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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638969

RESUMO

Heterostyly is a breeding system that promotes outbreeding through a combination of morphological and physiological floral traits. In Turnera these traits are governed by a single, hemizygous S-locus containing just three genes. We report that the S-locus gene, BAHD, is mutated and encodes a severely truncated protein in a self-compatible long homostyle species. Further, a self-compatible long homostyle mutant possesses a T. krapovickasii BAHD allele with a point mutation in a highly conserved domain of BAHD acyl transferases. Wild type and mutant TkBAHD alleles were expressed in Arabidopsis to assay for brassinosteroid (BR) inactivating activity. The wild type but not mutant allele caused dwarfism, consistent with the wild type possessing, but the mutant allele having lost, BR inactivating activity. To investigate whether BRs act directly in self-incompatibility, BRs were added to in vitro pollen cultures of the two mating types. A small morph specific stimulatory effect on pollen tube growth was found with 5 µM brassinolide, but no genotype specific inhibition was observed. These results suggest that BAHD acts pleiotropically to mediate pistil length and physiological mating type through BR inactivation, and that in regard to self-incompatibility, BR acts by differentially regulating gene expression in pistils, rather than directly on pollen.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/genética , Genes de Plantas , Loci Gênicos , Polinização/genética , Turnera/genética , Turnera/metabolismo , Alelos , Arabidopsis/genética , Brassinosteroides/farmacologia , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genótipo , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/genética , Fenótipo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Mutação Puntual , Pólen/genética , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pólen/metabolismo , Polinização/efeitos dos fármacos , Esteroides Heterocíclicos/farmacologia , Turnera/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 3): e20201067, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468489

RESUMO

The lowlands of mid-latitude South America comprise complex temperate ecoregions characterized by a unique biodiversity. However, the processes responsible for shaping its species diversity are still largely unknown. Turnera sidoides subsp. carnea is a variable subspecies occurring in the lowlands of northeastern Argentina and Uruguay, extending to southern Paraguay and Brazil. It constitutes a good model to perform evolutionary studies. Here we used an integrative approach to understand the process of diversification within this subspecies and to increase the knowledge concerning patterns and processes responsible for shaping the species diversity in the temperate lowlands of South America. The results provided strong evidences that this subspecies is an autopolyploid complex per se, being in an active process of intrasubspecific diversification. Morphological and genetic data show that the diversity of T. sidoides subsp. carnea is in congruence with the great past and present abiotic and biotic variability of the mid-latitude South American lowlands. The evolutionary history of this subspecies is consistent with past fragmentation and allopatric differentiation at diploid level. Geographic isolation and local adaptation would have promoted strong morphological, ecological, and genetic differentiation, resulting in two morphotypes and different genetic groups indicative of incipient speciation.


Assuntos
Turnera , Argentina , Biodiversidade , Brasil , Diploide , Filogenia , América do Sul
3.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244732, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161460

RESUMO

Some studies report the positive effect of organic residues from ant nests on soil properties and on the structure of the adjacent plant community in field experiments, but there is a gap about the effect on individual species. The purpose of the present study was to compare the soil nutrient content and the development of Turnera subulata Smith, an ornamental species, in the presence of the nest refuse (basically composed of fragments of grass leaves and the symbiotic fungus) produced by the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890) or in control soil through a greenhouse pot experiment. The experiment was carried out with two treatments: control soil and soil with 25% of nest refuse. The plants were kept in 1L pots for 90 days. We evaluated the parameters: plant height, stem diameter, root length, number of leaves, dry weight of the root, dry and fresh aboveground biomass. Additionally, the relative chlorophyll content and leaf nutrients were used as nutritional parameters. As a result, plants that grew in the soil with nest refuse showed significant higher values of all parameters evaluated when compared to the control treatment (p < 0.001). We conclude that this biofertilizer contributed to the production of more vigorous plants, being able to act on the local dynamics of nutrients in the ecosystems where A. balzani occurs. As it is relatively abundant and easy to collect, the refuse of A. balzani has the potential to be used as an alternative substrate in the production of shortlife cycle plants.


Assuntos
Formigas , Turnera , Animais , Ecossistema , Folhas de Planta , Plantas , Solo , Simbiose
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 271: 113865, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485975

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Flavonoids interact with multiple targets in Central Nervous System resulting in a broad neuroprotection mediated by complementary processes and synergic interactions. Therefore, flavonoid-based therapies may input positive outcomes in the prevention and early management of neurodegenerative diseases. In Brazilian folk medicine Trichilia catigua is used for its neuroactive properties, such as neurostimulant, antioxidant and anti-neuroinflammatory, while Turnera diffusa is traditionally used as a tonic in neurasthenia. Both species are known to be rich in flavonoids. AIM OF THE STUDY: To study aqueous extracts of T. catigua and T. diffusa in terms of their antioxidant and antiglycation effects, inhibition of tyrosinase activity, and interaction with enzymes and pathways engaged in neuroinflammation. Moreover, whenever possible, to establish a relationship between the studied activities and the traditional usage of the species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The phenolic profiles of the aqueous extracts were validated by HPLC-DAD. The effect of the extracts over mushroom tyrosinase and 5-lipoxygenase activities, as well as their capacity to impair bovine serum albumin glycation, were assessed by in vitro assays. The anti-neuroinflammatory potential of the same extracts was evaluated by their capacity to mitigate the pro-inflammatory stimulus induced in BV-2 microglia cells by interferon-gamma. RESULTS: T. catigua extract, a rich mixture of phenolic acids, catechins and flavonolignans, excels by its ability to decrease lipid peroxidation (EC50 = 227.18 ±â€¯9.04 µg/mL), and to work as anti-glycation agent, and inhibitor of both tyrosinase and 5-lipoxigenase (IC50 = 358.84 ±â€¯19.05 and 56.25 ±â€¯14.53 µg/mL, respectively). However, only T. diffusa extract, mainly composed by luteolin derivatives, is able to lower NO production by BV-2 microglia cells stimulated with interferon-gamma, despite its lower activities in the other assays. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this work highlights the value of medicinal plant extracts as sources of bioactive flavonoid-rich extracts with neuroactive effects. Furthermore, these results support their application as alternative strategies to develop functional foods and therapeutics to fight chronic neurodegenerative disorders.


Assuntos
Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/antagonistas & inibidores , Meliaceae/química , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Turnera/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Brasil , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/farmacologia , Medicina Tradicional , Camundongos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo
5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 132: 110819, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035829

RESUMO

Psychiatric drugs, such as antidepressants, are used to treat depression based on their ability to modify chemical imbalances of the key neurotransmitters in the brain, including dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. Amitriptyline, a first-reference tricyclic antidepressant derived from dibenzocycloheptadine, is frequently used, especially in neuropsychiatry, to address general depression, major depressive disorders, and fibromyalgia. Therefore, this study attempted to examine the sexual dysfunction attendant on the use of Amitriptyline by investigating the protective role that can be played by damiana. To this end, this study used damiana (Turnera diffusa Willd.) as adjuvant therapy in male albino rats receiving Amitriptyline. Sixty male albino rats were randomly allocated to six groups, with 10 rats being assigned to each group; the first group was a control, the second was treated with damiana only, the third group was given Amitriptyline, the fourth group received Amitriptyline and damiana simultaneously, the fifth group was given Amitriptyline and post-treated with damiana, and the sixth group was given Amitriptyline and then allowed time for self-healing. The findings of this study suggest that oxidative stress occurs in testicular tissue in rat groups treated with Amitriptyline, as manifested by inappropriate activity of TBARS, SOD, GSH, GR, GST, and GPx. Amitriptyline also repressed reproductive hormonal activity, as confirmed by histopathological lesions, DNA damage, and p53 protein expression. The addition of damiana, however, showed aprotective role in all testicular activity indices.


Assuntos
Amitriptilina/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Turnera/química , Animais , Antidepressivos Tricíclicos/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Testículo/patologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
6.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 100: 418-426, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209397

RESUMO

In Mexican herbal medicines or natural remedies, Turnera diffusa (Turneraceae) known as "Damiana de California", has ethnopharmacological relevance, including aphrodisiac, diuretic, and antimicrobial activities. To explore the immunological effect of infusion and methanolic extracts from Damiana de California, this study investigated its chemical, biological, antimicrobial and immunological properties in Longfin yellowtail Seriola rivoliana leukocytes. The analysis of chemical compounds revealed a considerable level of total phenolic and flavonoid contents in the infusion compared with methanolic extract. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity showed high hydroxyl radical scavenging activity in infusion extract compared with BHT positive control. Superoxide radical scavenging activity and ion chelation were higher in methanolic extract followed by infusion treatment. Interestingly, notable antimicrobial activity was observed in both extracts of T. diffusa against Vibrio parahaemolyticus. An in vitro study was performed using leukocytes of S. rivoliana treated with infusion or methanolic extracts at 12.5, 25 and 50 µg/mL for 24 h. Remarkably, infusion extract induced proliferation at any concentration but not the methanolic extract, which was diminished in a dose-dependent fashion. The immunostimulation study demonstrated that the phagocytosis activity increased in those leukocytes stimulated with methanolic extract but diminished the respiratory burst activity, in contrast to the activity observed in those leukocytes stimulated with infusion treatment. Finally, leukocytes incubated with the extracts and confronted with V.parahaemolyticus up-regulated the transcription of proinflammatory cytokine IL-1ß gene in a dose response relationship. These findings suggest that the infusion treatment has potential therapeutic properties, promoting the antioxidant capacity and enhancing immune parameters in Longfin yellowtail S. rivoliana.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Perciformes/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Turnera/química , Animais , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Leucócitos/microbiologia , Metanol/química , Perciformes/metabolismo , Fenóis/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/patogenicidade
7.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1104: 105-109, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106940

RESUMO

Solid-state 13C and 19F NMR spectroscopy offers a non-destructive, highly selective protocol for the identification of forensically relevant synthetic cannabinoids on herbal substrates. Using this technique, well resolved 13C spectra were obtained that readily enabled structural identification; in some instances complemented by 19F spectral data. The approach described has potential for related applications such as the direct detection of pesticides on plants.


Assuntos
Canabinoides/análise , Drogas Desenhadas/análise , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular/métodos , Preparações de Plantas/química , Turnera/química , Canabinoides/química , Drogas Desenhadas/química , Estrutura Molecular
8.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(16): 2384-2388, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30761908

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial and modulatory activity of the Turnera subulate methyl extract in isolation or in combination with aminoglycoside antibiotics, using the microdilution method. The Turnera subulata methyl extract was used in isolation in the antibacterial assays and in combination with antibiotics in the modulation assays. All tests were performed in triplicates. The Turnera subulata methyl extract presented both antibacterial and antibiotic-modulatory effects in vitro, in isolation and in association with aminoglycosides. The extract activity depends on the bacterial strain and may be associated with the presence of tannins and flavonols. However, further studies are required to characterize the Turnera subulata potential for the development of new drugs against multiresistant bacteria.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Turnera/química , Aminoglicosídeos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/química
9.
New Phytol ; 224(3): 1316-1329, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144315

RESUMO

Distyly is an intriguing floral adaptation that increases pollen transfer precision and restricts inbreeding. It has been a model system in evolutionary biology since Darwin. Although the S-locus determines the long- and short-styled morphs, the genes were unknown in Turnera. We have now identified these genes. We used deletion mapping to identify, and then sequence, BAC clones and genome scaffolds to construct S/s haplotypes. We investigated candidate gene expression, hemizygosity, and used mutants, to explore gene function. The s-haplotype possessed 21 genes collinear with a region of chromosome 7 of grape. The S-haplotype possessed three additional genes and two inversions. TsSPH1 was expressed in filaments and anthers, TsYUC6 in anthers and TsBAHD in pistils. Long-homostyle mutants did not possess TsBAHD and a short-homostyle mutant did not express TsSPH1. Three hemizygous genes appear to determine S-morph characteristics in T. subulata. Hemizygosity is common to all distylous species investigated, yet the genes differ. The pistil candidate gene, TsBAHD, differs from that of Primula, but both may inactivate brassinosteroids causing short styles. TsYUC6 is involved in auxin synthesis and likely determines pollen characteristics. TsSPH1 is likely involved in filament elongation. We propose an incompatibility mechanism involving TsYUC6 and TsBAHD.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Turnera/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cromossomos Artificiais Bacterianos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Genótipo , Haplótipos/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Deleção de Sequência/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 137: 44-63, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999036

RESUMO

With 145 species, Turnera is the largest genus of Turneraceae (Malpighiales). Despite several morphotaxonomic and cytogenetic studies, our knowledge about the phylogenetic relationships in Turnera remains mainly based on morphological data. Here, we reconstruct the most comprehensive phylogeny of Turnera with molecular data to understand the morphological evolution within this group and to assess its circumscription and infrageneric classification. We analyzed two nuclear and six plastid markers and 112 taxa, including species and infraspecific taxa, 97 from Turnera, covering the 11 series of the genus. Bayesian inference, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses show that Turnera, as traditionally circumscribed, is not monophyletic. The genus is divided into two well-supported independent clades; one of them is sister to the genus Piriqueta and is here segregated as the new genus Oxossia. According to our reconstructions, Turnera probably evolved from an ancestor without extrafloral nectaries and with solitary, homostylous flowers with yellow petals. The emergences of extrafloral nectaries and distyly, both common in extant taxa, played an important role in the diversification of the genus. An updated infrageneric classification reflecting the relationships within Turnera is now possible based on morphological synapomorphies and is here designed for further studies.


Assuntos
Classificação , Filogenia , Turnera/anatomia & histologia , Turnera/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Biodiversidade , Sequência Consenso , Inflorescência/genética , Tricomas/genética , Turnera/classificação
11.
J Med Food ; 22(4): 384-392, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900937

RESUMO

Cardiovascular and thromboembolic disturbances are the main causes of disease-related deaths worldwide. Regardless of the etiological factors involved in thrombus formation, coagulation is mainly activated by thrombin, one of the most important blood clotting molecules. Thus, this study evaluated the Turnera subulata leaf crude extract, its ethyl acetate fraction effect on the coagulation cascade, and its possible side effects. Their phytocomposition indicated polyphenols, mainly flavonol-3-O-glycosylate and a flavone glycoside, without in vitro and in vivo toxicity. Regarding their potential anticoagulants, results displayed partial thromboplastin and prothrombin time activation, and Xa and IIa, and thrombin inhibition by heparin II cofactor, indicating significant anticoagulant activity, suggesting direct and indirect thrombin inhibition as the main mechanism of action. Therefore, T. subulata leaf active compounds exhibit therapeutic potential required to develop phytotherapeutic formulations to assist conventional anticoagulants in clinical treatments.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Trombina/antagonistas & inibidores , Tromboembolia/tratamento farmacológico , Turnera/química , Animais , Anticoagulantes/química , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Tempo de Protrombina , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Tromboembolia/sangue
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 236: 50-62, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818006

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore the antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects of an aqueous extract of Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae) and to explore its possible toxic side effects on behavior, target organ function, and spermatic quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Acute effects of a T. diffusa aqueous extract were evaluated in adult male mice with the plus-maze, forced swimming and open field tests to identify the possible anxiolytic, antidepressant and stimulant effects of this extract. Effects of T. diffusa aqueous extract were further investigated through two approaches. a) Male and female adult mice receiving a 28-day treatment were evaluated in a neurobehavioral test battery; later, changes in their biochemical parameters and in target organ morphology were analyzed. b) In young adult (16-weeks old) and mature (46-weeks old) males, spermatic quality and testes morphology during a complete spermatogenesis cycle were analyzed after a 35-day treatment. RESULTS: T. diffusa aqueous extract induced remarkable anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects without affecting locomotor activity. This extract did not elicit behavioral signs of neural side effects, a sex-dependent reduction in body weight gain was produced without affecting functional parameters or the morphology of target organs. The highest dose improved cellular turnover in the testes of mature mice. CONCLUSION: T. diffusa aqueous extract induced a clear anxiolytic-like effect, and for the first time, we reported an antidepressant effect. Clinical potential or even intake of T. diffusa in the context of traditional medicine can be supported by its efficacy to positively modulate behavior and its safety for a wide range of doses.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Turnera/química , Animais , Ansiolíticos/isolamento & purificação , Ansiolíticos/toxicidade , Antidepressivos/isolamento & purificação , Antidepressivos/toxicidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Teste de Desempenho do Rota-Rod , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Natação , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/patologia
13.
Molecules ; 24(4)2019 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813423

RESUMO

The investigation of the constituents that were isolated from Turnera diffusa (damiana) for their inhibitory activities against recombinant human monoamine oxidases (MAO-A and MAO-B) in vitro identified acacetin 7-methyl ether as a potent selective inhibitor of MAO-B (IC50 = 198 nM). Acacetin 7-methyl ether (also known as 5-hydroxy-4', 7-dimethoxyflavone) is a naturally occurring flavone that is present in many plants and vegetables. Acacetin 7-methyl ether was four-fold less potent as an inhibitor of MAO-B when compared to acacetin (IC50 = 50 nM). However, acacetin 7-methyl ether was >500-fold selective against MAO-B over MAO-A as compared to only two-fold selectivity shown by acacetin. Even though the IC50 for inhibition of MAO-B by acacetin 7-methyl ether was ~four-fold higher than that of the standard drug deprenyl (i.e., SelegilineTM or ZelaparTM, a selective MAO-B inhibitor), acacetin 7-methyl ether's selectivity for MAO-B over MAO-A inhibition was greater than that of deprenyl (>500- vs. 450-fold). The binding of acacetin 7-methyl ether to MAO-B was reversible and time-independent, as revealed by enzyme-inhibitor complex equilibrium dialysis assays. The investigation on the enzyme inhibition-kinetics analysis with varying concentrations of acacetin 7-methyl ether and the substrate (kynuramine) suggested a competitive mechanism of inhibition of MAO-B by acacetin 7-methyl ether with Ki value of 45 nM. The docking scores and binding-free energies of acacetin 7-methyl ether to the X-ray crystal structures of MAO-A and MAO-B confirmed the selectivity of binding of this molecule to MAO-B over MAO-A. In addition, molecular dynamics results also revealed that acacetin 7-methyl ether formed a stable and strong complex with MAO-B. The selective inhibition of MAO-B suggests further investigations on acacetin 7-methyl as a potential new drug lead for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease.


Assuntos
Flavonas/química , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/química , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Turnera/química , Sítios de Ligação , Flavonas/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Cinética , Éteres Metílicos/química , Éteres Metílicos/isolamento & purificação , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Especificidade por Substrato
14.
Molecules ; 24(5)2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30823394

RESUMO

In our continuing search for new cytotoxic agents, we assayed extracts, fractions, and pure compounds from damiana (Turnera diffusa) against multiple myeloma (NCI-H929, U266, and MM1S) cell lines. After a first liquid-liquid solvent extraction, the ethyl acetate layer of an acetone (70%) crude extract was identified as the most active fraction. Further separation of the active fraction led to the isolation of naringenin (1), three apigenin coumaroyl glucosides 2⁻4, and five flavone aglycones 5⁻9. Naringenin (1) and apigenin 7-O-(4″-O-p-E-coumaroyl)-glucoside (4) showed significant cytotoxic effects against the tested myeloma cell lines. Additionally, we established a validated ultra-high performance liquid chromatography diode array detector (UHPLC-DAD) method for the quantification of the isolated components in the herb and in traditional preparations of T. diffusa.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos , Citotoxinas , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais , Turnera/classificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Citotoxinas/química , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/metabolismo , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
15.
Environ Toxicol ; 34(3): 330-339, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578656

RESUMO

Oxidative stress and increased production of reactive oxygen species have been implicated in pesticides and heavy metals toxicity. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Turnera diffusa Willd (damiana) on counteracting fenitrothion (FNT) and/or potassium dichromate (CrVI)-induced testicular toxicity and oxidative injury in rats. FNT and/or CrVI intoxicated animals revealed a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydrogen peroxide levels. While, reduced glutathione and protein content, as well as antioxidant enzymes, phosphatases, and aminotransferases activities, were significantly decreased. In addition, significant changes in testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels were detected. Furthermore, histological and immunohistochemical alterations were observed in rat testes and this supported the observed biochemical changes. On the other hand, rats treated with damiana alone decreased lipid peroxidation and increased most of the examined parameters. Moreover, damiana pretreatment to FNT and/or CrVI-intoxicated rats showed significant improvement in lipid peroxidation, enzyme activities, and hormones as compared with their respective treated groups. Conclusively, rats treated with both FNT and/or CrVI showed pronounced hazardous effect especially in their combination group in addition, Turnera diffusa had a potential protective role against FNT and/or CrVI induced testicular toxicity.


Assuntos
Cromo/toxicidade , Fenitrotion/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Turnera/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Dicromato de Potássio/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Testículo/metabolismo , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
16.
Neotrop Entomol ; 47(6): 750-756, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29982978

RESUMO

Symbiosis between plants and ants include examples in which the plant provides shelter and/or food for ants that, in turn, act in the defense or in the dispersion of seeds from the host plant. Although traditionally referred as mutualistic, the results of these interactions may vary with the ecological context in which patterns are involved. A range of species have facultative association with Turnera subulata (Turneraceae). Here, using behavioral bioassays, we investigated the effects of the most frequent ant species associated with T. subulata (Brachymyrmex sp.1, Camponotus blandus (Smith), Dorymyrmex sp.1, Crematogaster obscurata Emery, and Solenopsis invicta Buren) in the dispersion of plant host seeds and in the number of seedlings around the associated ant nests. We also evaluated the effects of these ant species in the germination of T. subulata seeds, in the consumption of elaiosome, and in the attractiveness to elaiosome odor. Our results showed that the ant species associated with T. subulata presented variation in the attraction by the odor and in the rate of consumption of the elaiosomes. However, none of the ant species studied contributed significantly to the increase of seed germination and seedling growth. Our results suggest that the consumption of the elaiosome by ant species is not a determinant factor to the success of germination of T. subulata. However, such species could contribute indirectly to seed germination by carrying seeds to sites more fertile to germination. In general, our results help to elucidate the results of ecological interactions involving ants and plants.


Assuntos
Formigas/fisiologia , Germinação , Dispersão de Sementes , Turnera/fisiologia , Animais , Simbiose
17.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0199764, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29949639

RESUMO

Variation in partner species and frequency of interaction between species pairs are potential drivers of the net outcome of generalized mutualisms. In ant-plant mutualisms, the quality of defence provided by ants is related to ant aggressiveness. Hence, we hypothesize that the performance of plants bearing extrafloral nectaries will be higher when they interact more frequently with more aggressive ant species. We estimated ant aggressiveness in the field by observing their behaviour towards soil baits. Afterwards, we observed the frequency with which individuals from these ant species visited plants through an entire reproductive cycle. We measured the production and persistence of plants reproductive structures through this period and the total seed production. Increasing in the interaction frequency with highly aggressive ants reduced the number of floral buds and seeds produced. Increased visitation frequency by less aggressive ants increased the number of floral buds and seeds per branch. The inverse relationship between ant aggressiveness and seed production may be influenced by the costs imposed by different mutualistic partners. Thus, frequent interaction with highly aggressive ants may lead to a higher accumulation of costs through time, resulting in a negative net outcome for the plants. Our results bring new evidence highlighting the importance to incorporate temporal aspects in the study of mutualistic interactions. We suggests that the quality of mutualistic partners must be understood as a function of its per-interaction benefit and their cumulative costs to their partner over time, what puts in check our current classification regarding partner quality in mutualistic systems.


Assuntos
Formigas/fisiologia , Néctar de Plantas/fisiologia , Simbiose , Turnera/fisiologia , Agressão , Animais , Flores/fisiologia , Frutas/fisiologia , Reprodução , Sementes/fisiologia
18.
J Med Food ; 21(4): 372-379, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29437539

RESUMO

Medicinal plants have been used in primary healthcare since the earliest days of humankind. Turnera subulata and Spondias mombin × Spondias tuberosa are widely used in the Brazilian Northeast to treat several diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of the leaf extracts of these species by the somatic mutation and recombination test in the somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster wings. The experiments were performed using standard and high-bioactivation cross and three concentrations of the test substance [aqueous extract (AET and AES) at 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 mg/mL and ethanolic extract (EET and EES) and ethyl acetate fraction (EAFT and EAFS) at 0.625, 1.25, and 2.5 mg/mL]. Results indicated that the extracts and fractions induced spontaneous frequencies of mutant spots in both D. melanogaster crosses. Nevertheless, the highest concentrations of the tested plant chemical agents were responsible for the statistically significant genotypic effect. T. subulata and S. mombin × S. tuberosa displayed genotoxic effect under the experimental conditions. The results from this study are crucial as they indicated the deleterious and side effects, considering the indiscriminate use of the extracts of these plants for disease treatment.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae/toxicidade , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Mutação , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Turnera/toxicidade , Animais , Brasil , Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Folhas de Planta , Plantas Medicinais
19.
J Plant Res ; 131(1): 77-89, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28831641

RESUMO

Triploids can play an important role in polyploid evolution. However, their frequent sterility is an obstacle for the origin and establishment of neotetraploids. Here we analyzed the microsporogenesis of triploids (x = 7) and the crossability among cytotypes of Turnera sidoides, aiming to test the impact of triploids on the origin and demographic establishment of tetraploids in natural populations. Triploids of T. sidoides exhibit irregular meiotic behavior. The high frequency of monovalents and of trivalents with non-convergent orientations results in unbalanced and/or non-viable male gametes. In spite of abnormalities in chromosome pairing and unbalanced chromosome segregation, triploids are not completely sterile and yielded up to 67% of viable pollen. Triploids that originated by the fusion of 2n × n gametes of the same taxon showed more regular meiotic behavior and higher fertility than triploids from the contact zone of diploids and tetraploids or triploids of hybrid origin. The reproductive isolation of T. sidoides cytotypes of different ploidy level is not strict and the 'triploid block' may be overcome occasionally. Triploids of T. sidoides produce diploid and triploid progeny suggesting that new generations of polyploids could originate from crosses between triploids or from backcrosses with diploids. The capability of T. sidoides to multiply asexually by rhizomes, would enhance the likelihood that a low frequency of neopolyploids can be originated and maintained in natural populations of T. sidoides.


Assuntos
Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triploidia , Turnera/genética , Argentina , Evolução Molecular , Dinâmica Populacional , Reprodução , Turnera/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Nat Prod Res ; 32(23): 2840-2843, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28948849

RESUMO

The antioxidant effects of water-ethanol extract (WEE) from Turnera diffusa (damiana) in kidney mitochondria from experimental streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (STZ-DM) rats was evaluated. STZ-DM rats were orally treated during three and five weeks. After experimental periods, kidney mitochondria were isolated and malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO•) and protein nitrosylation levels were measured. Also, blood glucose (BG) and body weight (BW) were recorded. Damiana significantly reduced the MDA and NO• levels in kidney mitochondria, although no changes in protein nitrosylation were observed and it did not have the potential to reverse the hyperglycaemia. In conclusion, WEE of T. diffusa have antioxidant properties that may prevent damage induced by mitochondrial oxidative stress in kidneys of STZ-DM rats.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Turnera/química , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Estreptozocina/farmacologia
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