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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243910, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278525

RESUMO

Abstract Nucleotide excision repair (NER) acts repairing damages in DNA, such as lesions caused by cisplatin. Xeroderma Pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC) protein is involved in recognition of global genome DNA damages during NER (GG-NER) and it has been studied in different organisms due to its importance in other cellular processes. In this work, we studied NER proteins in Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma evansi, parasites of humans and animals respectively. We performed three-dimensional models of XPC proteins from T. cruzi and T. evansi and observed few structural differences between these proteins. In our tests, insertion of XPC gene from T. evansi (TevXPC) in T. cruzi resulted in slower cell growth under normal conditions. After cisplatin treatment, T. cruzi overexpressing its own XPC gene (TcXPC) was able to recover cell division rates faster than T. cruzi expressing TevXPC gene. Based on these tests, it is suggested that TevXPC (being an exogenous protein in T. cruzi) interferes negatively in cellular processes where TcXPC (the endogenous protein) is involved. This probably occurred due interaction of TevXPC with some endogenous molecules or proteins from T.cruzi but incapacity of interaction with others. This reinforces the importance of correctly XPC functioning within the cell.


Resumo O reparo por excisão de nucleotídeos (NER) atua reparando danos no DNA, como lesões causadas por cisplatina. A proteína Xeroderma Pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC) está envolvida no reconhecimento de danos pela via de reparação global do genoma pelo NER (GG-NER) e tem sido estudada em diferentes organismos devido à sua importância em outros processos celulares. Neste trabalho, estudamos proteínas do NER em Trypanosoma cruzi e Trypanosoma evansi, parasitos de humanos e animais, respectivamente. Modelos tridimensionais das proteínas XPC de T. cruzi e T. evansi foram feitos e observou-se poucas diferenças estruturais entre estas proteínas. Durante testes, a inserção do gene XPC de T. evansi (TevXPC) em T. cruzi resultou em crescimento celular mais lento em condições normais. Após o tratamento com cisplatina, T. cruzi superexpressando seu próprio gene XPC (TcXPC) foi capaz de recuperar as taxas de divisão celular mais rapidamente do que T. cruzi expressando o gene TevXPC. Com base nesses testes, sugere-se que TevXPC (sendo uma proteína exógena em T. cruzi) interfere negativamente nos processos celulares em que TcXPC (a proteína endógena) está envolvida. Isso provavelmente ocorreu pois TevXPC é capaz de interagir com algumas moléculas ou proteínas endógenas de T.cruzi, mas é incapaz de interagir com outras. Isso reforça a importância do correto funcionamento de XPC dentro da célula.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Xeroderma Pigmentoso , Dano ao DNA/genética , Biologia Computacional , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Reparo do DNA/genética
2.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 944748, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909956

RESUMO

Chagas disease is a devastating neglected disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which affects millions of people worldwide. The two anti-parasitic drugs available, nifurtimox and benznidazole, have a good efficacy against the acute stage of the infection. But this is short, usually asymptomatic and often goes undiagnosed. Access to treatment is mostly achieved during the chronic stage, when the cardiac and/or digestive life-threatening symptoms manifest. Then, the efficacy of both drugs is diminished, and their long administration regimens involve frequently associated adverse effects that compromise treatment compliance. Therefore, the discovery of safer and more effective drugs is an urgent need. Despite its advantages over lately used phenotypic screening, target-based identification of new anti-parasitic molecules has been hampered by incomplete annotation and lack of structures of the parasite protein space. Presently, the AlphaFold Protein Structure Database is home to 19,036 protein models from T. cruzi, which could hold the key to not only describe new therapeutic approaches, but also shed light on molecular mechanisms of action for known compounds. In this proof-of-concept study, we screened the AlphaFold T. cruzi set of predicted protein models to find prospective targets for a pre-selected list of compounds with known anti-trypanosomal activity using docking-based inverse virtual screening. The best receptors (targets) for the most promising ligands were analyzed in detail to address molecular interactions and potential drugs' mode of action. The results provide insight into the mechanisms of action of the compounds and their targets, and pave the way for new strategies to finding novel compounds or optimize already existing ones.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Parasitos , Tripanossomicidas , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animais , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Tripanossomicidas/química , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia
3.
Math Biosci Eng ; 19(8): 8452-8478, 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35801473

RESUMO

In this paper, an insect-parasite-host model with logistic growth of triatomine bugs is formulated to study the transmission between hosts and vectors of the Chagas disease by using dynamical system approach. We derive the basic reproduction numbers for triatomine bugs and Trypanosoma rangeli as two thresholds. The local and global stability of the vector-free equilibrium, parasite-free equilibrium and parasite-positive equilibrium is investigated through the derived two thresholds. Forward bifurcation, saddle-node bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation are proved analytically and illustrated numerically. We show that the model can lose the stability of the vector-free equilibrium and exhibit a supercritical Hopf bifurcation, indicating the occurrence of a stable limit cycle. We also find it unlikely to have backward bifurcation and Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation of the parasite-positive equilibrium. However, the sustained oscillations of infected vector population suggest that Trypanosoma rangeli will persist in all the populations, posing a significant challenge for the prevention and control of Chagas disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Rhodnius , Trypanosoma cruzi , Trypanosoma rangeli , Animais , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Vetores de Doenças
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 257, 2022 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35831874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triatomine elimination efforts and the interruption of domestic transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi are hampered by pyrethroid resistance. Fluralaner, a long-lasting ectoparasiticide administered to dogs, substantially reduced site infestation and abundance of pyrethroid-resistant Triatoma infestans Klug (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) in an ongoing 10-month trial in Castelli (Chaco Province, Argentina). We assessed the effects of fluralaner on vector infection with T. cruzi and blood meal sources stratified by ecotope and quantified its medium-term effects on site infestation and triatomine abundance. METHODS: We conducted a placebo-controlled, before-and-after efficacy trial of fluralaner in 28 infested sites over a 22-month period. All dogs received either an oral dose of fluralaner (treated group) or placebo (control group) at 0 month post-treatment [MPT]. Placebo-treated dogs were rescue-treated with fluralaner at 1 MPT, as were all eligible dogs at 7 MPT. Site-level infestation and abundance were periodically assessed by timed manual searches with a dislodging aerosol. Vector infection was mainly determined by kDNA-PCR and blood meal sources were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: In fluralaner-treated households, site infestation dropped from 100% at 0 MPT to 18-19% over the period 6-22 MPT while mean abundance plummeted from 5.5 to 0.6 triatomines per unit effort. In control households, infestation dropped similarly post-treatment. The overall prevalence of T. cruzi infection steadily decreased from 13.8% at 0-1 MPT (baseline) to 6.4% and subsequently 2.3% thereafter, while in domiciles, kitchens and storerooms it dropped from 17.4% to 4.7% and subsequently 3.3% thereafter. Most infected triatomines occurred in domiciles and had fed on humans. Infected-bug abundance plummeted after fluralaner treatment and remained marginal or nil thereafter. The human blood index of triatomines collected in domiciles, kitchens and storerooms highly significantly fell from 42.9% at baseline to 5.3-9.1% over the period 6-10 MPT, increasing to 36.8% at 22 MPT. Dog blood meals occurred before fluralaner administration only. The cat blood index increased from 9.9% at baseline to 57.9-72.7% over the period 6-10 MPT and dropped to 5.3% at 22 MPT, whereas chicken blood meals rose from 39.6% to 63.2-88.6%. CONCLUSION: Fluralaner severely impacted infestation- and transmission-related indices over nearly 2 years, causing evident effects at 1 MPT, and deserves larger efficacy trials.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Inseticidas , Piretrinas , Triatoma , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Chagas/prevenção & controle , Doença de Chagas/veterinária , Cães , Humanos , Insetos Vetores , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Isoxazóis , Piretrinas/farmacologia
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2525: 173-183, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35836067

RESUMO

Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play central roles in most molecular mechanisms underlying cellular and biological processes. Within the methods developed to study PPIs is bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). Taking advantage of this technique, we have set a BRET-based assay that enables the screening of modulators of essential PPIs for Trypanosoma cruzi survival. Considering the complexity of the evaluated mixture, pure chemical compounds or natural extracts, two approaches are described, BRET in living cells or from lysates.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Transferência de Energia por Ressonância de Bioluminescência , Trypanosoma cruzi , Bioensaio , Técnicas de Transferência de Energia por Ressonância de Bioluminescência/métodos , Transferência de Energia , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Tecnologia
6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 904747, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35873155

RESUMO

Chagas disease is a tropical zoonosis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. After infection, the host present an acute phase, usually asymptomatic, in which an extensive parasite proliferation and intense innate immune activity occurs, followed by a chronic phase, characterized by low parasitemia and development of specific immunity. Most individuals in the chronic phase remain without symptoms or organ damage, a state called indeterminate IND form. However, 20 to 40% of individuals develop cardiac or gastrointestinal complications at any time in life. Cardiomyocytes have an important role in the development of Chronic Chagas Cardiomyopathy (CCC) due to transcriptional and metabolic alterations that are crucial for the parasite survival and replication. However, it still not clear why some infected individuals progress to a cardiomyopathy phase, while others remain asymptomatic. In this work, we used hiPSCs-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM) to investigate patterns of infection, proliferation and transcriptional response in IND and CCC patients. Our data show that T. cruzi infection and proliferation efficiency do not differ significantly in PBMCs and hiPSC-CM from both groups. However, RNA-seq analysis in hiPSC-CM infected for 24 hours showed a significantly different transcriptional response to the parasite in cells from IND or CCC patients. Cardiomyocytes from IND showed significant differences in the expression of genes related to antigen processing and presentation, as well as, immune co-stimulatory molecules. Furthermore, the downregulation of collagen production genes and extracellular matrix components was significantly different in these cells. Cardiomyocytes from CCC, in turn, showed increased expression of mTORC1 pathway and unfolded protein response genes, both associated to increased intracellular ROS production. These data point to a differential pattern of response, determined by baseline genetic differences between groups, which may have an impact on the development of a chronic outcome with or without the presentation of cardiac symptoms.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica , Doença de Chagas , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Trypanosoma cruzi , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/parasitologia , Transcriptoma , Trypanosoma cruzi/metabolismo
7.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 907043, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35873171

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas disease, has peroxiredoxins (PRXs) expressed in all stages of the parasite and whose function is to detoxify oxidizing agents, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). These proteins are central for the survival and replication of the parasite and have been proposed as virulence factors. Because of their importance, they have also been considered as possible therapeutic targets, although there is no specific drug against them. One of them, the mitochondrial PRX (TcMPX), is important in the detoxification of ROS in this organelle and has a role in the infectivity of T. cruzi. However, their structural characteristics are unknown, and possible inhibitors have not been proposed. The aim was to describe in detail some structural characteristics of TcMPX and compare it with several PRXs to find possible similarities and repositioning the antibiotic Thiostrepton as a potential inhibitor molecule. It was found that, in addition to the characteristic active site of a 2-cys PRX, this protein has a possible transmembrane motif and motifs involved in resistance to hyper oxidation. The homology model suggests a high structural similarity with human PRX3. This similarity was corroborated by cross-recognition using an anti-human PRX antibody. In addition, molecular docking showed that Thiostrepton, a potent inhibitor of human PRX3, could bind to TcMPX and affect its function. Our results show that Thiostrepton reduces the proliferation of T. cruzi epimastigotes, cell-derived trypomastigotes, and blood trypomastigotes with low cytotoxicity on Vero cells. We also demonstrated a synergic effect of Thriostepton and Beznidazol. The convenience of seeking treatment alternatives against T. cruzi by repositioning compounds as Thiostrepton is discussed.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animais , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peroxirredoxina III/metabolismo , Peroxirredoxina III/farmacologia , Peroxirredoxina III/uso terapêutico , Peroxirredoxinas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Tioestreptona/metabolismo , Tioestreptona/farmacologia , Tioestreptona/uso terapêutico , Trypanosoma cruzi/metabolismo , Células Vero
8.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 55: e07322021, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35894404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neglected tropical diseases are a growing threat to global health, and endemic Chagas disease has emerged as one of the most important health problems in America. The main strategy to prevent Trypanosoma cruzi transmission is chemical control of vectors. This study presents a descriptive analysis of synanthropic triatomines before and after the implementation of a vector-control program in Bahia, Brazil. METHODS: Descriptive analysis and geospatial statistics were performed on triatomine data, (1) the relative abundance and (2) proportional spatial distribution, from Bahia during two periods: (A) 1957 to 1971 and (B) 2006 to 2019. RESULTS: We observed a decrease in the relative abundance of Panstrongylus megistus (A: n=22.032, 61.9%; B: n=1.842, 1.0%) and Triatoma infestans (A: n=1.310, 3.7%; B: n=763, 0.43%), as well as an increase in the relative abundance of T. sordida (A: n=8.314, 23.4%, B: n=146.901, 81.6%) and T. pseudomaculata (A: n=894, 2.5%, B: n=16.717, 9.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate a clear reduction in the occurrence of P. megistus and T. infestans (last record in 2015) and an increase in the relative abundance and geographical distribution of T. sordida and T. pseudomaculata after 40 years of the vector-control program. The high frequency of other triatomine species in the municipalities of the state of Bahia and their abundance in recent years highlight the need to reinforce permanent entomological surveillance actions to prevent Chagas disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Triatoma , Triatominae , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Insetos Vetores , Doenças Negligenciadas
9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 901880, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35846750

RESUMO

In the pathogen Typanosoma cruzi, the calcium ion (Ca2+) regulates key processes for parasite survival. However, the mechanisms decoding Ca2+ signals are not fully identified or understood. Here, we investigate the role of a hypothetical Ca2+-binding protein named TcCAL1 in the in vitro life cycle of T. cruzi. Results showed that the overexpression of TcCAL1 fused to a 6X histidine tag (TcCAL1-6xHis) impaired the differentiation of epimastigotes into metacyclic trypomastigotes, significantly decreasing metacyclogenesis rates. When the virulence of transgenic metacyclic trypomastigotes was explored in mammalian cell invasion assays, we found that the percentage of infection was significantly higher in Vero cells incubated with TcCAL1-6xHis-overexpressing parasites than in controls, as well as the number of intracellular amastigotes. Additionally, the percentage of Vero cells with adhered metacyclic trypomastigotes significantly increased in samples incubated with TcCAL1-6xHis-overexpressing parasites compared with controls. In contrast, the differentiation rates from metacyclic trypomastigotes to axenic amastigotes or the epimastigote proliferation in the exponential phase of growth have not been affected by TcCAL1-6xHis overexpression. Based on our findings, we speculate that TcCAL1 exerts its function by sequestering intracellular Ca2+ by its EF-hand motifs (impairing metacyclogenesis) and/or due to an unknown activity which could be amplified by the ion binding (promoting cell invasion). This work underpins the importance of studying the kinetoplastid-specific proteins with unknown functions in pathogen parasites.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Células Vero
10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 910854, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35846776

RESUMO

Chagas disease, caused by the intracellular pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi, is the parasitic disease with the greatest impact in Latin America and the most common cause of infectious myocarditis in the world. The immune system plays a central role in the control of T. cruzi infection but at the same time needs to be controlled to prevent the development of pathology in the host. It has been shown that persistent infection with T. cruzi induces exhaustion of parasite-specific T cell responses in subjects with chronic Chagas disease. The continuous inflammatory reaction due to parasite persistence in the heart also leads to necrosis and fibrosis. The complement system is a key element of the innate immune system, but recent findings have also shown that the interaction between its components and immune cell receptors might modulate several functions of the adaptive immune system. Moreover, the findings that most of immune cells can produce complement proteins and express their receptors have led to the notion that the complement system also has non canonical functions in the T cell. During human infection by T. cruzi, complement activation might play a dual role in the acute and chronic phases of Chagas disease; it is initially crucial in controlling parasitemia and might later contributes to the development of symptomatic forms of Chagas disease due to its role in T-cell regulation. Herein, we will discuss the putative role of effector complement molecules on T-cell immune exhaustion during chronic human T. cruzi infection.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Miocardite , Trypanosoma cruzi , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento , Humanos , Linfócitos T
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(7): e0010535, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35797352

RESUMO

A recurring question concerning Trypanosoma cruzi DNA detection/quantification is related to the fact that DNA amplification, by itself, does not differentiate between viable or dead parasites. On the other hand, RNA can be considered a potential molecular marker of pathogens viability. Herein, we developed a quantitative real-time PCR with reverse Transcription (RT-qPCR) to quantify viable T. cruzi in artificially infected Rhodnius prolixus whilst evaluating differences between DNA and mRNA quantification along the insect midgut during 5, 9, 15 and 29 days after feeding. The RT-qPCR presented an improved performance with linearities ranging from 107 to 102 parasites equivalents and 3 to 0.0032 intestine unit equivalents, and efficiencies of 100.3% and 102.8% for both T. cruzi and triatomine targets, respectively. Comparing both RT-qPCR and qPCR, we confirmed that RNA is faster degraded, no longer being detected at day 1 after parasite lysis, while DNA detection was stable, with no decrease in parasite load over the days, even after parasite lysis. We also observed statistical differences between the quantification of the parasite load by DNA and by RNA on day 15 after feeding of experimentally infected R. prolixus. When assessing different portions of the digestive tract, by RT-qPCR, we could detect a statistically significant reduction in the parasite amount in the anterior midgut. Oppositely, there was a statistically significant increase of the parasite load in the hindgut. In conclusion, for this study parasite's viability in R. prolixus digestive tract were assessed targeting T. cruzi mRNA. In addition, differences between DNA and RNA detection observed herein, raise the possibility that RNA is a potential molecular viability marker, which could contribute to understanding the dynamics of the parasite infection in invertebrate hosts.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Parasitos , Rhodnius , Triatominae , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animais , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Parasitos/genética , RNA , RNA Mensageiro , Rhodnius/genética , Rhodnius/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35806197

RESUMO

Trans-sialidases (TS) are important constitutive macromolecules of the secretome present on the surface of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) that play a central role as a virulence factor in Chagas disease. These enzymes have been related to infectivity, escape from immune surveillance and pathogenesis exhibited by this protozoan parasite. In this work, atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based single molecule-force spectroscopy is implemented as a suitable technique for the detection and location of functional TS on the surface of extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by tissue-culture cell-derived trypomastigotes (Ex-TcT). For that purpose, AFM cantilevers with functionalized tips bearing the anti-TS monoclonal antibody mAb 39 as a sense biomolecule are engineered using a covalent chemical ligation based on vinyl sulfonate click chemistry; a reliable, simple and efficient methodology for the molecular recognition of TS using the antibody-antigen interaction. Measurements of the breakdown forces between anti-TS mAb 39 antibodies and EVs performed to elucidate adhesion and forces involved in the recognition events demonstrate that EVs isolated from tissue-culture cell-derived trypomastigotes of T. cruzi are enriched in TS. Additionally, a mapping of the TS binding sites with submicrometer-scale resolution is provided. This work represents the first AFM-based molecular recognition study of Ex-TcT using an antibody-tethered AFM probe.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Parasitos , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animais , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Neuraminidase/metabolismo , Parasitos/metabolismo , Trypanosoma cruzi/metabolismo
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 269, 2022 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35906633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rhodnius prolixus is an important vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas disease in humans. Despite the medical importance of this and other triatomine vectors, the study of their immune responses has been limited to a few molecular pathways and processes. Insect immunity studies were first described for holometabolous insects such as Drosophila melanogaster, and it was assumed that their immune responses were conserved in all insects. However, study of the immune responses of triatomines and other hemimetabolous insects has revealed discrepancies between these and the Drosophila model. METHODS: To expand our understanding of innate immune responses of triatomines to pathogens, we injected fifth instar nymphs of R. prolixus with the Gram-negative (Gr-) bacterium Enterobacter cloacae, the Gram-positive (Gr+) bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and evaluated transcript expression in the fat body 8 and 24 h post-injection (hpi). We analyzed the differential expression of transcripts at each time point, and across time, for each treatment. RESULTS: At 8 hpi, the Gr- bacteria-injected group had a large number of differentially expressed (DE) transcripts, and most of the changes in transcript expression were maintained at 24 hpi. In the Gr+ bacteria treatment, few DE transcripts were detected at 8 hpi, but a large number of transcripts were DE at 24 hpi. Unexpectedly, the PBS control also had a large number of DE transcripts at 24 hpi. Very few DE transcripts were common to the different treatments and time points, indicating a high specificity of the immune responses of R. prolixus to different pathogens. Antimicrobial peptides known to be induced by the immune deficiency pathway were induced upon Gr- bacterial infection. Many transcripts of genes from the Toll pathway that are thought to participate in responses to Gr+ bacteria and fungi were induced by both bacteria and PBS treatment. Pathogen recognition receptors and serine protease cascade transcripts were also overexpressed after Gr- bacteria and PBS injections. Gr- injection also upregulated transcripts involved in the metabolism of tyrosine, a major substrate involved in the melanotic encapsulation response to pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: These results reveal time-dependent pathogen-specific regulation of immune responses in triatomines, and hint at strong interactions between the immune deficiency and Toll pathways.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Rhodnius , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster , Corpo Adiposo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/fisiologia
16.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 897133, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35903201

RESUMO

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces the activation of dendritic cells (DCs) throughout the engagement of toll-like receptor 4. LPS-activated DCs show increased capacity to process and present pathogen-derived antigens to activate naïve T cells. DCs-based vaccines have been successfully used to treat some cancer types, and lately transferred to the field of infectious diseases, in particular against HIV. However, there is no vaccine or DC therapy for any parasitic disease that is currently available. The immune response against Trypanosoma cruzi substantially relies on T cells, and both CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes are required to control parasite growth. Here, we develop a vaccination strategy based on DCs derived from bone marrow, activated with LPS and loaded with TsKb20, an immunodominant epitope of the trans-sialidase family of proteins. We extensively characterized the CD8+ T cell response generated after immunization and compared three different readouts: a tetramer staining, ELISpot and Activation-Induced Marker (AIM) assays. To our knowledge, this work shows for the first time a proper set of T cell markers to evaluate specific CD8+ T cell responses in mice. We also show that our immunization scheme confers protection against T. cruzi, augmenting survival and reducing parasite burden in female but not male mice. We conclude that the immunization with LPS-activated DCs has the potential to prime significant CD8+ T cell responses in C57BL/6 mice independently of the sex, but this response will only be effective in female, possibly due to mice sexual dimorphisms in the response generated against T. cruzi.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Células Dendríticas , Feminino , Imunização , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Vacinação
17.
Anal Chem ; 94(30): 10567-10572, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35863111

RESUMO

Cellular heterogeneity is generally overlooked in infectious diseases. In this study, we investigated host cell heterogeneity during infection with Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) parasites, causative agents of Chagas disease (CD). In chronic-stage CD, only a few host cells are infected with a large load of parasites and symptoms may appear at sites distal to parasite colonization. Furthermore, recent work has revealed T. cruzi heterogeneity with regard to replication rates and drug susceptibility. However, the role of cellular-level metabolic heterogeneity in these processes has yet to be assessed. To fill this knowledge gap, we developed a Single-probe SCMS (single-cell mass spectrometry) method compatible with biosafety protocols, to acquire metabolomics data from individual cells during T. cruzi infection. This study revealed heterogeneity in the metabolic response of the host cells to T. cruzi infection in vitro. Our results showed that parasite-infected cells possessed divergent metabolism compared to control cells. Strikingly, some uninfected cells adjacent to infected cells showed metabolic impacts as well. Specific metabolic changes include increases in glycerophospholipids with infection. These results provide novel insight into the pathogenesis of CD. Furthermore, they represent the first application of bioanalytical SCMS to the study of mammalian-infectious agents, with the potential for broad applications to study infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Doenças Transmissíveis , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animais , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Mamíferos , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica
18.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 890709, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35903196

RESUMO

Chagas disease is produced by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), which is the leading cause of death and morbidity in Latin America. We have shown that in patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy, there is a chronic elevation of diastolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]d), associated with deterioration to further address this issue, we explored the role Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX). Experiments were carried out in noninfected C57BL/6 mice and infected with blood-derived trypomastigotes of the T. cruzi Y strain. Anesthetized mice were sacrificed and the cardiomyocytes were enzymatically dissociated. Diastolic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]d) was measured using Ca2+ selective microelectrodes in cardiomyocytes from control mice (CONT) and cardiomyocytes from T. cruzi infected mice in the early acute phase (EAP) at 20 dpi, in the acute phase (AP) at 40 dpi, and in the chronic phase (CP) at 120 dpi. [Ca2+]d was 1.5-times higher in EAP, 2.6-times in AP, and 3.4-times in CP compared to CONT. Exploring the reverse mode activity of NCX, we replaced extracellular Na+ in equivalent amounts with N-methyl-D-glucamine. Reduction of [Na+]e to 65 mM caused an increase in [Ca2+]d of 1.7 times in cardiomyocytes from CONT mice, 2 times in EAP infected mice, 2.4 times in AP infected mice and 2.8 in CP infected mice. The Na+ free solution caused a further elevation of [Ca2+]d of 2.5 times in cardiomyocytes from CONT, 2.8 times in EAP infected mice, 3.1 times in AP infected mice, and 3.3 times in CP infected mice. Extracellular Ca2+ withdrawal reduced [Ca2+]d in both CONT and cardiomyocytes from Chagas-infected mice and prevented the increase in [Ca2+]d induced by Na+ depletion. Preincubation with 10µM KB-R7943 or in 1µM YM-244769 reduced [Ca2+]d in cardiomyocytes from infected mice, but not control mice. Furthermore, both NCX blockers prevented the increase in [Ca2+]d associated with exposure to a solution without Na+. These results suggest that Ca2+ entry through the reverse NCX mode plays a significant role in the observed [Ca2+]d dyshomeostasis in Chagas infected cardiomyocytes. Additionally, NCX inhibitors may be a viable therapeutic approach for treating patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Trocador de Sódio e Cálcio , Trypanosoma cruzi/metabolismo
19.
Immunobiology ; 227(4): 152243, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35839730

RESUMO

Inflammatory and regulatory cytokines play an important role in the immunopathogenesis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Interleukin (IL)-33 is a member of the IL-1 superfamily of cytokines whose expression/production is upregulated following pro-inflammatory stimulation to alert the immune system in response to tissue stress or damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inflammatory profile induced in cultured J774 cells stimulated or not with IL-33 (10 ng/mL), with live parasites (1 × 106 metacyclic trypomastigote forms) and/or total antigen, TcAg (100 µg/mL) and with both, IL-33 and TcAg/T. cruzi. The cultures were evaluated at 24 h and 48 h after addition of the stimuli. For this, the supernatants were collected for the measurement of TNF, IL-17, CCL2, and IL-10 by ELISA and of nitrite by the Griess method. TNF, IL-17, and CCL2 concentrations were elevated in the presence of TcAg or live T. cruzi parasites at 24 h, and the addition of IL-33 potentiated these effects at 48 h. In addition, the T. cruzi-amastigote forms reduced in those infected J774 cells stimulated with IL-33 at 48 h. In conclusion, the IL-33 elevated the production of the TNF, IL-17, and CCL2 in cultured J774 cells stimulated with T. cruzi and/or its antigen and reduced the intracellular parasites, providing impetus to new investigations on its potential actions on the parasite-induced inflammation.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Trypanosoma cruzi , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Citocinas , Humanos , Interleucina-17 , Interleucina-33
20.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 117: e210130, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830010

RESUMO

Chagas disease (CD) still imposes a heavy burden on most Latin American countries. Vector-borne and mother-to-child transmission cause several thousand new infections per year, and at least 5 million people carry Trypanosoma cruzi. Access to diagnosis and medical care, however, is far from universal. Starting in the 1990s, CD-endemic countries and the Pan American Health Organization-World Health Organization (PAHO-WHO) launched a series of multinational initiatives for CD control-surveillance. An overview of the initiatives' aims, achievements, and challenges reveals some key common themes that we discuss here in the context of the WHO 2030 goals for CD. Transmission of T. cruzi via blood transfusion and organ transplantation is effectively under control. T. cruzi, however, is a zoonotic pathogen with 100+ vector species widely spread across the Americas; interrupting vector-borne transmission seems therefore unfeasible. Stronger surveillance systems are, and will continue to be, needed to monitor and control CD. Prevention of vertical transmission demands boosting current efforts to screen pregnant and childbearing-aged women. Finally, integral patient care is a critical unmet need in most countries. The decades-long experience of the initiatives, in sum, hints at the practical impossibility of interrupting vector-borne T. cruzi transmission in the Americas. The concept of disease control seems to provide a more realistic description of what can in effect be achieved by 2030.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Trypanosoma cruzi , Idoso , América/epidemiologia , Animais , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/prevenção & controle , Vetores de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Gravidez
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