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1.
Talanta ; 237: 122983, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736703

RESUMO

This work presents an all-in-one origami paper-based electrochemical platform for simple and inexpensive l-cysteine (Cys) detection using Cys as a monomer for modifying electrode surfaces. The proposed method combines the steps of electropolymerization and detection into a single device to offer a highly convenient method for the end-user. In comparison, the sensitivity toward Cys detection is a significantly increased using this modified electrode. The developed device provided a linear concentration range of 10-800 µM with a limit of detection of 5.5 µM. For application, the device was successfully applied to detect Cys in different food products such as wheat flour, bread, and cake with satisfactory results, yielding excellent intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (1.5-4.9%) and recoveries (84.2-110.8%). This discovery is important from the viewpoint of the development of Cys detection in other applications in the future.


Assuntos
Cisteína , Farinha , Eletrodos , Limite de Detecção , Triticum
2.
Food Chem ; 371: 131102, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537616

RESUMO

The effect of egg white protein addition on the fibrous structure and protein aggregation of textured wheat gluten (TWG) extrudates was investigated. The hardness, springiness, chewiness, and degree of texturization of TWG significantly increased with the addition of egg white protein. Analysis of morphological characteristics showed a positive effect of egg white protein on the formation of the fibrous structure of TWG. The results of size-exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC) indicated that the egg white protein improved the degree of wheat gluten aggregation, and the analysis of the protein intermolecular forces proved that disulfide bonds were the main contributor to the cross-linking of protein. In addition, an increase in the ß-sheets also indicated an increase in protein aggregation induced by egg white protein. The addition of egg white protein promoted protein interactions and improved the fibrous structure of TWG.


Assuntos
Agregados Proteicos , Triticum , Proteínas do Ovo , Glutens , Dureza
3.
Food Chem ; 371: 131095, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537618

RESUMO

This study evaluated the influence of the main gluten fractions (gliadin and glutenin) on the physicochemical properties of binary wheat starch-Lauric acid (WS-LA) complexes during heat processing to explore the complex structure and digestion of WS-LA in the presence of gluten. Ternary WS-LA-glutenin complexes were prepared at different pH (5.2 and 7), whereas WS-LA-gliadin was prepared using ethanol, and their physicochemical properties were analyzed. We found that the addition of glutenin displayed a sharper and higher diffraction peak than samples without protein, which increased short-range order structure (low full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the band at 480 cm-1) and good thermal stability (melting peak appeared at a higher temperature); the opposite was shown for gliadin. Even though glutenin increased the resistant starch (RS) content than WS-LA, all samples prepared in 65% ethanol showed higher RS content than WS-LA-glutenin samples. These findings might improve our understanding of the relationship between gliadin/glutenin and binary complexes and provide a theoretical basis for preparing starch-based foods with a low glycemic index.


Assuntos
Gliadina , Amido , Glutens , Triticum
4.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118268, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610411

RESUMO

There is little information available to decipher the interaction between molybdenum (Mo) and nitric oxide (NO) in mitigating arsenic (AsV) stress in plants. The present work highlights the associative role of exogenous Mo and endogenous NO signaling in regulating AsV tolerance in wheat seedlings. Application of Mo (1 µM) on 25-day-old wheat seedlings grown in the presence (5 µM) or absence of AsV stress caused improvement of photosynthetic pigment metabolism, reduction of electrolytic leakage and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and higher accumulation of osmolytes (proline and total soluble sugars). The molybdenum treatment upregulated antioxidative enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase. In addition, the accumulation of nonenzymatic antioxidants (ascorbate and glutathione) was correlated with an increase in ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activity. The application of cPTIO (endogenous NO scavenger; 100 µM) reversed the Mo-mediated effects, thus indicating that endogenous NO may accompany Mo-induced mitigation of AsV stress. Mo treatment stimulated the accumulation of endogenous NO in the presence of AsV stress. Thus, it is evident that Mo and NO-mediated AsV stress tolerance in wheat seedlings are primarily operative through chlorophyll restoration, osmolytes accumulation, reduced electrolytic leakage, and ROS homeostasis.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Plântula , Arseniatos , Clorofila , Molibdênio , Óxido Nítrico , Estresse Oxidativo , Triticum
5.
Food Chem ; 371: 131283, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808764

RESUMO

Relationships amongst solvent retention capacity (SRC) profiles and quality characteristics of triticale cultivars were investigated. Superior triticale grains resulted into flours with preferable quality attributes for baking bread. Standard and supplementary SRC-values exhibited significant correlation with grain, flour, and dough quality. Positive correlations among sucrose-SRC with ash, pentosan, and ferulic acid (FA) contents were significant. The standard SRC-profiles along with metabisulfite-SRC (MBS-SRC) and ethanol-SRC exhibited significant correlation with damaged starch (DS) content. The ethanol-SRC demonstrated strong correlations with water absorption capacity, FA, and Dmax-value alveolab parameter. Triticale flours containing a higher amount of anti-parallel ß-sheets and tyrosine exhibited higher lactic acid-SRC (LA-SRC) and gluten-performance-index (GPI). Positive correlations between sodium dodecylsulphate-SRC (SDS-SRC) and anti-parallel ß-sheets percentages were noticed. The LA-SRC, GPI, MBS-SRC, SDS-SRC, and SDS+MBS-SRC were positively correlated with SDS-sedimentation, gluten index and negatively to sulfhydryl-groups content. Triticales having higher LA-SRC and MBS-SRC resulted in dough with higher strength and tenacity.


Assuntos
Farinha , Triticale , Pão/análise , Grão Comestível , Farinha/análise , Solventes , Triticum
6.
Food Chem ; 371: 131390, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808780

RESUMO

Some recent studies have revealed individual and the combined interactions of gluten and starch affecting dough mixing properties. However, the combined influence of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and starch on dough mixing and rheological properties requires elucidation. Thus four recombinant inbred lines, SS 1, SS 2, ZZ 1 and ZZ 2, were selected based on their HMW-GSs compositions. Compared to ZZ 1 and ZZ 2, both SS 1 and SS 2 carried superior HMW-GS alleles, and exhibited extended dough development and stability time, indicating their significant dough mixing characteristics. The gluten skeleton of the wheat lines SS 2 and ZZ 2 with higher B-type starch proportions exhibited fewer breakages along with the rise of dough temperature during mixing. Higher content of B-type starch strengthens interaction between starch and gluten skeleton at the dough heating stage, suggesting a specific range of B-type starch proportion can improve dough mixing characteristics.


Assuntos
Amido , Triticum , Glutens , Reologia , Esqueleto , Triticum/genética
7.
Food Chem ; 372: 131236, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638066

RESUMO

A deeper knowledge of the causes of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) variance in wheat is crucial for quality improvement and control of its derivatives. The VOCs profile of common and durum wheat kernels grown in different fields sited at different altitudes over two years was analysed and 149 compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis evidenced that the year of cultivation was the highest source of VOCs variance. The effects of wheat origin, as described by the cultivation site, its elevation, and species were further investigated by PLS-DA, that permitted to correctly classify wheat of different origin on the basis of its VOCs profile. The importance of the different effects was investigated by multidimensional test and resulted: year of cultivation > field of cultivation > species > altitude. Findings suggest that environmental conditions are more important than species in the determination of the VOCs variance of wheat.


Assuntos
Triticum , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Clima , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Análise de Componente Principal , Triticum/genética , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 343: 126142, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655779

RESUMO

In this work, effects of sulfomethylated lignins (SLs) prepared from masson pine (SLM) and poplar (SLP) on enzymatic hydrolysis and cellulase-lignin interaction were comparatively investigated. The results showed that both SLM and SLP significantly promoted the substrate enzymatic digestibility. The total sugar yield increased from 38.6% to 74.4% and âˆ¼ 100%, respectively at 10 FPU/g-cellulose of cellulase dosage. The protein content in hydrolysate linearly increased with the addition of SL (0 - 1.6 g/g-substrate lignin), which suggested the competitive adsorption of cellulase may occur to substrate lignin and SLs. Further structural analysis of lignin revealed the high S/(V + H) ratio was directly related to the high enzymatic saccharification efficiency. The strong interaction between SL and cellulase decreased the nonproductive adsorption of cellulase onto substrate lignin and increased the accessibility of cellulase to carbohydrate, which was considered to be the key factor for the improvement of substrate enzymatic digestibility.


Assuntos
Celulase , Lignina , Adsorção , Hidrólise , Triticum
9.
Food Chem ; 367: 130694, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359007

RESUMO

The current study focusses on investigating the impact of pulsating microwave (MW) treatment to develop an efficient wheat parboiling method through comparative assessment with conventional parboiling. Three independent variables i.e., MW power level, effective treatment time, and pulsating mode on-off combination were tried for the process optimization. Higher moisture gain was observed during pulsating MW treatment, irrespective of the power level. The optimised gelatinization was obtained at 900 W power level and 9 min treatment time with on-off combination of 30 s -120 s considering specific energy absorption, water quality and degree of gelatinization. The microwave parboiled sample showed no major difference in molecular rearrangement, surface morphology and starch deformation as compared to the conventionally parboiled (CP) samples analysed using XRD, SEM, and FTIR study, whereas slight variation in protein conformations were noticed. This technological and structural study revealed that the proposed method can effectively replace the CP method.


Assuntos
Oryza , Triticum , Culinária , Temperatura Alta , Micro-Ondas , Amido
10.
Food Chem ; 367: 130729, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365245

RESUMO

The impact of endogenous wheat lipids on thermal characteristics, mixing behavior, non-linear rheological properties of gluten was studied to explore the contribution of wheat lipids to viscoelastic behavior of gluten under large processing deformations. Thermal analysis indicated higher denaturation temperature for vital wheat gluten (VWG) (69.2 ± 1.2 °C) due to reduced water affinity compared to lipid-removed vital wheat gluten (LRVWG) (63.6 ± 0.2 °C). Development time was reached 4 minutes earlier and consistency increased constantly for LRVWG as Farinograph mixing proceeded, suggesting higher affinity to water for gluten in the absence of lipids. Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear (LAOS) tests showed a mixture of type III and IV non-linear behavior for gluten. Higher tendency to type III behavior for VWG indicated more extensibility in the presence of lipids. Higher elasticity and strain stiffening obtained for LRVWG under LAOS deformations accentuated the stabilizing effect of lipids on the viscoelastic nature of gluten network during processing.


Assuntos
Glutens , Triticum , Elasticidade , Farinha , Lipídeos , Reologia
11.
Food Chem ; 366: 130543, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284193

RESUMO

Differences in Mixolab measurements of dough processing were examined using, as a base, flour from pure breeding, isogenic, wheat lines carrying either the high molecular weight glutenin subunits 5 + 10 or 2 + 12. Before dough pasting, subunits 5 + 10 tend to form a stable gluten network relying mainly on disulfide bonds and hydrogen bonds, but 2 + 12 flour was prone to generating fragile protein aggregates dominated by disulfide bonds and hydrophobicity. During dough pasting, a broader protein network rich in un-extractable polymeric proteins, disulfide bonds and ß-sheets was formed in the dough with subunits 5 + 10, thus resulting in an extensive and compact protein-starch complex which was characterized by high thermal stability and low starch gelatinization, while in the dough of the 2 + 12 line, a porous protein-starch gel with fragmented protein aggregates was controlled by the combination of disulfide bonds, hydrophobicity and hydrogen bonds that facilitated the formation of antiparallel ß-sheets.


Assuntos
Farinha , Triticum , Pão , Glutens , Melhoramento Vegetal , Amido
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149729, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454135

RESUMO

Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in agroecosystems has increased recently, especially in northern China, which poses serious risks to crop safety and human health via food chain. Wheat grains can accumulate high levels of Pb even when wheat is planted in soils with low levels of Pb. However, the influence of atmospheric deposition on the accumulation and distribution of Pb in wheat grain is still unclear. A field survey was conducted in three districts (A: a district with industrial and traffic pollution; B: a district with traffic pollution; and C: an unpolluted district) in Hebei Province, North China. The grain of wheat cultivated in district A accumulated more Pb from soil and atmospheric deposition than those in other districts, and the bran from district A contained 3.50 and 2.04 times more Pb than those from districts B and C, respectively. The Pb distribution pattern in wheat grain detected by laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was characterized by accumulation mostly in the pericarp and seed coat rather than in the crease, embryo and endosperm. Furthermore, Pb isotopic data showed that airborne Pb was the major source (>50%) of Pb in wheat grain. Interestingly, average contributions of Pb from atmospheric deposition to white flour (78.22%) were higher than its contributions to bran (56.27%). In addition, wheat flag leaves were exposed to PbSO4 at the booting stage, and much greater Pb accumulation (0.33-0.48 mg/kg) was observed in exposed wheat grain than in the control (P < 0.05), PbSO4 constituted most (82.80-100%) of the Pb in the wheat grain. In summary, the results confirmed the efficient foliar Pb uptake and transfer from atmospheric deposition into wheat grain. It would be a new sight for understanding the contribution of airborne Pb to Pb accumulation in wheat grains.


Assuntos
Terapia a Laser , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , China , Grão Comestível/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Chumbo , Espectrometria de Massas , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Triticum
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126706, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325290

RESUMO

The toxicity impacts of herbicides on crop, animals, and human are big problems global wide. The rapid and non-invasive ways for assessing herbicide-responsible effects on crop growth regarding types and levels still remain unexplored. In this study, visible/near infrared hyperspectral imaging (Vis/NIR HSI) coupled with SCNN was used to reveal the different characteristics in the spectral reflectance of 2 varieties of wheat seedling leaves that were subjected to 4 stress levels of 3 herbicide types during 4 stress durations and make early herbicide stress prediction. The first-order derivative results showed the spectral reflectance exhibited obvious differences at 518-531 nm, 637-675 nm and the red-edge. A SCNN model with attention mechanism (SCNN-ATT) was proposed for herbicide type and level classification of different stress durations. Further, a SCNN-based feature selection model (SCNN-FS) was proposed to screen out the characteristic wavelengths. The proposed methods achieved 96% accuracy of herbicide type classification and around 80% accuracy of stress level classification for both wheat varieties after 48 h. Overall, this study illustrated the potential of using Vis/NIR HSI to rapidly distinguish different herbicide types and serial levels in wheat at an early stage, which held great value for developing on-line herbicide stress recognizing methods in the field.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Triticum , Animais , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Humanos , Imageamento Hiperespectral , Redes Neurais de Computação , Folhas de Planta
14.
Food Chem ; 368: 130806, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399184

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the in vitro digestibility of different buckwheat and wheat starch cultivars and establish the relationship between digestibility and structure of buckwheat starch. Structure of starches were analyzed with size exclusion chromatography and fluorophore-assisted capillary electrophoresis. Results showed that the amylose content of Tartary buckwheat starch (TBS) and common buckwheat starch (CBS) was 3-4% lower than that of wheat starch. However, no significant difference in the digestibility was found between them. The fast digestion rate coefficient of TBS was negatively correlated with the amount of long amylopectin chains (24 < DP ≤ 36), and the total digested starch percentage of CBS was negatively correlated with the amount of medium-long amylopectin chains (13 < DP ≤ 24). This suggests that the digestibility of fully gelatinized starch had no association with the botanical sources but may be more influenced by starch structure.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum , Amido , Amilopectina , Amilose , Estrutura Molecular , Triticum
15.
Food Chem ; 368: 130805, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404002

RESUMO

The gluten proteins of wheat are major causative agents of harmful immune responses. This study investigated the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (200, 300, 400, and 500 MPa), treatment time (5-25 min) and protein concentration (1%-5% protein weight/volume) on the structures underlying the allergenicity wheat gluten. The results showed that a combination of 400 MPa, 20 min treatment time and 3% protein reduced the wheat gluten allergenicity by 72.2%. Moreover, a Western blotting showed that the allergenicity of 26, 28, 48, 68 kDa and high molecular weight glutenin was sharply reduced. Fourier infrared spectroscopy and surface hydrophobicity indicated that gluten molecules aggregated after HHP treatment. Intermolecular forces indicated that gluten aggregated mainly through hydrophobic interactions and disulfide bonds but not by hydrogen bonds after HHP treatment. These results suggest that structural changes contributed to the reduction of wheat gluten allergenicity and that HHP may enhance safety for susceptible individuals.


Assuntos
Alérgenos , Triticum , Glutens , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Pressão Hidrostática
16.
Food Chem ; 368: 130843, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418692

RESUMO

This works proposed a feasibility study on NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics-assisted color histogram-based analytical systems (CACHAS) to determine and authenticate the cassava starch content in wheat flour. Prediction results of partial least squares (PLS) achieved coefficient of correlation (rpred) of 0.977 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.826 mg kg-1 for the certified additive-free wheat flour, while rpred of 0.995 and RMSEP of 1.004 mg kg-1 were obtained for the commercial wheat flour containing chemical additives. Additionally, Data-Driven Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy (dd-SIMCA) presented similar predictive ability using NIR and CACHAS for the certified wheat flour, authenticating all target samples, besides correctly recognizing samples that could represent a fraud. No satisfactory results were obtained for the commercial wheat flour. Therefore, NIR spectroscopy is more useful to offer definitive quantitative and qualitative analysis, while CACHAS can only provide an alternative preliminary analysis.


Assuntos
Farinha , Manihot , Pão , Estudos de Viabilidade , Farinha/análise , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Amido , Triticum
17.
Gene ; 807: 145919, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454034

RESUMO

The application of CRISPR/Cas9 system for gene editing, as a technical coup for biotechnology, is worldwide and encompasses multiple of species. The inactivation of catalytical site in Cas9 (dCas9) has been reprogrammed as an effective approach to regulate the transcriptional level of target genes, especially for the functionally essential genes and redundant genes. Here, we exploited the CRISPR/dCas9 system to manipulate the transcriptional level of target genes in common wheat. To improve target gene's expression, we generated transcriptional activator by fusing 6×TAL-VP128 activation domain to the C-terminus of dCas9 in frame. For target gene's repressing expression transcriptionally, 3×SRDX repression domain was conjugated to the C-terminus of dCas9 in frame. Our results showed that dCas9 fused activation or repression domain could increase or decrease the transcriptional level of target gene effectively in stable transgenic lines of wheat. The study on the tRNA-processing system in CRISPR/dCas9 based transcriptional regulation system demonstrated that this robust multiplex targeted tool can be incorporated to the CRISPR/dCas9 system to facilitate the target regulation of several genes' transcriptional level. Our data broaden the application of CRISPR/dCas9 based transcriptional regulation and provide great opportunities to investigate the function of essential genes in common wheat.


Assuntos
Edição de Genes/métodos , Ativação Transcricional/genética , Triticum/genética , Proteínas Associadas a CRISPR/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Domínio Catalítico/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes Essenciais/genética , Família Multigênica/genética , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , RNA Guia/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triticum/metabolismo
18.
Food Chem ; 369: 130881, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455328

RESUMO

Bread wheat is a staple food crop that is consumed worldwide. In this study, using widely targeted LC-MS/MS, we conducted a high-throughput metabolomic analysis and determined the contents and spatial distribution of metabolites in pearled fractions of the dried kernels of six representative bread wheat varieties cultivated in China. Our aim was to explore the cultivars and pearling fractions with a view toward developing functional food products. We accordingly identified notable differences in the nutrient and bioactive metabolomes, and established that the pearling fractions of each cultivar had distinct metabolic profiles. Flavonoids varied the most amongst the cultivars and were found in higher concentration in the outer layers of the grain, but only at low concentrations in the kernel. Data from this study add further evidence of benefits of whole grain wheat consumption but, specifically, medium-gluten and pigmented wheat offer other nutrient and bioactive benefits whole grain products.


Assuntos
Pão , Triticum , Pão/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Grão Comestível , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149948, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482136

RESUMO

The temperate steppe in northern China is important for sandstorm control and food/livestock production. Understanding the influence and regulatory control of cultivation on the water balance and water use efficiency (WUE) of this water-limited region would promote the sustainability of local ecosystem and food supply. This study combined eddy covariance system observational data and the Shuttleworth-Wallace model to investigate evapotranspiration (ET) and its composition in paired sites, including a free-grazing steppe site and an adjacent site reclaimed for spring wheat cultivation in Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia. Further, analysis of the WUE of both the ecosystem (WUEE) and the canopy (WUEC) under the two sites showed that the mean daily gross primary productivity (GPP) of the cultivation site was 3.84 gC·m-2·d-1, i.e., 15.7% higher than that of the free-grazing site (3.32 gC·m-2·d-1). Compared with the free-grazing site (1.76 kgH2O·m-2·d-1), the mean daily ET of the cultivation site (1.40 kgH2O·m-2·d-1) was reduced by 20.7%. The difference in ET was due mainly to suppression of evaporation at the cultivation site from increased shading associated with a higher leaf area index (LAI). The largely increased GPP of the cultivation site fundamentally contributed to the 54.7% higher WUEC (4.75 gC·kg-1H2O) in comparison with the free-grazing site (3.08 gC·kg-1H2O). The WUEE of the cultivation site was 57.9% higher than that of the free-grazing site. The variation of transpiration of the free-grazing site explained 64% of the change of WUEC. These results indicate that land use differences in the temperate steppe area changed vegetation productivity substantially. Moreover, ecosystem ET and its composition, as well as large-scale land use change, might influence the regional water use pattern and mass balance. Our findings help clarify the impact of typical land use change on regional WUE, and could promote development of visionary and effective strategies for the use of the limited resources in arid-semiarid regions.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Triticum , China , Clima Desértico , Pradaria , Estações do Ano , Água
20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 223-232, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) is one of the most important secondary storage pests of all types of flour and flour-based products. The present study focuses on the fragment producing behaviour of T. castaneum in wheat flour during storage and its effect on the quality parameters and defect action level (DAL) of fragments. The US Food and Drug Administration has set a DAL of 75 insect fragments in 50 g of flour. Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the storage conditions (storage period in days and temperature in degrees Celsius) and insect density (numbers) to keep insect fragments below the DAL. RESULTS: Optimization results indicated that the presence of single number of adult of T. castaneum is enough to cross the DAL of insect fragments within a storage period of 21 days at a storage temperature of 30 °C. Insect fragments cause perceptible changes in the quality of wheat flour. When sample attained DAL of T. castaneum fragments in wheat flour,the various quality parameters were analysed in that moisture content of wheat flour was 10.8 ± 0.26%, total colour change was 2.052 (ΔE value), T. castaneum progeny emergence was 19.66 ± 1, uric acid was 1.8 ± 0.16 g kg-1 and microbial count was 7.34 ± 0.5 cfu g-1 . CONCLUSIONS: Results from the present study indicate that the presence of even a single adult of stored pest in wheat flour should not be ignored. It is mandatory to determine the threshold level and frequent sampling is required to achieve zero tolerance of stored product insects in food commodities. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Farinha/análise , Tribolium/química , Triticum/química , Animais , Cor , Farinha/parasitologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Tribolium/metabolismo , Triticum/parasitologia , Ácido Úrico/análise , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo
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