indicate that a maternal GI nematode infection during pregnancy and lactation positively influences the spatial memory of uninfected juvenile offspring with potential fitness implications for the next generation.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Gastroenteropatias , Infecções por Nematoides , Trichostrongyloidea , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis/complicações , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/complicações , Humanos , Lactação , Masculino , Comportamento Materno , Camundongos , Infecções por Nematoides/genética , Gravidez , Memória Espacial
7.
Parasitology ; 149(9): 1199-1218, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35621015

RESUMO

Citellinema Hall, 1918 includes 6 valid species of gastrointestinal nematodes of sciurids. Two species occur in the Palearctic and 4 in the Nearctic, 3 of which occur minimally across Colorado, Idaho and Oregon and 1, Citellinema bifurcatum, has a wide distribution across North America. Members of the genus are didelphic, possess a cephalic vesicle, a terminal spine-like process in females and feature robust spicules, consisting of a proximal end fused and semicylindrical shaft connected to a lamina supported by 2 terminal filiform processes. Typically, the size of the spicules is used to differentiate species. As part of the Beringian Coevolution Project, specimens provisionally identified as C. bifurcatum were collected through intensive field sampling of mammals and associated parasites from across localities spanning the Holarctic. These specimens revealed considerable genetic variability at both mitochondrial and nuclear loci, supporting the identification of deeply divergent clades. Examination of these new specimens, along with the holotypes of C. bifurcatum and Citellinema quadrivittati indicates that Citellinema monacis (previously synonymized with C. bifurcatum) should be resurrected and 3 additional species described. We suggest that the apparent bifurcated nature of the spicule should be considered a generic diagnostic trait, while the proportional length of the lamina relative to that of the spicule is used as a specific character. We demonstrate the critical need for continued inventory of often poorly known assemblages of hosts and parasites, contributing to a growing baseline of archival specimens, collections and information that make explorations of faunal structure and diversity possible.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Parasitos , Trichostrongyloidea , Animais , Canadá , Feminino , Marmota , América do Norte , Sciuridae/parasitologia
8.
Parasitol Int ; 89: 102585, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35427777

RESUMO

Pudica trichomysae n. sp. (Trichostrongylina, Heligmosomoidea, Helligmonellidae, Pudicinae) from the small intestine of Trichomys fosteri (Rodentia: Echimydae) from the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul is described by light and scanning electron microscopy. Pudica trichomysae n. sp. is characterized by caudal bursa type 2-2-1, proportion of spicules length in relation to body length (SpL/BL) of 17 to 18% left and right, respectively. Dorsal ray divided at about the distal third into two branches, each branch divided into two long sub-branches, rays 9 and 10. Furthermore, this study shows for the first time details of the anterior region demonstrating papillae organization, amphids, derides, and opening of the excretory pore. The posterior end of the caudal bursa showed detail of the genital cone, papillae, and ray 1, and in the female, it showed interrupted ridges between the vulva and anus. In conclusion, the present species is the seventeenth described in the genus in South America and the first in Pantanal.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Parasitos , Trichostrongyloidea , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Roedores/parasitologia
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 25, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35033166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to increased anthelmintic resistance, alternative methods to drugs are necessary to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs). Some of the most promising alternatives are based on the immune response of the host, such as the selection of genetically resistant breeds or the use of vaccines against these parasites. Given the limited information available on the immune response against GINs in goats, this study investigated the local immune response of goat kids of an indigenous Canary Islands breed (Majorera breed) experimentally infected with Teladorsagia circumcincta, one of the most pathogenic and prevalent GIN species. METHODS: For this purpose, the relationship between different parasitological (number of mature and immature worms, worm length, and number of intrauterine eggs) and immunological parameters at the local level (related to both the humoral and cellular immune response) was analyzed at early (1 week post-infection [wpi]) and late (8 wpi) stages of infection. RESULTS: Primary infection of goat kids with T. circumcincta infective larvae (L3) generated a complex immune response that could be defined as Th2 type, characterized by increased infiltration in abomasal tissues of several effector cells as well as a progressive presence of specific antibodies against parasitic antigens in the gastric mucus. Cellular responses were evidenced from 1 wpi onward, showing an increase in antigen-presenting cells and various lymphocyte subsets in the gastric mucosa. CONCLUSIONS: The complexity of the host response was evidenced by statistically significant changes in the number of all these subpopulations (MHCII+, CD4+, CD8+, γδ+, CD45R+, IgA+, and IgG+), as well as in the evolution of the relative cytokine gene expression. From a functional point of view, negative associations were observed between the number of most of the immune cells (CD4, IgA, IgG, and CD45R cells) and parameters that could be related to the fecundity of worms, a phenomenon that was especially evident when the number of IgG and CD45R cells or the specific IgA levels of the gastric mucus were compared with parasitological parameters such as the female worm length or fecal egg counts at 8 wpi.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/imunologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Trichostrongyloidea/imunologia , Tricostrongiloidíase/veterinária , Abomaso/imunologia , Abomaso/parasitologia , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/imunologia , Mucosa Gástrica/parasitologia , Cabras , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Espanha , Tricostrongiloidíase/imunologia , Tricostrongiloidíase/parasitologia
10.
Parasitol Res ; 121(2): 633-644, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35076776

RESUMO

Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) is a well-established faunal element in the Czech Republic, even though, historically, its populations were almost eradicated in this region. Nowadays, its distribution and population density are well monitored; nonetheless, the beaver's parasites, as potential threats to the environment, are often neglected in wildlife management. Therefore, we investigated the endoparasitic helminth diversity of 15 beaver individuals from three collection sites in the Czech Republic. Three parasite species were collected: Stichorchis subtriquetrus (Digenea), Travassosius rufus, and Calodium hepaticum (Nematoda), of which the two nematode species were reported for the first time from C. fiber in the Czech Republic. The highest prevalence and intensity of infection were observed in S. subtriquetrus (P = 93%, I = 1-138), while the two other species were collected only from one beaver individual. Subsequent analysis of the genetic diversity of the specimens using highly variable genetic markers revealed a weak population structure among the individuals collected from different beaver hosts. There was only a weak association of COI haplotypes with geography, as the haplotypes from the Berounka basin formed homogeneous groups, and individuals from the Dyje basin and Morava partially shared a haplotype. Even though common population genetic markers (i.e., microsatellites) did not reveal any structure in the hosts, our results suggest that the genetic diversity of their parasites may shed more light on population partition and the historical migration routes of Eurasian beavers.


Assuntos
Trematódeos , Trichostrongyloidea , Animais , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Humanos , Roedores
11.
Acta Parasitol ; 67(2): 678-686, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013941

RESUMO

AIM: This study was designed to investigate if culturing nematophagous fungi (NF) in the presence of a Haemonchus contortus larva crude extract (HcCE) enhances the nematocidal activity of nematophagous fungi liquid culture filtrates (NFCF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four NF Arthrobotrys oligospora, A. musiformis, Duddingtonia flagrans and Clonostachys rosea were cultured in flasks (n = 5) containing Czapek-Dox broth medium (CDB) in the presence or absence of HcCE. NFCF recovered by filtration of each fungus (200 mg/mL) were assessed on H. contortus infective larvae (L3) using 96-well micro-titer plates (n = 4). Additionally, CDB and water were considered negative controls, while Ivermectin acted as a positive control. After 48 h confrontation, ten 10-µL aliquots of each well were deposited on slides and observed under the microscope (40 ×). Dead and alive larvae in the aliquots were quantified, and a mortality rate (MR) was estimated. RESULTS: The MR of the different NFCF was greatly enhanced by the presence of HcCE. The four NF incubated in the absence of HcCE showed low mortality percentages from 8.2 to 25.8%; in contrast, when the assessed NF growth in the presence of HcCE showed a lethal activity ranging from 66.8 to 80.5%. Only C. rosea showed a moderate increase in the presence of the elicitor (42.7%). CONCLUSION: This study shows evidence about the HcCE enhances the production of nematocidal activity in NFCF. Future studies should be performed to elucidate the compounds responsible of the nematocidal activity that could have important implications in the control of sheep haemonchosis.


Assuntos
Haemonchus , Nematoides , Trichostrongyloidea , Animais , Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Misturas Complexas , Fezes , Haemonchus/microbiologia , Larva/microbiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Ovinos
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 17, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The species composition of cattle gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) communities can vary greatly between regions. Despite this, there is remarkably little large-scale surveillance data for cattle GIN species which is due, at least in part, to a lack of scalable diagnostic tools. This lack of regional GIN species-level data represents a major knowledge gap for evidence-based parasite management and assessing the status and impact of factors such as climate change and anthelmintic drug resistance. METHODS: This paper presents a large-scale survey of GIN in beef herds across western Canada using ITS-2 rDNA nemabiome metabarcoding. Individual fecal samples were collected from 6 to 20 randomly selected heifers (n = 1665) from each of 85 herds between September 2016 and February 2017 and 10-25 first season calves (n = 824) from each of 42 herds between November 2016 and February 2017. RESULTS: Gastrointestinal nematode communities in heifers and calves were similar in Alberta and Saskatchewan, with Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora being the predominant GIN species in all herds consistent with previous studies. However, in Manitoba, Cooperia punctata was the predominant species overall and the most abundant GIN species in calves from 4/8 beef herds. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed a marked regional heterogeneity of GIN species in grazing beef herds in western Canada. The predominance of C. punctata in Manitoba is unexpected, as although this parasite is often the predominant cattle GIN species in more southerly latitudes, it is generally only a minor component of cattle GIN communities in northern temperate regions. We hypothesize that the unexpected predominance of C. punctata at such a northerly latitude represents a range expansion, likely associated with changes in climate, anthelmintic use, management, and/or animal movement. Whatever the cause, these results are of practical concern since C. punctata is more pathogenic than C. oncophora, the Cooperia species that typically predominates in cooler temperate regions. Finally, this study illustrates the value of ITS-2 rDNA nemabiome metabarcoding as a surveillance tool for ruminant GIN parasites.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Trichostrongyloidea/classificação , Tricostrongiloidíase/veterinária , Alberta/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/veterinária , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Ecossistema , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Masculino , Manitoba/epidemiologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Saskatchewan/epidemiologia , Trichostrongyloidea/genética , Trichostrongyloidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tricostrongiloidíase/epidemiologia , Tricostrongiloidíase/parasitologia
13.
Acta Parasitol ; 67(1): 560-563, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263441

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to supplement the data concerning the spreading of nematode Ashworthius sidemi among wild ruminants in Russia. METHODS: The samples of A. sidemi were collected from two fallow deer, which were born and raised in the game farm in Smolensk region (55° 16' N-34° 29' E). The affiliation of the detected nematodes as A. sidemi was made using morphological features (shape of the spicules and the dorsal ray of bursa for males, as well as the presence and shape of the neodont in the buccal cavity for males and females). RESULTS: The intensity of infection in 2 studied fallow deer was 7 and 19 individuals of A. sidemi. All of the specimens of A. sidemi had the features of juvenile forms. The registration of fallow deer as another one host of A. sidemi in Russia indicates a further spreading of this nematode and confirms the necessity of strengthening the control of this parasite. CONCLUSION: The finding of this nematode in non-native captive animals shows the imperfection of control in this sphere. A. sidemi could have been introduced to the game farm both with imported or with native animals due to insufficient quarantine and isolation. More wide further research would be useful in the light of control this potentially dangerous parasite.


Assuntos
Cervos , Nematoides , Trichostrongyloidea , Abomaso/parasitologia , Animais , Cervos/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Federação Russa/epidemiologia
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(1)2022 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36613497

RESUMO

The increasing resistance to anthelmintics has necessitated the exploration of alternative control strategies of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections. A sustainable option is genetic selection based on differences in susceptibility to GIN infection between and within breeds of sheep. Here, three-month-old Canaria Hair breed (GIN-resistant) and Canaria Sheep breed (GIN-susceptible) showed no significant between-breed differences after trickle infection with Teladorsagia circumcincta, whereas considerable individual variability was found in both breeds. Next, data from lambs of both breeds were used to explore the relationships between parasitological variables and T. circumcincta-specific IgA levels, local immune cell populations, and abomasal lymph node gene expression to understand the possible mechanisms underlying resistance. Mucosal IgA levels as well as numbers of globular leukocytes and MHC-II+ cells were associated with protection. Analysis of lymph node gene expression revealed the associations between lower parasite numbers and cumulative fecal egg counts and several immune pathways, such as leukocyte cell adhesion, activation and differentiation of T cells, in particular CD4+ and IL-4 production. The data obtained here may inform on the relationship between phenotypic resistance variability and protective responses at the humoral, cellular, and transcriptomic levels, thus contributing to identifying immune responses in young lambs that could be used as markers for selection.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias , Doenças dos Ovinos , Tricostrongiloidíase , Animais , Fezes , Imunoglobulina A/genética , Ovinos/genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/genética , Transcriptoma , Trichostrongyloidea , Tricostrongiloidíase/imunologia , Tricostrongiloidíase/veterinária
15.
Parasite ; 28: 80, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34889736

RESUMO

Hassalstrongylus dollfusi (Díaz-Ungría, 1963) Durette-Desset, 1971 was described in a wild house mouse, Mus musculus, from Venezuela and, since then, has never been reported again in the type host or in any other host. In this work, specimens assignable to H. dollfusi were found at 10 localities in Northeast Argentina, in five species of sigmodontine rodents. The nematodes were attributed to H. dollfusi based on diagnostic characters such as: synlophe with 22-31 subequal ridges; in males, hypertrophy of right ray 4 of the male bursa, thickening of the dorsal ray and bases of rays 8, distal tip of the spicules bent and spoon shaped; and, in females, presence of subventral postvulvar alae supported by hypertrophied struts. The new host recorded are: Oligoryzomys fornesi, O. flavescens, O. nigripes, Holochilus chacarius and Akodon azarae. The parasite showed a strong preference for host species of Oligoryzomys, which appear to act as primary hosts. The parasite could be present, parasitizing different species of Oligoryzomys, in a geographic area from the type locality in Venezuela southward to north Corrientes in Argentina. It has not been reported from populations of Oligoryzomys spp. of the Argentinean and Brazilian Atlantic Forest, nor south of 28° S, which may be explained by constraints in the environmental conditions required by the free-living stages of the parasite. This study provides the first identification and redescription of H. dollfusi in southern South America, from autochthonous hosts, six decades after its description.


TITLE: Hassalstrongylus dollfusi (Nematoda, Heligmonellidae) : redécouverte chez des rongeurs autochtones d'Amérique du Sud, six décennies après sa description. ABSTRACT: Hassalstrongylus dollfusi (Díaz-Ungría, 1963) Durette-Desset, 1971 a été décrit chez une souris grise sauvage, Mus musculus, au Venezuela et, depuis lors, n'a plus jamais été signalé chez l'hôte-type ni chez aucun autre hôte. Dans ce travail, des spécimens attribuables à H. dollfusi ont été trouvés dans dix localités du nord-est de l'Argentine, chez cinq espèces de rongeurs Sigmodontinae. Les nématodes ont été attribués à H. dollfusi sur la base de caractères diagnostiques tels que : synlophe avec 22­31 crêtes subégales; chez le mâle, hypertrophie de la côte 4 droite de la bourse, épaississement de la côte dorsale et des bases des côtes 8, extrémité distale des spicules recourbée et en forme de cuillère; et, chez les femelles, présence d'ailes postvulvaires subventrales à fort support cuticulaire. Les nouveaux hôtes signalés sont : Oligoryzomys fornesi, O. flavescens, O. nigripes, Holochilus chacarius et Akodon azarae. Le parasite a montré une forte préférence pour les espèces hôtes du genre Oligoryzomys, qui semblent agir comme hôtes primaires. Le parasite pourrait être présent, parasitant différentes espèces d'Oligoryzomys, dans une zone géographique allant de la localité-type au Vénézuéla vers le sud jusqu'au nord de Corrientes en Argentine. Il n'a pas été signalé dans les populations d'Oligoryzomys spp. de la Forêt Atlantique argentine et brésilienne, ni au sud de 28° S, ce qui peut s'expliquer par des contraintes dans les conditions environnementales requises par les stades libres du parasite. Cette étude fournit la première identification et redescription d'H. dollfusi dans le sud de l'Amérique du Sud, à partir d'hôtes autochtones, six décennies après sa description.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Doenças dos Roedores , Trichostrongyloidea , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Roedores
16.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 371, 2021 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34863161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and analyze the molecular characteristics based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 2 region of the ribosomal RNA (RNA) gene of trichostrongylid nematodes in different ruminants from Guilan province, northern of Iran. METHODS: The gastrointestinal tracts of 144 ruminants including 72 cattle, 59 sheep, and 13 goats were collected from an abattoir in Guilan province during July to September 2018. After isolation the helminths, male specimens were identified based on morphological parameters. PCR and partial sequencing of the ITS2 fragment were conducted. After phylogenetic analysis, the intraspecific and interspecific differences were calculated. RESULTS: The prevalence of total infections with the nematodes was 38.9, 74.6 and 84.6% among cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. Eleven species of trichostrongylid nematodes including Haemonchus contortus, Marshallagia marshalli, Trichostrongylus axei, T. colubriformis, T. vitrinus, Ostertagia trifurcata, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Marshallagia occidentalis, O. lyrata, O. ostertagi, and Cooperia punctate were recovered from the ruminants. The most prevalent trichostrongyloid nematodes in cattle, sheep and goats were O. ostertagi (26.4%), M. marshalli (64.4%) and T. circumcincta (69.2%), respectively. Phylogenetic tree was discriminative for Trichostrongylidae family, while phylogenetic analysis of the ITS2 gene represented low variations and no species identification of Haemonchidae and Cooperiidae families. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests the high prevalence and species diversity of trichostrongyloid nematodes in different ruminants, indicating the importance of implement antiparasitic strategies in north regions of Iran. As well, this study showed that the ITS2 fragment is not a discriminative marker for Haemonchidae and Cooperiidae families, and investigation of other genetic markers such as mitochondrial genes would be more valuable for better understanding of their phylogenetic relationships.


Assuntos
Ruminantes/parasitologia , Trichostrongyloidea , Tricostrongiloidíase/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Filogenia , Prevalência , Ovinos/parasitologia , Trichostrongyloidea/classificação , Trichostrongyloidea/isolamento & purificação , Tricostrongiloidíase/epidemiologia
17.
J Helminthol ; 95: e69, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802477

RESUMO

Nematode spicules vary in shape and size even between closely related species and, therefore, constitute key characters in nematode taxonomy for distinguishing between species. Spicules are seldom measured on fresh specimens, but rather at some time after extraction from culled hosts and after a period of preservation of the worms in chemical fixatives or by freezing. We carried out two experiments to assess the effects of freezing in Hanks' balanced salt solution, 70% or 80% ethanol and 10% formalin (both of the latter at room temperature and after storage at -80°C) on spicule length of Heligmosomoides bakeri at two time intervals after extraction from mice (Experiment 1, one and four weeks; Experiment 2, one and four months). In Experiment 1, no significant differences were detected, although there was some variation between treatments and over time. In Experiment 2, spicule length varied significantly between treatments and over time, the greatest shrinkage being in 80% ethanol and the least in 10% formalin. However, overall variation in spicule length was very limited, accounting for no more than 5.03% change in length over time and 4.95% between treatments at any of the periods of assessment. Therefore, while whole nematodes can shrivel and shrink in preservatives, making many measurements unreliable, our data indicated that spicule lengths are very little changed by preservation techniques over time, and so spicule length remains as a reliable taxonomic character.


Assuntos
Heligmosomatoidea , Nematoides , Trichostrongyloidea , Animais , Camundongos
18.
Parasitol Res ; 120(12): 3979-3986, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647169

RESUMO

Classic approaches for antemortem identification of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) require coproculture of eggs and morphological examination. While adequate for diagnosis, many PCR techniques cannot easily quantify mixed infections without controls and/or standard curves. Herein, we developed a simple and rapid test for differentiating and quantifying mixed infections of GIN using PCR products separated by capillary electrophoresis. Among the cattle GIN, the ITS2 region is sufficiently distinct in length to delineate among the most common infecting genera, Ostertagia ostertagi = 373 bases (b), Haemonchus contortus (placei) = 366b, Cooperia punctata (oncophora) = 376b, Trichostrongylus axei = 372b, and Oesophagostomum radiatum = 357b. Conserved primers were synthesized that span the ITS2 where one primer was fluorescently labeled with 6-FAM. DNAs from infective L3 were PCR amplified then loaded onto an ABI 3130 sequencer adapted for size fragment analysis. Resulting peak amplitudes were both diagnostic and quantitative on a relative basis. As proof of principle, quantification was performed on PCR fragments from mixed species pairs of Ostertagia ostertagi, Cooperia punctata, and Haemonchus contortus and analyzed using Gene Marker V1.85 software. In all cases, linear responses were observed where R2 > 0.97 and line slopes ranged between 0.90 and 1.1. When tested on eggs from naturally infected animals, the assay showed superior results on two farms when compared to coproculture and morphological identification. Using wildlife-derived samples, results coincided well with deep amplicon sequencing. The assay is adaptable to large-scale studies, does not require comparative PCR controls, and should be compliant with GIN from small ruminant livestock.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Haemonchus , Nematoides , Infecções por Nematoides , Trichostrongyloidea , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Nematoides/genética , Infecções por Nematoides/diagnóstico , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Ostertagia , Trichostrongyloidea/genética
19.
J Helminthol ; 95: e45, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412717

RESUMO

The spicules of male parasitic nematodes are key morphological features, which vary between species in shape and length and are used often for species identification. However, little is known about spicules and particularly if/how their length varies during growth. We first assessed the degree of variation in spicule length of male Heligmosomoides bakeri 21 days post infection (PI), and then in two follow-up experiments measured spicule lengths at half daily/daily intervals between days 6 and 14 PI. Mean spicule length in 21-day worms was 0.518 mm with a range of 94 µm, and variation between the two spicules of individual worms from 2 to 32 µm. Spicules were first detectable on day 6-6.5, after which their lengths increased until day 7 PI (mean = 0.61 and 0.59). This was followed by significant contraction, initially relatively quickly over the following 48 h and then more slowly over a longer period, stabilizing by days 10-14, with only minor further reduction in length. We conclude that the length of spicules varies significantly over the first few days after they have formed, and, consequently, the age of worms is an important factor for consideration when spicule lengths are measured for experimental/diagnostic or taxonomical purposes.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Trichostrongyloidea , Animais , Masculino
20.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248032, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259782

RESUMO

A new species of nematode parasite of the subfamily Pudicinae (Heligmosomoidea: Heligmonellidae) is described from the small intestine of Proechimys simonsi (Rodentia: Echimyidae) from the locality of Nova Cintra in the municpality of Rodrigues Alves, Acre state, Brazil. The genus Pudica includes 15 species parasites of Neotropical rodents of the families Caviidae, Ctenomyidae, Dasyproctidae, Echimyidae, Erethizontidae, and Myocastoridae. Four species of this nematode were found parasitizing three different species rodents of the genus Proechimys in the Amazon biome. Pudica wandiquei n. sp. can be differentiated from all other Pudica species by the distance between the ends of rays 6 and 8 and the 1-3-1 pattern of the caudal bursa in both lobes.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Parasitos , Trichostrongyloidea , Animais , Brasil , Roedores
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