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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409205

RESUMO

Root hydrotropism refers to root directional growth toward soil moisture. Cortical microtubule arrays are essential for determining the growth axis of the elongating cells in plants. However, the role of microtubule reorganization in root hydrotropism remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the well-ordered microtubule arrays and the microtubule-severing protein KATANIN (KTN) play important roles in regulating root hydrotropism in Arabidopsis. We found that the root hydrotropic bending of the ktn1 mutant was severely attenuated but not root gravitropism. After hydrostimulation, cortical microtubule arrays in cells of the elongation zone of wild-type (WT) Col-0 roots were reoriented from transverse into an oblique array along the axis of cell elongation, whereas the microtubule arrays in the ktn1 mutant remained in disorder. Moreover, we revealed that abscisic acid (ABA) signaling enhanced the root hydrotropism of WT and partially rescued the oryzalin (a microtubule destabilizer) alterative root hydrotropism of WT but not ktn1 mutants. These results suggest that katanin-dependent microtubule ordering is required for root hydrotropism, which might work downstream of ABA signaling pathways for plant roots to search for water.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Katanina/genética , Katanina/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Tropismo/fisiologia , Água/metabolismo
2.
Vet Microbiol ; 268: 109397, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364367

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes huge economic loss to China's swine industry. Currently, a novel type 2 PRRSV, called the NADC30-like strain, is epidemic in numerous provinces of China. In this study, a NADC30-Like PRRSV strain was isolated in primary alveolar macrophage (PAM) cells from fecal samples collected from a local pig farm, which suffered severe diarrhea. A pathogenicity comparison study was conducted in 6-week-old piglets by inoculating highly pathogenic HP-PRRSV and NADC30-Like PRRSV isolates. RT-qPCR revealed detection of NADC30-Like PRRSV but not the HP-PRRSV in the intestine. PRRSV infection-related lesions were observed in the intestine were further confirmed by histopathological and immunohistochemical examination (IHC). In addition, severe virus infections were also detected by RT-qPCR. Based on clinical observation and pathogenicity experiments, we confirmed that NADC30-Like PRRSV gained more tissue tropism, especially in the small intestine. This may be the one reason explaining why NADC-Like 30 PRRSV become a major epidemic strain in China since the first outbreak in 2013.


Assuntos
Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/epidemiologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Tropismo
3.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(4): 454-457, 2022 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421342

RESUMO

Here, I revisit our early Cell Host & Microbe publications, which show how norovirus builds its comfortable home in an extremely rare intestinal cell population for persistent infection. This commentary covers insights from previous works and advances in the current research.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Norovirus , Humanos , Intestinos , Tropismo
4.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 11(4): 3, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35377942

RESUMO

Purpose: To expand the use of human retinal organoids from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as an in vitro model of the retina for assessing gene therapy treatments, it is essential to establish efficient transduction. To date, targeted transduction of the photoreceptor-like cells of retinal organoids with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors has had varied degrees of success, which we have looked to improve in this study. Methods: Retinal organoids were differentiated from iPSCs of healthy donors and transduced with reporter AAV containing a CAG.GFP, CAG.RFP, GRK1.GFP, or EFS.GFP transgene. Capsid variants assessed were AAV5, AAV2 7m8, AAV2 quad mutant, AAV2 Y444F, and AAV8 Y733F. At 27 days post-transduction, retinal organoids were assessed for reporter expression and viability. Results: The short intron-less elongation factor 1 alpha (EFS) promoter provided minimal reporter expression, whereas vectors containing the CAG promoter enabled transduction in 1% to 37% of cells depending on the AAV serotype; the AAV2 quad mutant (average 19.4%) and AAV2 7m8 (16.4%) outperformed AAV5 (12%) and AAV8 Y733F (2.1%). Reporter expression from rhodopsin kinase (GRK1) promoter transgenes occurred in ∼5% of cells regardless of the serotype. Positive co-localization with recoverin-expressing cells was achieved from all GRK1 vectors and the CAG AAV2 quad mutant variant. Treatment with the AAV vectors did not influence retinal organoid viability. Conclusions: Reliable transduction of the photoreceptor-like cells of retinal organoids can be readily achieved. When using a CAG-driven transgene, transduction of a broad range of cell types is observed, and GRK1 transgenes provide a more restricted expression profile locating to the outer layer of photoreceptor-like cells of retinal organoids. Translational Relevance: This study expands the AAV capsid and transgene options for preclinical testing of gene therapy in iPSC-derived human retinal organoids.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Organoides , Dependovirus/genética , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Retina , Transdução Genética , Tropismo
5.
Cell Rep ; 38(12): 110558, 2022 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35303476

RESUMO

Mutations in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) may alter viral host tropism and affect the activities of neutralizing antibodies. Here, we investigated 153 RBD mutants and 11 globally circulating variants of concern (VOCs) and variants of interest (VOIs) (including Omicron) for their antigenic changes and cross-species tropism in cells expressing 18 ACE2 orthologs. Several RBD mutations strengthened viral infectivity in cells expressing ACE2 orthologs of non-human animals, particularly those less susceptible to the ancestral strain. The mutations surrounding amino acids (aas) 439-448 and aa 484 are more likely to cause neutralization resistance. Strikingly, enhanced cross-species infection potential in the mouse and ferret, instead of the neutralization-escape scores of the mutations, account for the positive correlation with the cumulative prevalence of mutations in humans. These findings present insights for potential drivers of circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants and provide informative parameters for tracking and forecasting spreading mutations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , Furões , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Tropismo , Proteínas do Envelope Viral
6.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35336922

RESUMO

Although the respiratory tract is the main target of SARS-CoV-2, other tissues and organs are permissive to the infection. In this report, we investigated this wide-spectrum tropism by studying the SARS-CoV-2 genetic intra-host variability in multiple tissues. The virological and histological investigation of multiple specimens from a post-mortem COVID-19 patient was performed. SARS-CoV-2 genome was detected in several tissues, including the lower respiratory system, cardio-vascular biopsies, stomach, pancreas, adrenal gland, mediastinal ganglion and testicles. Subgenomic RNA transcripts were also detected, in favor of an active viral replication, especially in testicles. Ultra-deep sequencing allowed us to highlight several SARS-CoV-2 mutations according to tissue distribution. More specifically, mutations of the spike protein, i.e., V341A (18.3%), E654 (44%) and H655R (30.8%), were detected in the inferior vena cava. SARS-CoV-2 variability can contribute to heterogeneous distributions of viral quasispecies, which may affect the COVID-19 pathogeny.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Tropismo , Replicação Viral
7.
mBio ; 13(2): e0373921, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35285698

RESUMO

In the 21st century, several human and swine coronaviruses (CoVs) have emerged suddenly and caused great damage to people's lives and property. The porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), leading to enormous economic losses to the pork industry and remains a large challenge. PEDV showed extensive cell tropism, and we cannot ignore the potential risk of cross-species transmission. However, the mechanism of adaptation and cell tropism of PEDV remains largely unknown and in vitro isolation of PEDV remains a huge challenge, which seriously impedes the development of vaccines. In this study, we confirmed that the spike (S) protein determines the adaptability of PEDV to monkey Vero cells and LLC-PK1 porcine cells, and isolated exchange of S1 and S2 subunits of adaptive strains did not make PEDV adapt to cells. Further, we found that the cellular adaptability of rCH/SX/2016-SHNXP depends on S1 and the first half of S2 (S3), and the 803L and 976H of the S2 subunit are critical for rCH/SX/2016-S1HNXP+S3HNXP adaptation to Vero cells. These findings highlight the decisive role of PEDV S protein in cell tropism and the potential role of coronaviruses S protein in cross-species transmissibility. Besides, our work also provides some different insight into finding PEDV receptors and developing PEDV and other coronaviruses vaccines. IMPORTANCE CoVs can spill from an animal reservoir into a naive host to cause diseases in humans or domestic animals. PEDV results in high mortality in piglets, which has caused immense economic losses in the pork industry. Virus isolation is the first step in studying viral pathogenesis and developing effective vaccines. However, the molecular mechanism of PEDV cell tropism is largely unknown, and isolation of endemic PEDV strains remains a major challenge. This study confirmed that the S gene is the decisive gene of PEDV adaptability to monkey Vero cells and porcine LLC-PK1 cells by the PEDV reverse genetics system. Isolated exchange of S1 and S2 of adaptive strains did not make PEDV adapt to cells, and the 803L and 976H of S2 subunit are critical for rCH/SX/2016-S1HNXP+S3HNXP adaptation to Vero cells. These results illustrate the decisive role of PEDV S protein in cell tropism and highlight the potential role of coronaviruses S protein in cross-species transmissibility. Besides, our finding also provides some unique insight into identifying PEDV functional receptors and has guiding significance for developing PEDV and other coronavirus vaccines.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/genética , Suínos , Tropismo , Células Vero
8.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 11(4): 394-406, 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35274703

RESUMO

Adipose-derived stem or stromal cells (ASCs) possess promising potential in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine due to their secretory activity, their multilineage differentiation potential, their easy harvest, and their rich yield compared to other stem cell sources. After the first identification of ASCs in humans in 2001, the knowledge of their cell biology and cell characteristics have advanced, and respective therapeutic options were determined. Nowadays, ASC-based therapies are on the verge of translation into clinical practice. However, conflicting evidence emerged in recent years about the safety profile of ASC applications as they may induce tumor progression and invasion. Numerous in-vitro and in-vivo studies demonstrate a potential pro-oncogenic effect of ASCs on various cancer entities. This raises questions about the safety profile of ASCs and their broad handling and administration. However, these findings spark controversy as in clinical studies ASC application did not elevate tumor incidence rates, and other experimental studies reported an inhibitory effect of ASCs on different cancer cell types. This comprehensive review aims at providing up-to-date information about ASCs and cancer cell interactions, and their potential carcinogenesis and tumor tropism. The extracellular signaling activity of ASCs, the interaction of ASCs with the tumor microenvironment, and 3 major organ systems (the breast, the skin, and genitourinary system) will be presented with regard to cancer formation and progression.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Neoplasias , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Células Estromais , Tropismo , Microambiente Tumoral
9.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(5): 133, 2022 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35292865

RESUMO

The recent pandemic which arose from China, is caused by a pathogenic virus named "severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)". Its rapid global expansion has inflicted an extreme public health concern. The attachment of receptor-binding domains (RBD) of the spike proteins (S) to the host cell's membrane, with or without the help of other cellular components such as proteases and especially co-receptors, is required for the first stage of its pathogenesis. In addition to humans, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is found on a wide range of vertebrate host's cellular surface. SARS-CoV-2 has a broad spectrum of tropism; thus, it can infect a vast range of tissues, organs, and hosts; even though the surface amino acids of the spike protein conflict in the receptor-binding region. Due to the heterogeneous ACE2 distribution and the presence of different domains on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein for binding, the virus entry into diverse host cell types may depend on the host cells' receptor presentation with or without co-receptors. This review investigates multiple current types of receptor and co-receptor tropisms, with other molecular factors alongside their respective mechanisms, which facilitate the binding and entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the cells, extending the severity of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Understanding the pathogenesis of COVID-19 from this perspective can effectively help prevent this disease and provide more potent treatment strategies, particularly in vulnerable people with various cellular-level susceptibilities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Probabilidade , Receptores Virais/genética , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Tropismo
10.
Virus Res ; 314: 198752, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35331837

RESUMO

Akabane virus (AKAV) is an etiological agent that is teratogenic to the fetus of domestic ruminants, causing a significant loss of reproduction in livestock. In East Asia, AKAV isolates form two major clusters: genogroups I and II. In recent years, genogroup I isolates have also been associated with postnatal encephalomyelitis, mainly in calves. Here, we compared the pathogenicity in mice using genogroup I Iriki and genogroup II OBE-1 strains. Only mice infected intraperitoneally with the Iriki strain died and showed marked replication in the central nervous system (CNS) and lymphoid tissues. A more elevated blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability was found in the Iriki-infected mice in the clinical phase, indicating that the BBB might be a possible route of viral transmission from the periphery to the CNS. These findings demonstrate that the Iriki strain presents greater neurovirulence and neuroinvasiveness compared with the OBE-1 strain, determining different AKAV pathogenicity among genogroups.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bunyaviridae , Encefalomielite , Orthobunyavirus , Animais , Bovinos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Encefalomielite/veterinária , Genótipo , Camundongos , Tropismo
11.
Med Eng Phys ; 102: 103779, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35346434

RESUMO

Clinic observations have shown that facet tropism with respect to the sagittal plane is associated with cervical degeneration, but their mechanisms haven't been clearly revealed. This study developed different levels of facet tropism musculoskeletal multi-body dynamics cervical models to investigate the biomechanical effect on the intervertebral compressive force (ICF), intervertebral shear force (ISF), facet joint force (FJF) and intervertebral disc displacement (IDD) during head flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation movements. Results showed that the ICFs at the asymmetrical levels of the severe facet tropism models increased by 9.33% and 15.34% respectively during extension and right lateral bending, but did not change significantly during axial rotation. The ISFs at the asymmetrical levels of the severe facet tropism models increased by 56.64% and 164.40% respectively during right lateral bending and right axial rotation. The corresponding IDDs in medial-lateral direction at asymmetrical level also increased greatly during extension, right lateral bending and right axial rotation. The FJFs at asymmetrical level of the severe facet tropism models decreased by 3.41%, 10.55% and 9.19% during extension, right lateral bending and left axial rotation, but increased by 22.62% during right axial rotation. Facet tropism increased the ICFs, ISFs and IDDs of the asymmetrical level, but reduced the protection against cervical excessive motion during certain head movements. The results suggested that facet tropism may contribute to the initiation or enhancement of the process of intervertebral disc degeneration, especially intervertebral disc herniation.


Assuntos
Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral , Disco Intervertebral , Articulação Zigapofisária , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Vértebras Cervicais , Humanos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Rotação , Tropismo
12.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1589, 2022 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35332140

RESUMO

Progressive respiratory failure and hyperinflammatory response is the primary cause of death in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Despite mounting evidence of disruption of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in COVID-19, relatively little is known about the tropism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to adrenal glands and associated changes. Here we demonstrate adrenal viral tropism and replication in COVID-19 patients. Adrenal glands showed inflammation accompanied by inflammatory cell death. Histopathologic analysis revealed widespread microthrombosis and severe adrenal injury. In addition, activation of the glycerophospholipid metabolism and reduction of cortisone intensities were characteristic for COVID-19 specimens. In conclusion, our autopsy series suggests that SARS-CoV-2 facilitates the induction of adrenalitis. Given the central role of adrenal glands in immunoregulation and taking into account the significant adrenal injury observed, monitoring of developing adrenal insufficiency might be essential in acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and during recovery.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Autopsia , Humanos , Pesquisa , SARS-CoV-2 , Tropismo
13.
Nat Metab ; 4(3): 310-319, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347318

RESUMO

Extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 have gained attention due to their links to clinical outcomes and their potential long-term sequelae1. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) displays tropism towards several organs, including the heart and kidney. Whether it also directly affects the liver has been debated2,3. Here we provide clinical, histopathological, molecular and bioinformatic evidence for the hepatic tropism of SARS-CoV-2. We find that liver injury, indicated by a high frequency of abnormal liver function tests, is a common clinical feature of COVID-19 in two independent cohorts of patients with COVID-19 requiring hospitalization. Using autopsy samples obtained from a third patient cohort, we provide multiple levels of evidence for SARS-CoV-2 liver tropism, including viral RNA detection in 69% of autopsy liver specimens, and successful isolation of infectious SARS-CoV-2 from liver tissue postmortem. Furthermore, we identify transcription-, proteomic- and transcription factor-based activity profiles in hepatic autopsy samples, revealing similarities to the signatures associated with multiple other viral infections of the human liver. Together, we provide a comprehensive multimodal analysis of SARS-CoV-2 liver tropism, which increases our understanding of the molecular consequences of severe COVID-19 and could be useful for the identification of organ-specific pharmacological targets.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Fígado , Proteômica , Tropismo
14.
Res Vet Sci ; 146: 1-4, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290860

RESUMO

The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6 virus caused outbreaks on commercial poultry farms in the Netherlands in 2017-2018, holding chickens and Pekin ducks. Intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) tests confirmed the high pathogenicity of the virus. Tissues derived from birds from infected farms (natural infection) and IVPI tests (experimental infection) were used to compare histopathology and virus distribution in both poultry species. After natural infection in chickens, histopathologic changes were present in the respiratory tract and several internal organs in both chickens and Pekin ducks. Viral antigen expression in the tissues of chickens varied from that in ducks. Virus expression was found in epithelial, mononuclear and endothelial cells in chickens. In contrast to the major role infected endothelial cells seem to play in systemic infections of chickens, in ducks the number of infected endothelial cells was very limited. Therefore, endothelial cell infection likely does not play a major role in systemic infection and disease progression in HPAI H5N6 virus infected Pekin ducks.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas , Patos , Células Endoteliais , Aves Domésticas , Tropismo
15.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(3): e1010197, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35312736

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in humans, has a broad host range, and is able to infect domestic and wild animal species. Notably, white-tailed deer (WTD, Odocoileus virginianus), the most widely distributed cervid species in the Americas, were shown to be highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 in challenge studies and reported natural infection/exposure rates approaching 30-40% in free-ranging WTD in the U.S. Thus, understanding the infection and transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in WTD is critical to prevent future zoonotic transmission to humans, at the human-WTD interface during hunting or venison farming, and for implementation of effective disease control measures. Here, we demonstrated that following intranasal inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 B.1 lineage, WTD fawns (~8-month-old) shed infectious virus up to day 5 post-inoculation (pi), with high viral loads shed in nasal and oral secretions. This resulted in efficient deer-to-deer transmission on day 3 pi. Consistent a with lack of infectious SARS-CoV-2 shedding after day 5 pi, no transmission was observed to contact animals added on days 6 and 9 pi. We have also investigated the tropism and sites of SARS-CoV-2 replication in adult WTD (3-4 years of age). Infectious virus was detected up to day 6 pi in nasal secretions, and from various respiratory-, lymphoid-, and central nervous system tissues, indicating broad tissue tropism and multiple sites of virus replication. The study provides important insights on the infection and transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in WTD, a wild animal species that is highly susceptible to infection and with the potential to become a reservoir for the virus in the field.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cervos , Animais , COVID-19/veterinária , SARS-CoV-2 , Tropismo
16.
J Clin Neurosci ; 99: 89-93, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35278934

RESUMO

This study aimed to retrospectively explore the relationship between facet tropism (FT) and cervical disc degeneration in cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR) patients on 3-dimensional views. A total of 180 middle-aged patients with single-level CSR at C4/5 who underwent cervical CT and MRI in our hospital were included. The incidence of FT (or called FT (+), defined as FT ≥ 7 degree) at C3/4, C4/5, C5/6 levels were measured and calculated by reconstructed CT images on 3-dimensional views. The grade of cervical disc degeneration at three levels was assessed by MRI images by the method of Miyazali. Univariate analysis was performed to compare their cervical disc degeneration grade and CSR incidence between two groups stratified by FT (+). Moreover, a logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between FT (+) and grade of cervical disc degeneration and incidence of CSR adjusting for age, gender, and BMI. Grade of cervical disc degeneration and incidence of CSR in axial FT (+) group were both significantly increased compared to axial FT (-) group, while sagittal and coronal FT (+) groups showed no difference. Axial FT (+) was significantly associated with the grade of cervical disc degeneration and incidence of CSR. in middle-aged patients with CSR, axial FT (+) might be the risk factor for cervical disc degeneration but not sagittal and coronal FT (+). Also, axial FT (+) was positively associated with CSR incidence. Therefore, axial FT might play a vital role in the progression of cervical disc degeneration and CSR occurrence.


Assuntos
Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral , Disco Intervertebral , Radiculopatia , Espondilose , Articulação Zigapofisária , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/complicações , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiculopatia/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiculopatia/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espondilose/complicações , Espondilose/diagnóstico por imagem , Tropismo , Articulação Zigapofisária/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 40: 615-649, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35134315

RESUMO

Alphaviruses are emerging and reemerging viruses that cause disease syndromes ranging from incapacitating arthritis to potentially fatal encephalitis. While infection by arthritogenic and encephalitic alphaviruses results in distinct clinical manifestations, both virus groups induce robust innate and adaptive immune responses. However, differences in cellular tropism, type I interferon induction, immune cell recruitment, and B and T cell responses result in differential disease progression and outcome. In this review, we discuss aspects of immune responses that contribute to protective or pathogenic outcomes after alphavirus infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Alphavirus , Alphavirus , Interferon Tipo I , Infecções por Alphavirus/patologia , Animais , Humanos , Imunidade , Tropismo
18.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 32: 8-16, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35065766

RESUMO

Long-duration space missions will need to rely on the use of plants in bio-regenerative life support systems (BLSSs) because these systems can produce fresh food and oxygen, reduce carbon dioxide levels, recycle metabolic waste, and purify water. In this scenario, the need for new experiments on the effects of altered gravity conditions on plant biological processes is increasing, and significant efforts should be devoted to new ideas aimed at increasing the scientific output and lowering the experimental costs. Here, we report the design of an easy-to-produce and inexpensive device conceived to analyze the effect of interaction between gravity and light on root tropisms. Each unit consisted of a polystyrene multi-slot rack with light-emitting diodes (LEDs), capable of holding Petri dishes and assembled with a particular filter-paper folding. The device was successfully used for the ROOTROPS (for root tropisms) experiment performed in the Large Diameter Centrifuge (LDC) and Random Positioning Machine (RPM) at ESA's European Space Research and Technology centre (ESTEC). During the experiments, four light treatments and six gravity conditions were factorially combined to study their effects on root orientation of Brassica oleracea seedlings. Light treatments (red, blue, and white) and a dark condition were tested under four hypergravity levels (20 g, 15 g, 10 g, 5 g), a 1 g control, and a simulated microgravity (RPM) condition. Results of validation tests showed that after 24 h, the assembled system remained unaltered, no slipping or displacement of seedlings occurred at any hypergravity treatment or on the RPM, and seedlings exhibited robust growth. Overall, the device was effective and reliable in achieving scientific goals, suggesting that it can be used for ground-based research on phototropism-gravitropism interactions. Moreover, the concepts developed can be further expanded for use in future spaceflight experiments with plants.


Assuntos
Voo Espacial , Ausência de Peso , Gravitropismo , Fototropismo , Plântula , Tropismo
19.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 54: 102007, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34973500

RESUMO

Human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) is one of the most important pathogens of viral myocarditis, and is often responsible for sudden death in young adults. A 59-year-old immunocompetent man died of serious lymphocytic myocarditis, and his peripheral blood sample showed HHV-6 DNAemia. Recently, HHV-6 cell entry and reactivation have been suggested to be regulated by the expression of specific CD receptors on T lymphocytes. Here, we report a case of HHV-6 myocarditis diagnosed using an experimental method focused on this unique cell tropism. The interaction between HHV-6 and CD expression was assessed using an immunofluorescence assay. Colocalization between HHV-6B and CD134 was detected in lymphocytes infiltrating the myocardium, which was highly suggestive of an active HHV-6B infection and could be a useful criterion for postmortem diagnosis of HHV-6B myocarditis in the acute phase.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Humano 6 , Miocardite , Herpesvirus Humano 6/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocardite/diagnóstico , Linfócitos T , Tropismo
20.
Viruses ; 14(1)2022 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35062322

RESUMO

Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) is a highly promising treatment for solid tumors. Intense research and development efforts have led to first-in-class approval for an oHSV for melanoma, but barriers to this promising therapy still exist that limit efficacy. The process of infection, replication and transmission of oHSV in solid tumors is key to obtaining a good lytic destruction of infected cancer cells to kill tumor cells and release tumor antigens that can prime anti-tumor efficacy. Intracellular tumor cell signaling and tumor stromal cells present multiple barriers that resist oHSV activity. Here, we provide a review focused on oncolytic HSV and the essential viral genes that allow for virus replication and spread in order to gain insight into how manipulation of these pathways can be exploited to potentiate oHSV infection and replication among tumor cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/terapia , Terapia Viral Oncolítica , Vírus Oncolíticos/genética , Replicação Viral , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Herpes Simples , Herpesvirus Humano 1/genética , Humanos , Tropismo
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