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1.
Cell Host Microbe ; 32(7): 1041-1043, 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38991499

RESUMO

Multiple host and microbial factors dictate whether Candida albicans can colonize the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Savage et al. demonstrate that restoration of intestinal epithelial hypoxia is sufficient to restore Candida albicans colonization resistance, even when other Candida inhibitory effectors remain depleted.


Assuntos
Candida albicans , Candidíase , Trato Gastrointestinal , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/fisiologia , Humanos , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Candidíase/microbiologia , Animais , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Camundongos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia
2.
Mil Med Res ; 11(1): 45, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38978144

RESUMO

Gulf War Illness (GWI) is characterized by a wide range of symptoms that manifests largely as gastrointestinal symptoms. Among these gastrointestinal symptoms, motility disorders are highly prevalent, presenting as chronic constipation, stomach pain, indigestion, diarrhea, and other conditions that severely impact the quality of life of GWI veterans. However, despite a high prevalence of gastrointestinal impairments among these veterans, most research attention has focused on neurological disturbances. This perspective provides a comprehensive overview of current in vivo research advancements elucidating the underlying mechanisms contributing to gastrointestinal disorders in GWI. Generally, these in vivo and in vitro models propose that neuroinflammation alters gut motility and drives the gastrointestinal symptoms reported in GWI. Additionally, this perspective highlights the potential and challenges of in vitro bioengineering models, which could be a crucial contributor to understanding and treating the pathology of gastrointestinal related-GWI.


Assuntos
Bioengenharia , Gastroenteropatias , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico , Humanos , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico/complicações , Bioengenharia/métodos , Bioengenharia/tendências , Gastroenteropatias/fisiopatologia , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Gastroenteropatias/complicações , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiopatologia
3.
Parasitol Res ; 123(7): 271, 2024 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39001937

RESUMO

Parasites are ubiquitous in wildlife populations and have a profound impact on population dynamics. Interest in parasites of wildlife has increased significantly in recent years, particularly in those with relevant conservation status. Patagonia is one of the wildest and remote areas of the world. The Wolffsohn's viscacha lives in a small mountainous area of Patagonia. Until now, little is known about the biology and ecology of this species. The aim of this research was to study the gastrointestinal parasite diversity in this rodent from a coprological survey. A total of 125 fecal samples from 25 colonies were examined. Each sample was rehydrated, homogenized, and analyzed using three parasitological techniques: spontaneous sedimentation, Mini-FLOTAC, and centrifugation-flotation in sucrose-saturated solution, followed by examination under optical microscopy. The samples, eggs, and oocysts of parasites were described, measured, and photographed. All colonies were positive for at least one parasite species. A total of 10 parasitic species were identified: Viscachataenia sp., possibly V. quadrata, Monoecocestus sp., an unidentified anoplocephalid, Heteroxynema sp., possibly H. (Cavioxyura) viscaciae, Helminthoxys sp., possibly H. effilatus, an unidentified strongylid-type egg, Trichuris sp., two morphologies of unidentified coccidians and Eimeria sp. This is the first exhaustive study of gastrointestinal parasites in L. wolffsohni and a large number of eggs and oocysts of parasites were found. Our results highlight the use of noninvasive techniques for the study of parasites of wildlife hosts; as in the case of this rodent with a remote habitat, which makes sampling difficult. The results of our study provide baseline information on gastrointestinal parasite infections in this species.


Assuntos
Fezes , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Argentina , Roedores/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Parasitos/classificação , Microscopia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(13)2024 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39000505

RESUMO

The oral detection of sugars relies on two types of receptor systems. The first is the G-protein-coupled receptor TAS1R2/TAS1R3. When activated, this receptor triggers a downstream signaling cascade involving gustducin, phospholipase Cß2 (PLCß2), and transient receptor potential channel M5 (TRPM5). The second type of receptor is the glucose transporter. When glucose enters the cell via this transporter, it is metabolized to produce ATP. This ATP inhibits the opening of KATP channels, leading to cell depolarization. Beside these receptor systems, sweet-sensitive taste cells have mechanisms to regulate their sensitivity to sweet substances based on internal and external states of the body. Sweet taste receptors are not limited to the oral cavity; they are also present in extraoral organs such as the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and brain. These extraoral sweet receptors are involved in various functions, including glucose absorption, insulin release, sugar preference, and food intake, contributing to the maintenance of energy homeostasis. Additionally, sweet receptors may have unique roles in certain organs like the trachea and bone. This review summarizes past and recent studies on sweet receptor systems, exploring the molecular mechanisms and physiological functions of sweet (sugar) detection in both oral and extraoral organs.


Assuntos
Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G , Humanos , Animais , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Paladar/fisiologia , Papilas Gustativas/metabolismo , Boca/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Canais de Cátion TRPM/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo
5.
Nutrients ; 16(13)2024 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38999779

RESUMO

Changing eating habits and an increase in consumption of thermally processed products have increased the risk of the harmful impact of chemical substances in food on consumer health. A 2002 report by the Swedish National Food Administration and scientists at Stockholm University on the formation of acrylamide in food products during frying, baking and grilling contributed to an increase in scientific interest in the subject. Acrylamide is a product of Maillard's reaction, which is a non-enzymatic chemical reaction between reducing sugars and amino acids that takes place during thermal processing. The research conducted over the past 20 years has shown that consumption of acrylamide-containing products leads to disorders in human and animal organisms. The gastrointestinal tract is a complex regulatory system that determines the transport, grinding, and mixing of food, secretion of digestive juices, blood flow, growth and differentiation of tissues, and their protection. As the main route of acrylamide absorption from food, it is directly exposed to the harmful effects of acrylamide and its metabolite-glycidamide. Despite numerous studies on the effect of acrylamide on the digestive tract, no comprehensive analysis of the impact of this compound on the morphology, innervation, and secretory functions of the digestive system has been made so far. Acrylamide present in food products modifies the intestine morphology and the activity of intestinal enzymes, disrupts enteric nervous system function, affects the gut microbiome, and increases apoptosis, leading to gastrointestinal tract dysfunction. It has also been demonstrated that it interacts with other substances in food in the intestines, which increases its toxicity. This paper summarises the current knowledge of the impact of acrylamide on the gastrointestinal tract, including the enteric nervous system, and refers to strategies aimed at reducing its toxic effect.


Assuntos
Acrilamida , Exposição Dietética , Trato Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Acrilamida/toxicidade , Acrilamida/efeitos adversos , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Contaminação de Alimentos , Gastroenteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Reação de Maillard , Compostos de Epóxi
7.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(7): 332, 2024 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951206

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and motile strain HL-JVS1T, was isolated from the gastric tract of a juvenile Pacific white shrimp. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences of strain HL-JVS1T revealed its affiliation with the genus Pleionea, with close relatives including Pleionea mediterranea MOLA115T (97.5%) and Pleionea sediminis S1-5-21T (96.2%). The complete genome of strain HL-JVS1T consisted of a circular 4.4 Mb chromosome and two circular plasmids (6.6 and 35.0 kb) with a G + C content of 43.1%. The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain HL-JVS1T and the type strains of described Pleionea species were 69.7-70.4% and 18.3-18.6%, respectively. Strain HL-JVS1T grew at 10-40 °C (optimum, 30 °C) in the presence of 0.5 - 9.0% (w/v) sea salts (optimum, 2.0 - 2.5%), and at pH range of 5.5 - 10.0 (optimum, pH 6.5). The major fatty acids (> 10%) were summed feature 9 (iso-C17:1 ω9c and/or C16:0 10-methyl) (23.3%), iso-C16:0 (14.5%), iso-C11:0 3-OH (13.8%) and iso-C15:0 (11.0%). The polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified aminophospholipid, two unidentified aminolipids, and two unidentified lipids. The respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-8. The comprehensive phylogenetic, phylogenomic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic results showed that strain HL-JVS1T is distinct from other Pleionea species. Hence, we propose strain HL-JVS1T as a novel species belonging to the genus Pleionea, for which the name Pleionea litopenaei sp. nov. is proposed with HL-JVS1T (= KCCM 90514T = JCM 36490T) as the type strain.


Assuntos
Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano , Ácidos Graxos , Penaeidae , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Animais , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Genoma Bacteriano , Planococáceas/genética , Planococáceas/isolamento & purificação , Planococáceas/classificação , Trato Gastrointestinal , Fosfolipídeos/análise
8.
World J Gastroenterol ; 30(23): 2934-2946, 2024 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38946875

RESUMO

In this editorial, we comment on an article titled "Morphological and biochemical characteristics associated with autophagy in gastrointestinal diseases", which was published in a recent issue of the World Journal of Gastroenterology. We focused on the statement that "autophagy is closely related to the digestion, secretion, and regeneration of gastrointestinal cells". With advancing research, autophagy, and particularly the pivotal role of the macroautophagy in maintaining cellular equilibrium and stress response in the gastrointestinal system, has garnered extensive study. However, the significance of mitophagy, a unique selective autophagy pathway with ubiquitin-dependent and independent variants, should not be overlooked. In recent decades, mitophagy has been shown to be closely related to the occurrence and development of gastrointestinal diseases, especially inflammatory bowel disease, gastric cancer, and colorectal cancer. The interplay between mitophagy and mitochondrial quality control is crucial for elucidating disease mechanisms, as well as for the development of novel treatment strategies. Exploring the pathogenesis behind gastrointestinal diseases and providing individualized and efficient treatment for patients are subjects we have been exploring. This article reviews the potential mechanism of mitophagy in gastrointestinal diseases with the hope of providing new ideas for diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Gastroenteropatias , Mitocôndrias , Mitofagia , Humanos , Autofagia/fisiologia , Gastroenteropatias/patologia , Gastroenteropatias/metabolismo , Gastroenteropatias/fisiopatologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Animais
9.
World J Gastroenterol ; 30(22): 2852-2865, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38947292

RESUMO

Diabetes, commonly known for its metabolic effects, also critically affects the enteric nervous system (ENS), which is essential in regulating gastrointestinal (GI) motility, secretion, and absorption. The development of diabetes-induced enteric neuropathy can lead to various GI dysfunctions, such as gastroparesis and irregular bowel habits, primarily due to disruptions in the function of neuronal and glial cells within the ENS, as well as oxidative stress and inflammation. This editorial explores the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of enteric neuropathy in diabetic patients. Additionally, it discusses the latest advances in diagnostic approaches, emphasizing the need for early detection and intervention to mitigate GI complications in diabetic individuals. The editorial also reviews current and emerging therapeutic strategies, focusing on pharmacological treatments, dietary management, and potential neuromodulatory interventions. Ultimately, this editorial highlights the necessity of a multidisciplinary approach in managing enteric neuropathy in diabetes, aiming to enhance patient quality of life and address a frequently overlooked complication of this widespread disease.


Assuntos
Neuropatias Diabéticas , Sistema Nervoso Entérico , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Neuropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/terapia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Neuropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/fisiopatologia , Gastroenteropatias/fisiopatologia , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/inervação , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiopatologia , Gastroparesia/terapia , Gastroparesia/fisiopatologia , Gastroparesia/diagnóstico , Gastroparesia/etiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Qualidade de Vida
10.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 39(1): 102, 2024 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38970713

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Routine use of abdominal drain or prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis is no longer part of current clinical practice in colorectal surgery. Nevertheless, in patients undergoing laparoscopic right hemicolectomy with intracorporeal anastomosis (ICA), it may reduce perioperative abdominal contamination. Furthermore, in cancer patients, prolonged surgery with extensive dissection such as central vascular ligation and complete mesocolon excision with D3 lymphadenectomy (altogether radical right colectomy RRC) is called responsible for affecting postoperative ileus. The aim was to evaluate postoperative resumption of gastrointestinal functions in patients undergoing right hemicolectomy for cancer with ICA and standard D2 dissection or RRC, with or without abdominal drain and prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis. METHODS: Monocentric factorial parallel arm randomized pilot trial including all consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic right hemicolectomy and ICA for cancer, in 20 months. Patients were randomized on a 1:1:1 ratio to receive abdominal drain, prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis or neither (I level), and 1:1 to receive RRC or D2 colectomy (II level). Patients were not blinded. The primary aim was the resumption of gastrointestinal functions (time to first gas and stool, time to tolerated fluids and food). Secondary aims were length of stay and complications' rate. CLINICALTRIALS: gov no. NCT04977882. RESULTS: Fifty-seven patients were screened; according to sample size, 36 were randomized, 12 for each arm for postoperative management, and 18 for each arm according to surgical techniques. A difference in time to solid diet favored the group without drain or antibiotic independently from standard or RRC. Furthermore, when patients were divided with respect to surgical technique and into matched cohorts, no differences were seen for primary and secondary outcomes. CONCLUSION: Abdominal drainage and prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing right hemicolectomy for cancer with ICA seem to negatively affect the resumption of a solid diet after laparoscopic right hemicolectomy with ICA for cancer. RRC does not seem to influence gastrointestinal function recovery.


Assuntos
Anastomose Cirúrgica , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Colectomia , Drenagem , Laparoscopia , Excisão de Linfonodo , Humanos , Colectomia/efeitos adversos , Projetos Piloto , Masculino , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Excisão de Linfonodo/efeitos adversos , Anastomose Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Trato Gastrointestinal/cirurgia
11.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 40(6-7): 544-549, 2024.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38986099

RESUMO

The enteric nervous system (ENS), often called the "second brain", plays a crucial role in regulating digestive functions. Dysfunctions of the ENS are associated with several diseases such as Parkinson's disease. Recent studies suggest that early digestive disorders, notably chronic constipation, may be early signs of this neurodegenerative disease. Three-dimensional imaging of the ENS offers new insights into early diagnosis, in particular through the analysis of intestinal biopsies. This new research axis raises questions about the intestinal cause of Parkinson's disease, and opens the door to a better understanding and earlier treatment of this disease.


Title: L'intestin, lanceur d'alerte, dans les prémices de la maladie de Parkinson. Abstract: Le système nerveux entérique (SNE), souvent qualifié de « deuxième cerveau ¼, joue un rôle crucial dans la régulation des fonctions digestives. Des dysfonctionnements du SNE sont associés à diverses maladies telles que la maladie de Parkinson. Des études récentes suggèrent que les troubles digestifs précoces, notamment la constipation chronique, pourraient être des signes avant-coureurs de cette maladie neurodégénérative. L'imagerie tridimensionnelle du SNE offre de nouvelles perspectives pour un diagnostic précoce via notamment l'analyse de biopsies intestinales. Ce nouvel axe de recherche soulève des questions sur l'origine intestinale de la maladie de Parkinson et ouvre la porte à une meilleure compréhension et une prise en charge anticipée de cette maladie.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Entérico , Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/patologia , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/fisiologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiopatologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Animais , Intestinos/patologia , Intestinos/fisiologia
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(28): 15672-15679, 2024 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38950138

RESUMO

A dynamic gastrointestinal digestion system (simgi) after a human oral phase was used, for the first time, to assess the bioaccessibility of plant sterols (PS) from wholemeal rye bread (74.8 ± 2.2 mg of PS/100 g d.m.) and PS-enriched wholemeal rye bread (PS-WRB) (1.6 ± 0.04 g of PS/100 g of fresh bread). The use of these solid food matrices requires a novel adaptation of the gastric phase of the system. The PS identified in the breads are campesterol, campestanol, stigmasterol, ß-sitosterol, sitostanol, Δ5-avenasterol, Δ5,24-stigmastadienol, Δ7-stigmastenol, and Δ7-avenasterol. The bioaccessibility of the total PS, only quantifiable in PS-WRB, is 19.9%, with Δ7-avenasterol being the most bioaccessible and Δ5-avenasterol being the least (p < 0.05). As shown in this study, PS-WRB can be considered to be a good choice to include in the daily diet. Furthermore, although the use of dynamic digestion methods for evaluating bioaccessibility implies high costs and technical complexity, their application means a closer approximation to in vivo scenarios.


Assuntos
Disponibilidade Biológica , Pão , Digestão , Trato Gastrointestinal , Fitosteróis , Secale , Humanos , Pão/análise , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Fitosteróis/análise , Secale/química , Secale/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos
13.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(8): 258, 2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38960917

RESUMO

Imidazole-chalcone compounds are recognised for their broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties. Probiotic-friendly, selective new-generation antimicrobials prove to be more efficient in combating gastrointestinal system pathogens. The aim of this study is to identify imidazole-chalcone derivatives that probiotics tolerate and evaluate their in vitro synergistic antimicrobial effects on pathogens. In this study, fifteen previously identified imidazole-chalcone derivatives were analyzed for their in vitro antimicrobial properties against gastrointestinal microorganisms. Initially, the antimicrobial activity of pathogens was measured using the agar well diffusion method, while the susceptibility of probiotics was determined by microdilution. The chosen imidazole-chalcone derivatives were assessed for synergistic effects using the checkerboard method. Four imidazole-chalcone derivatives to which probiotic bacteria were tolerant exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity against the human pathogens tested. To our knowledge, this study is the first to reveal the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) of combinations of imidazole-chalcone derivatives. Indeed, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for morpholinyl- (ZDO-3f) and 4-ethylpiperazinyl- (ZDO-3 m) imidazole-chalcones were notably low when tested against E. coli and B. subtilis, with values of 31.25 µg/mL and 125 µg/mL, respectively. The combination of morpholinyl- and 4-ethylpiperazinyl derivatives demonstrated an indifferent effect against E. coli, but an additive effect was observed for B. subtilis. Additionally, it was observed that imidazole-chalcone derivatives did not exhibit any inhibitory effects on probiotic organisms like Lactobacillus fermentum (CECT-5716), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (GG), and Lactobacillus casei (RSSK-591). This study demonstrates that imidazole-chalcone derivatives that are well tolerated by probiotics can potentially exert a synergistic effect against gastrointestinal system pathogens.


Assuntos
Sinergismo Farmacológico , Imidazóis , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Probióticos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Imidazóis/química , Chalcona/farmacologia , Chalcona/química , Chalcona/análogos & derivados , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Chalconas/farmacologia , Chalconas/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química
14.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 808, 2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38961219

RESUMO

Insecticide resistance has been a problem in both the agricultural pests and vectors. Revealing the detoxification mechanisms may help to better manage insect pests. Here, we showed that arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (AANAT1) regulates intestinal detoxification process through modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-activated transcription factors cap"n"collar isoform-C (CncC): muscle aponeurosis fibromatosis (Maf) pathway in both the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, and the arbovirus vector, Aedes aegypti. Knockout/knockdown of AANAT1 led to accumulation of biogenic amines, which induced a decreased in the gut ROS level. The reduced midgut ROS levels resulted in decreased expression of CncC and Maf, leading to lower expression level of detoxification genes. AANAT1 knockout/knockdown insects were more susceptible to insecticide treatments. Our study reveals that normal functionality of AANAT1 is important for the regulation of gut detoxification pathways, providing insights into the mechanism underlying the gut defense against xenobiotics in metazoans.


Assuntos
Arilalquilamina N-Acetiltransferase , Inativação Metabólica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Animais , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Arilalquilamina N-Acetiltransferase/metabolismo , Arilalquilamina N-Acetiltransferase/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Aedes/genética , Aedes/metabolismo , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo
15.
Gut Microbes ; 16(1): 2360233, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949979

RESUMO

Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), chronic disorders characterized by either abdominal pain, altered intestinal motility, or their combination, have a worldwide prevalence of more than 40% and impose a high socioeconomic burden with a significant decline in quality of life. Recently, FGIDs have been reclassified as disorders of gut-brain interaction (DGBI), reflecting the key role of the gut-brain bidirectional communication in these disorders and their impact on psychological comorbidities. Although, during the past decades, the field of DGBIs has advanced significantly, the molecular mechanisms underlying DGBIs pathogenesis and pathophysiology, and the role of the gut microbiome in these processes are not fully understood. This review aims to discuss the latest body of literature on the complex microbiota-gut-brain interactions and their implications in the pathogenesis of DGBIs. A better understanding of the existing communication pathways between the gut microbiome and the brain holds promise in developing effective therapeutic interventions for DGBIs.


Assuntos
Eixo Encéfalo-Intestino , Encéfalo , Gastroenteropatias , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Eixo Encéfalo-Intestino/fisiologia , Gastroenteropatias/microbiologia , Gastroenteropatias/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/microbiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Animais , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15039, 2024 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951150

RESUMO

The appropriate structure of the digestive tract is crucial for individual adaptation to ecological conditions. In birds, the length of the small intestine, responsible for food absorption, is generally believed to be positively correlated with body size. In this study, we investigated the variation in small intestine length in the White Stork (Ciconia ciconia), a monomorphic species without visible sexual dimorphism, but characterized by differing parental efforts, which can be reflected by the small intestine lengths between the sexes. We examined the relationship between small intestine length and body size within the sexes. Our findings show that male White Storks have significantly shorter small intestines than females, despite having larger body sizes than the latter. Furthermore, we found a significant relationship between body size and small intestine length, but it was of a different nature in the two sexes. Males exhibited a previously unreported phenomenon, whereby increasing body size was associated with shortening small intestines, whereas females exhibited the opposite pattern. These novel findings shed light on the anatomical adaptations of the digestive tract in birds.


Assuntos
Aves , Tamanho Corporal , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Aves/anatomia & histologia , Aves/fisiologia , Intestino Delgado/anatomia & histologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/anatomia & histologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia
17.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 232, 2024 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Migratory birds exhibit heterogeneity in foraging strategies during wintering to cope with environmental and migratory pressures, and gut bacteria respond to changes in host diet. However, less is known about the dynamics of diet and gut fungi during the wintering period in black-necked cranes (Grus nigricollis). RESULTS: In this work, we performed amplicon sequencing of the trnL-P6 loop and ITS1 regions to characterize the dietary composition and gut fungal composition of black-necked cranes during wintering. Results indicated that during the wintering period, the plant-based diet of black-necked cranes mainly consisted of families Poaceae, Solanaceae, and Polygonaceae. Among them, the abundance of Solanaceae, Polygonaceae, Fabaceae, and Caryophyllaceae was significantly higher in the late wintering period, which also led to a more even consumption of various food types by black-necked cranes during this period. The diversity of gut fungal communities and the abundance of core fungi were more conserved during the wintering period, primarily dominated by Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. LEfSe analysis (P < 0.05, LDA > 2) found that Pyxidiophora, Pseudopeziza, Sporormiella, Geotrichum, and Papiliotrema were significantly enriched in early winter, Ramularia and Dendryphion were significantly enriched in mid-winter, Barnettozyma was significantly abundant in late winter, and Pleuroascus was significantly abundant in late winter. Finally, mantel test revealed a significant correlation between winter diet and gut fungal. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the dynamic changes in the food composition and gut fungal community of black-necked cranes during wintering in Dashanbao. In the late wintering period, their response to environmental and migratory pressures was to broaden their diet, increase the intake of non-preferred foods, and promote a more balanced consumption ratio of various foods. Balanced food composition played an important role in stabilizing the structure of the gut fungal community. While gut fungal effectively enhanced the host's food utilization rate, they may also faced potential risks of introducing pathogenic fungi. Additionally, we recongnized the limitations of fecal testing in studying the composition of animal gut fungal, as it cannot effectively distinguished between fungal taxa from food or soil inadvertently ingested and intestines. Future research on functions such as cultivation and metagenomics may further elucidate the role of fungi in the gut ecosystem.


Assuntos
Aves , Dieta , Fungos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Estações do Ano , Animais , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Aves/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , DNA Fúngico/genética , Filogenia
18.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 104(27): 2568-2571, 2024 Jul 16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38978383

RESUMO

To summarize the clinical features and prognosis of pediatric mature B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (mB-NHL) with digestive tract perforation. The clinical manifestations, laboratory and imaging examinations, treatment and outcomes of mB-NHL children complicated with digestive tract perforation admitted to Beijing Children's Hospital of Capital Medical University from January 2016 to June 2023 were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 12 patients were included, with 11 males and 1 female, aged 0.8-16.0 (7.5±5.4) years. Among them, there were 10 cases of Burkitt lymphoma, 1 case of high-grade B-cell lymphoma (HGBL) and 1 case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), respectively. Intestinal involvement was involved in all cases, with St.Jude staging ranging from stage Ⅲ to Ⅳ. Eleven cases had large abdominal mass. In 7 cases, abdominal X-ray examination showed free gas under the diaphragm. Eleven cases experienced digestive tract perforation after chemotherapy, and the time of perforation after initiation of chemotherapy was 2.0-111.0 (41.2±33.6) days. The most common site of perforation was ileum (6 cases), followed by gastric wall (2 cases), jejunum (1 case), colon (1 case) and appendix (1 case). Eight patients underwent surgery, and the time between surgery and re-chemotherapy was 7.0-45.0 (17.6±12.0) days. One case with perforation before chemotherapy died after giving up treatment. The remaining 11 cases received conservative treatment or surgical intervention, followed by regular chemotherapy after symptom and infection control. The follow-up time was 6.0-82.0 (45.0±26.1) months, and all survived.


Assuntos
Perfuração Intestinal , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Prognóstico , Perfuração Intestinal/etiologia , Linfoma de Células B , Linfoma de Burkitt , Trato Gastrointestinal , Linfoma não Hodgkin , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B
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