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1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1030, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658215

RESUMO

The increase in online media use and mental health problems have prompted investigations into their association, although most literature is focussed on deleterious effects. We assessed the aetiology of media use and mental health associations (M age = 22.14, SD = 0.85) using twin (n = 4000 pairs) and polygenic score methods (n = 6000 unrelated individuals) in the Twins Early Development Study. Beyond the traditionally explored negative uses of online media (online victimisation and problematic internet use), we investigate general media uses such as posting online and watching videos and distinguish both positive (pro-social behaviour) and negative (anxiety, depression, peer and behaviour problems) mental health measures. Negative media use correlated with poor mental health (r = 0.11-0.32), but general media use correlated with prosocial behaviour (r = 0.20) and fewer behavioural problems (r = - 0.24). Twin analyses showed that both general and negative media use were moderately heritable (ranging from 20 to 49%) and their associations with mental health were primarily due to genetic influences (44-88%). Genetic sensitivity analysis combining polygenic scores with heritability estimates also suggest genetic confounding. Results indicate research on the mental health impact of media use should adopt genetically informed designs to strengthen causal inference.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Saúde Mental , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Gêmeos/genética , Ansiedade , Comportamento Social
2.
Am J Psychiatry ; 180(2): 117-126, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36628513

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Childhood maltreatment is associated with mental health problems, but the extent to which this relationship is causal remains unclear. To strengthen causal inference, the authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of quasi-experimental studies examining the relationship between childhood maltreatment and mental health problems. METHODS: A search of PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase was conducted for peer-reviewed, English-language articles from database inception until January 1, 2022. Studies were included if they examined the association between childhood maltreatment and mental health problems using a quasi-experimental method (e.g., twin/sibling differences design, children of twins design, adoption design, fixed-effects design, random-intercept cross-lagged panel model, natural experiment, propensity score matching, or inverse probability weighting). RESULTS: Thirty-four quasi-experimental studies were identified, comprising 54,646 independent participants. Before quasi-experimental adjustment for confounding, childhood maltreatment was moderately associated with mental health problems (Cohen's d=0.56, 95% CI=0.41, 0.71). After quasi-experimental adjustment, a small association between childhood maltreatment and mental health problems remained (Cohen's d=0.31, 95% CI=0.24, 0.37). This adjusted association between childhood maltreatment and mental health was consistent across different quasi-experimental methods, and generalized across different psychiatric disorders. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are consistent with a small, causal contribution of childhood maltreatment to mental health problems. Furthermore, the findings suggest that part of the overall risk of mental health problems in individuals exposed to maltreatment is due to wider genetic and environmental risk factors. Therefore, preventing childhood maltreatment and addressing wider psychiatric risk factors in individuals exposed to maltreatment could help to prevent psychopathology.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Transtornos Mentais , Criança , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Psicopatologia , Gêmeos
3.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(1)2023 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672866

RESUMO

THE AIM OF THE STUDY: to assess the influence of genetic and environmental factors using twin studies and evaluate the associations of SCARB1 gene variants (rs11057841) with AMD and MPOD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: a total of 108 healthy twins (56 MZ and 52 DZ twins) were tested in this study. The MPOD was measured using the one-wavelength reflectometry method. Fundus reflectance (Visucam 500, reflectance of a single 460 nm wavelength) was used to measure the MPOD levels, MPOD parameters including max and mean optical density (OD), and area and volume. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms. RESULTS: we detected a positive correlation of MPOD in the right and left eyes in MZ twin pairs (r = 0.830 and r = 0.860, respectively) (p < 0.0001) and a negative correlation of MPOD in the right and left eyes in DZ twin pairs (r = 0.314 and r = 0.408, respectively) (p < 0.05). The study was able to identify statistically significant differences in mean MPOD values in the right and left eyes between subjects with a wild-type CC genotype and a CT genotype with a risk allele. A decrease in the mean MPOD value was observed in group II with a CT genotype (0.110 d.u.) compared with the CC genotype (0.117 d.u.) in the right eye (p = 0.037) and in the left eye with a CT genotype (0.109 d.u.) compared with a CC genotype in the subjects (0.114 d.u.) (p = 0.038). In the right eye, in group II (0.101-0.128 d.u.), those with a CT genotype (n = 6) with one risk allele had a statistically significantly lower (0.110 d.u.) mean average MPOD value compared with those with a wild-type CC genotype (n = 25) (0.117 d.u.) (p = 0.037). CONCLUSION: this twin study showed a strong heritability of the retina pigment, which was 86% prevalent in Lithuania. Individuals with a CT genotype of the SCARB1 rs11057841 with a risk allele had statistically significantly lower mean MPOD values in both eyes compared to subjects with a wild-type CC genotype.


Assuntos
Pigmento Macular , Humanos , Pigmento Macular/análise , Fundo de Olho , Gêmeos , Genótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores Depuradores Classe B/genética
4.
J Psychopathol Clin Sci ; 132(1): 51-62, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36689370

RESUMO

Socioeconomic disadvantage may be a significant risk factor for disordered eating, particularly for individuals with underlying genetic risk. However, little to nothing is known about the impact of disadvantage on disordered eating in boys during the critical developmental risk period. Crucially, risk models developed for girls may not necessarily apply to boys, as boys show different developmental patterns of disordered eating risk (i.e., earlier activation of genetic influences during adrenarche, an early stage of puberty). This is the first study to examine phenotypic and Genotype × Environment (G × E) effects of disadvantage in boys. Analyses examined 3,484 male twins ages 8-17 (Mage = 12.27, SD = 2.96) from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Disordered eating (e.g., body dissatisfaction, binge eating) was measured using the parent-report Michigan Twins Project Eating Disorder Survey. Neighborhood disadvantage was measured using a census-tract level Area Deprivation Index, and family socioeconomic status was determined from parental income and education. Adrenarche status was determined using multiple indicators, including age and Pubertal Development Scale scores. G × E models suggested that genetic influences on disordered eating were activated earlier for boys experiencing familial or neighborhood disadvantage, with substantial genetic influences in early adrenarche, when genetic influences were low in more advantaged boys. Phenotypically, both neighborhood and familial disadvantage were associated with greater disordered eating for boys in late adrenarche, which could indicate a lasting impact of earlier activation of genetic influences on later risk. Results highlight disadvantage as a novel risk factor for disordered eating in boys, particularly those with genetic vulnerabilities. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Genótipo , Gêmeos/genética
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(2): e32571, 2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36637925

RESUMO

RATIONALE: A gestational age of 22 to 23 weeks is the lower threshold for selective active intervention. Few infants delivered at a gestational age of 22 to 23 weeks survive if resuscitated. Among those who survive, most develop severe complications, especially in cases of multiple births at the limit of viability. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report the intact survival of extremely preterm twins, a girl (Twin A) and a boy (Twin B), weighing 504g and 475g, respectively, born at the edge of viability at 22 2/7 weeks gestation without significant morbidity. DIAGNOSES: extremely preterm twins born at the edge of viability at 22 2/7 weeks. INTERVENTIONS: Twin A required 6 weeks of mechanical ventilation. She received conventional and high-frequency oscillation ventilation. She was extubated to noninvasive positive airway pressure ventilation at 28 weeks and 2 days post conception. Twin B required longer duration of invasive ventilation lasting 11 weeks. Moreover, he had several episodes of feeding intolerance and abdominal distension. However, his serial abdominal radiographs showed nonspecific findings. The gastric tubes were eventually removed from both twins. Full oral feeding was successful on discharge. OUTCOMES: Both infants are presently in good condition.They were discharged home with a full oral feeding, and without any respiratory support. Now they are 18-month-old with unimpaired development. LESSONS: This report would support healthcare providers in decision-making. It highlights the importance of perinatal and neonatal management optimization to improve survival rates and clinical outcomes of periviable birth. In addition it emphasize the individuality of each case and the need to consider the parents' wishes in the management decision.


Assuntos
Parto , Gravidez Múltipla , Gravidez , Lactente , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Idade Gestacional , Gêmeos , Morbidade
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 250: 114502, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603489

RESUMO

Thyroid hormones are essential for fetal growth and neurodevelopment. The recent frequent use of parabens has raised concerns about their endocrine-disrupting potential. However, the effects of maternal paraben exposure on neonatal thyroid hormone levels are still largely unknown. In our study, a co-twin control design was employed to analyze the relationships between maternal paraben exposure and neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) difference. We collected information from 252 mother-twin pairs from a twin birth cohort in Wuhan, China. Concentrations of six parabens were measured in maternal urine samples collected at < 16, 16-28, and > 28 weeks of gestation. Data of neonatal TSH levels were retrieved from medical records. Multiple informant models were applied to explore the time-specific relationships between paraben exposure and intra-twin TSH difference and to determine the susceptible window of exposure. We found that maternal urinary methyl paraben (MeP) during early pregnancy was positively associated with intra-twin TSH difference (%change = 5.96 %; 95 % confidant interval (CI): 0.04 %, 12.2 %). However, no significant differences were observed for exposure to ethyl paraben (EtP) and propyl paraben (PrP), and the associations between parabens and intra-twin TSH difference did not differ materially across pregnancy. Further, a stratified analysis based on twin zygosity and chorionicity and sex types indicated that the positive association between early pregnancy MeP exposure and intra-twin TSH difference was significant in monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) twins of female-female fetuses and dichorionic diamniotic (DCDA) twins of opposite-sex. The prospective twin study provides first evidence that MeP exposure in early pregnancy was associated with an increased TSH difference in twin neonates, especially in female fetuses.


Assuntos
Exposição Materna , Parabenos , Tireotropina , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Parabenos/toxicidade , Parabenos/análise , Estudos Prospectivos , Hormônios Tireóideos , Tireotropina/sangue , Gêmeos
7.
J Affect Disord ; 320: 534-543, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36216191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent psychiatric condition characterised by a heterogeneous clinical presentation and an estimated twin-based heritability of ~40-50 %. Different clinical MDD subtypes might partly reflect distinctive underlying genetics. This study aims to investigate if polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for different psychiatric disorders, personality traits, and substance use-related traits may be associated with different clinical subtypes of MDD (i.e., MDD with melancholic or psychotic features), higher symptom severity, or different clusters of depressive symptoms (i.e., sadness symptoms, typical neurovegetative symptoms, detachment symptoms, and negative thoughts). METHODS: The target sample included 1149 patients with MDD, recruited by the European Group for the Study of Resistant Depression. PRSs for 25 psychiatric disorders and traits were computed based on the most recent publicly available summary statistics of the largest genome-wide association studies. PRSs were then used as predictors in regression models, adjusting for age, sex, population stratification, and recruitment sites. RESULTS: Patients with MDD having higher PRS for MDD and loneliness were more likely to exhibit melancholic features of MDD (p = 0.0009 and p = 0.005, respectively). Moreover, patients with higher PRS for alcohol intake and post-traumatic stress disorder were more likely to experience greater typical neurovegetative symptoms (p = 0.0012 and p = 0.0045, respectively). LIMITATIONS: The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by the PRSs was limited. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that melancholic features and typical neurovegetative symptoms of MDD may show distinctive underlying genetics. Our findings provide a new contribution to the understanding of the genetic heterogeneity of MDD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Gêmeos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética
8.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 64(2): 289-298, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36513622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite being considered a measure of environmental risk, reported life events are partly heritable. One mechanism that may contribute to this heritability is genetic influences on sensitivity, relating to how individuals process and interpret internal and external signals. The aim of this study was to explore the genetic and environmental overlap between self-reported life events and measures of sensitivity. METHODS: At age 17, 2,939 individuals from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) completed measures of anxiety sensitivity (Children's Anxiety Sensitivity Index), environmental sensitivity (Highly Sensitive Child Scale) and reported their experience of 20 recent life events. Using multivariate Cholesky decomposition models, we investigated the shared genetic and environmental influences on the associations between these measures of sensitivity and the number of reported life events, as well as both negative and positive ratings of life events. RESULTS: The majority of the associations between anxiety sensitivity, environmental sensitivity and reported life events were explained by shared genetic influences (60%-75%), with the remainder explained by nonshared environmental influences (25%-40%). Environmental sensitivity showed comparable genetic correlations with both negative and positive ratings of life events (rA  = .21 and .15), anxiety sensitivity only showed a significant genetic correlation with negative ratings of life events (rA  = .33). Approximately 10% of the genetic influences on reported life events were accounted for by influences shared with anxiety sensitivity and environmental sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Differences in how individuals process the contextual aspects of the environment or interpret their own physical and emotional response to environmental stimuli may be one mechanism through which genetic liability influences the subjective experience of life events.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Ansiedade , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Ansiedade/genética , Ansiedade/psicologia , Gêmeos/genética , Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Autorrelato
9.
J Psychopathol Clin Sci ; 131(8): 830-846, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326625

RESUMO

Because deficits in self-regulation (SR) are core features of many diverse psychological disorders, SR may constitute one of many dimensions that underlie shared variance across diagnostic boundaries (e.g., the p factor, a dimension reflecting shared variance across multiple psychological disorders). SR definitions encompass constructs mapping onto different theoretical traditions and different measurement approaches, however. Two SR operationalizations, executive functioning and conscientiousness, are often used interchangeably despite their low empirical associations-a "jingle" fallacy that pervades much of the research on SR-psychopathology relationships. In a population-based sample of 1,219 twins and multiples from the Texas Twin Project (Mage = 10.60, SDage = 1.76), with a comprehensive battery of measures, we aimed to clarify how these often-muddled aspects of SR relate to individual differences in psychopathology, and whether links between them are accounted for by overlapping genetic and environmental factors. The p factor and an Attention Problems-specific factor were associated with lower executive functioning and conscientiousness. Executive functioning shared a small amount of genetic variance with p above and beyond conscientiousness, whereas conscientiousness shared substantial genetic variance with p independently of genetic variance accounted for by executive functioning. Conversely, the Attention Problems-specific factor was strongly genetically associated with executive functioning independently of genetic variance accounted for by conscientiousness. Results support the notion that SR and psychopathology, broadly conceived, may exist on overlapping spectra, but this overlap varies across conceptualizations of SR and the level of specificity at which psychopathology is assessed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Transtornos Mentais , Adolescente , Humanos , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Psicopatologia , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Individualidade , Gêmeos
10.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(11)2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36422226

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Subcortical grey matter structures play essential roles in cognitive, affective, social, and motoric functions in humans. Their volume changes with age, and decreased volumes have been linked with many neuropsychiatric disorders. The aim of our study was to examine the heritability of six subcortical brain volumes (the amygdala, caudate nucleus, pallidum, putamen, thalamus, and nucleus accumbens) and four general brain volumes (the total intra-cranial volume and the grey matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume) in twins. Materials and Methods: A total of 118 healthy adult twins from the Hungarian Twin Registry (86 monozygotic and 32 dizygotic; median age 50 ± 27 years) underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging. Two automated volumetry pipelines, Computational Anatomy Toolbox 12 (CAT12) and volBrain, were used to calculate the subcortical and general brain volumes from three-dimensional T1-weighted images. Age- and sex-adjusted monozygotic and dizygotic intra-pair correlations were calculated, and the univariate ACE model was applied. Pearson's correlation test was used to compare the results obtained by the two pipelines. Results: The age- and sex-adjusted heritability estimates, using CAT12 for the amygdala, caudate nucleus, pallidum, putamen, and nucleus accumbens, were between 0.75 and 0.95. The thalamus volume was more strongly influenced by common environmental factors (C = 0.45-0.73). The heritability estimates, using volBrain, were between 0.69 and 0.92 for the nucleus accumbens, pallidum, putamen, right amygdala, and caudate nucleus. The left amygdala and thalamus were more strongly influenced by common environmental factors (C = 0.72-0.85). A strong correlation between CAT12 and volBrain (r = 0.74-0.94) was obtained for all volumes. Conclusions: The majority of examined subcortical volumes appeared to be strongly heritable. The thalamus was more strongly influenced by common environmental factors when investigated with both segmentation methods. Our results underline the importance of identifying the relevant genes responsible for variations in the subcortical structure volume and associated diseases.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Substância Cinzenta , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Gêmeos/genética
11.
Eur Psychiatry ; 65(1): e63, 2022 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36184891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The differential impact of depression across different periods in life on mortality remains inconclusive. We aimed to examine the association of depression that occurs at different age with all-cause mortality, and to explore the roles of dementia, as well as genetic and early-life environmental factors, in this association. METHODS: From the Swedish Twin Registry, 44,919 twin individuals were followed for up to 18 years. Depression was ascertained using the National Patient Registry and categorized as early-life (<45 years), midlife (45-64 years), and late-life (≥65 years) depression according to the age of the first diagnosis. Deaths were identified through the Cause of Death Register. Generalized estimating equation, generalized structural equation, and conditional logistic regression were used for unmatched, mediation, and co-twin matched analyses, respectively. RESULTS: In unmatched analyses, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of mortality were 1.71 (1.46-2.00) for depression at any age, 1.72 (1.36-2.17) for early-life, 1.51 (1.19-1.90) for midlife, and 4.10 (2.02-8.34) for late-life depression. Mortality was significantly higher in individuals with late-life depression than those with earlier-life depression (p < 0.05). The mediation analysis showed that 59.83% of the depression-mortality association was mediated by dementia. No significant difference in ORs between the unmatched and co-twin matched analyses was observed (p = 0.09). CONCLUSIONS: Depression is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality, and dementia mediates approximately 60% of the impact of depression on mortality in late life. Genetic and early-life environmental factors may not play a significant role in the depression-mortality association.


Assuntos
Demência , Doenças em Gêmeos , Humanos , Lactente , Depressão/epidemiologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Gêmeos , Sistema de Registros , Suécia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
12.
Sante Publique ; 34(2): 275-287, 2022.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36216638

RESUMO

Introduction : In Haiti, excess mortality among twins is an additional health burden, given that child mortality levels are already very high there. Haiti is the country in the Latin America and Caribbean region with the highest rate of twin births (about 17 ‰). However, there, the excess mortality among twins has been little studied. PURPOSE OF RESEARCH: To identify factors associated with excess mortality among twins. METHODS: With data from the Demographic and Health Surveys, calculation of under-five mortality rates (U5MR) and using a Cox regression to analyze factors associated with excess mortality among twins. RESULTS: Twins have U5MRs that are three times higher than those of singletons. However, these U5MRs fell sharply, but more sharply among twins than singletons. Indeed, between 1994 and 2016, the U5MR for twins decreased by about 53% (from 432 ‰ to 204‰), while for singletons, it was only 36% (from 121‰ to 77‰). The multivariate results show that all else being equal, twins have a 3.3 (2.86-3.87) times higher Hazard Ratio of death than singletons. They also show low birth weight, lack of prenatal visits, and lack of breastfeeding are independently associated with excess mortality among twins in Haiti.Conclusions : The health of twin children remains a major challenge for Haiti. To further reduce their excess mortality, the government has to develop accessible obstetric and pediatric services essential for the care of twin pregnancies.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança , Gêmeos , Criança , Feminino , Haiti , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Fatores de Risco
13.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 60(10): 1038-1044, 2022 Oct 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36207851

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the occurrence of live-born twins with birth weight-discordance and its relationship to adverse birth outcomes. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 4 011 pairs of live-born twins in the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University from January 2011 to December 2020. Based on the birth-weight discordance (∆BW, ∆BW=(birth-weightbig-birth-weightsmall)/birth-weightbig×100%)), twins were divided into 4 groups, including ∆BW≤15%,>15%-20%,>20%-25%, and>25%. The differences in maternal and neonatal outcomes among 4 groups were explored. Then the correlation between ∆BW and neonatal adverse outcomes were explored. Results: The ΔBW was 9 (4, 16)% and males were accounted for 53.8% (4 315 cases) of 4 011 pairs of twins. The gestational age was (35.3±2.7) weeks at birth. There were 2 908 pairs (72.5%) of twins with ΔBW≤15%, 481 pairs (12.0%) with ΔBW>15%-20%, 281 pairs (7.0%) with ΔBW 20%-≤25%, and 341 twin pairs (8.5%) with ΔBW>25%. With ∆BW of 20% as the diagnostic cutoff, the incidence of birth weight discordance was 15.5% (622/4 011). The proportion of natural births in the ∆BW≤15% group was higher than that in the ∆BW>15%-20% group (10.5% (288/2 740) vs. 6.3% (29/463), P<0.008 3). The ∆BW>25% group had a significantly higher prevalence of maternal hypertensive disorders during pregnancy than that of the other 3 groups (25.5% (87/341) vs. 16.7% (47/281) vs.17.3% (83/480) vs. 13.8% (400/2 899), all P<0.008 3). Univariate analysis found that the ΔBW>25% group had a lower gestational age and a higher rate of preterm birth than the other groups. The rate of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) or very low birth weight (VLBW), small for gestational age (SGA), and transferring to the department of neonatology in the smaller twins were significantly different among the 4 groups (all P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that higher degree of birth weight discordance was all positively associated with the rate of ELBW, SGA, and transferring to the department of neonatology in smaller twin, even after adjusting maternal age and gestational hypertension, year of birth, mode of delivery, gender, and gestational age (all P<0.05). Moreover, the Mantel-Haenszel test also indicated that there were significantly low to moderate correlations between ΔBW and the unfavorable outcomes (r=0.22, 0.53, 0.21, all P<0.001, respectively). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve found that adverse birth outcomes would be well predicted by birth weight-discordant when the diagnostic cut-off of ΔBW was 12%-17%, with an acceptable sensitivity (0.53-0.78) and a high specificity (0.72-0.79). Conclusions: Birth weight discordant is not uncommon in live-born twins, and is associated with adverse outcomes including ELBW, SGA, and transferring to the department of neonatology in the small twins. Besides, the risk is linearly related to the increase of ΔBW. In the future, more researches are needed to explore the underline mechanism and long-term impact of birth weight discordance, to guide the prevention and management.


Assuntos
Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Nascimento Prematuro , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Gêmeos
14.
Maturitas ; 165: 113-119, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36184115

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The effect of systemic hormone therapy (HT) on dementia risk is unclear. Our aim was to investigate the association between HT and dementia. STUDY DESIGN: This register-based study consists of a nested case-control study and a co-twin control design, which controls for familial confounding, including shared genetics. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Through Danish national registries from 1995 to 2011, we identified: a) 2700 female singletons with incident dementia and 13,492 matched controls; b) 288 female twins with incident dementia and co-twins without dementia. Data on HT and education were retrieved, and analyses were performed using conditional logistic regression and McNemar's χ2-test. HT use decreased dramatically after the Women's Health Initiative study results were published in 2002, and the analyses were stratified accordingly to account for potentially different HT user characteristics. RESULTS: The odds ratio (OR) for the association between systemic HT and dementia was 1.05, 95% CI = [0.93-1.19] in singletons and 2.10, 95% CI = [0.99-4.46] in twins. A statistically significant association was found for systemic HT before 2003 in both populations, with an OR of 1.14, 95% CI = [1.01-1.28] in singletons and an OR of 2.20, 95% CI = [1.04-4.65] in twins. CONCLUSION: Using Danish nationwide registries and controlling for education and for familial factors in a subsample, systemic HT was found to be associated with increased dementia risk if used before 2003, when HT was more commonly prescribed.


Assuntos
Demência , Gêmeos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/etiologia , Feminino , Hormônios , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Sistema de Registros
15.
Clín. investig. ginecol. obstet. (Ed. impr.) ; 49(4): 100770-100770, Oct-Dic. 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-211838

RESUMO

Introduction: Multiple and specifically monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) pregnancies are related to maternal and foetal complications. The aim of this study is to evaluate obstetric and perinatal outcomes of MCDA after assisted reproductive techniques (ART). Methods: This is a case-control study comparing 23 MCDA twin pregnancies after ART (ART-MCDA) and 75 spontaneous MCDA (sMCDA). Maternal, obstetric, foetal, and perinatal outcomes variables including maternal age, prematurity, TTTS, sIUGR, TAPS, PROM, and neonatal weight were compared. Results: mean maternal age is higher in the ART-MCDA pregnancies, 38.0±.6 (OR=1.32(1.13–1.53)). Neonates weighing between 1500 and 2500g are more frequent in the sMCDA group and those weighing >2500g in the ART group (OR=0.47(0.22–0.97)). Foetuses born at between 32 and 37 weeks are more frequent in sMCDA pregnancies and those born >37 in the TRA group (OR=0.27(0.09–0.80)). These differences are lost when we adjust the results by maternal age. There were no differences in maternal, obstetric, or foetal complications. Conclusions: ART-MCDA are not associated with a higher number of maternal, obstetric or foetal complications if they are adjusted by maternal age. When they are not adjusted by maternal age, there would be better outcomes such as premature and neonatal weight in the ART group.(AU)


Antecedentes: El incremento de las técnicas de reproducción asistida (TRA) ha supuesto un aumento de las gestaciones gemelares en general, pero también de las monocoriales biamnióticas (MCBA), que se asocian a diversas complicaciones maternofetales. Estas complicaciones están bien estudiadas en gestaciones espontáneas, pero no en aquellas conseguidas mediante una TRA. Objetivo: Comparar la incidencia de complicaciones maternas, fetales, obstétricas y perinatales en gestaciones MCBA conseguidas de forma espontánea frente a aquellas conseguidas mediante TRA. Materiales y métodos: Estudio de casos-controles retrospectivo. Se han analizado 98 gestaciones gemelares MCBA controladas en la Unidad de Medicina Materno-Fetal del Servicio de Obstetricia del Hospital La Paz de Madrid entre los años 2015 y 2020. Resultados: La media de edad de las madres de las gestaciones MCBA conseguidas mediante TRA es mayor (OR=1,32 [1,13-1,53]). Los recién nacidos de peso entre 1.500-2.500g son más frecuentes en las gestaciones MCBA conseguidas de forma espontánea y los de >2.500g en las de TRA (OR=0,47 [0,22–0,97]). Los recién nacidos entre las 32-37 semanas son más frecuentes en las gestaciones gemelares MCBA espontáneas y los recién nacidos de >37 semanas en las de TRA (OR=0,27 [0,09-0,80]). Cuando estos resultados se ajustan por la edad materna dejan de ser estadísticamente significativos. Conclusiones: Las TRA no conllevan un aumento de las complicaciones en las gestaciones MCBA cuando se ajustan los resultados por la edad materna. Si no se ajustasen por la edad materna, las gestaciones MCBA conseguidas mediante TRA tendrían mejores resultados, con menos prematuridad y mayor peso del neonato.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Técnicas Reprodutivas , Gêmeos
17.
Dev Psychol ; 58(11): 2171-2183, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36136785

RESUMO

Noncognitive factors have gained attention in recent years as potential intervention targets for academic achievement improvement in students. Two notable facets, intelligence mindset and grit, have been of particular interest. Both have been shown to consistently improve educational outcomes, although little work has focused on reading ability. As such, we examined the relation between both grit and mindset on current, future, and change in reading comprehension ability in a twin sample. We used data from 422 twin pairs (171 monozygotic pairs, 251 dizygotic pairs) drawn from the Florida Twin Project on Reading, Behavior and Environment (Taylor et al., 2019). The racial composition of the sample included 1.00% American Indian or Alaska Native, 2.25% Asian, 13.25% Black or African American, 22.63% Hispanic, 1.00% Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, 56.13% White, and 3.75% more than 1 race. The household income of the sample at time 1 was 16.15% below $25,000, 18.06% $25,000-49,999, 36.34% $50,000-99,999, and 29.45% $100,000 or more and closely align with the overall composition reported for the state of Florida (United States Census Bureau, 2021). Twins were on average 13 years old when the questionnaire and first reading ability measure were collected, and on average 15 years old when the second reading ability measure was collected. Weak and moderate positive correlations were found between both mindset and grit and with each reading ability score and neither were significantly related to change in reading ability. Twin modeling suggested little to no common genetic or environmental influences between mindset and grit to reading ability. In total, our results do not lend support to the notion of mindset or grit being a mechanism of change for reading ability. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Leitura , Humanos , Adolescente , Compreensão , Gêmeos , Inteligência/genética
18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 399, 2022 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130941

RESUMO

Alterations of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep have long been observed in patients with psychiatric disorders and proposed as an endophenotype-a link between behavior and genes. Recent experimental work has shown that REM sleep plays an important role in the emotional processing of memories, emotion regulation, and is altered in the presence of stress, suggesting a mechanism by which REM sleep may impact psychiatric illness. REM sleep shows a developmental progression and increases during adolescence-a period of rapid maturation of the emotional centers of the brain. This study uses a behavioral genetics approach to understand the relative contribution of genes, shared environmental and unique environmental factors to REM sleep neurophysiology in adolescents. Eighteen monozygotic (MZ; n = 36; 18 females) and 12 dizygotic (DZ; n = 24; 12 females) same-sex twin pairs (mean age = 12.46; SD = 1.36) underwent whole-night high-density sleep EEG recordings. We find a significant genetic contribution to REM sleep EEG power across frequency bands, explaining, on average, between 75 to 88% of the variance in power, dependent on the frequency band. In the lower frequency bands between delta and sigma, however, we find an additional impact of shared environmental factors over prescribed regions. We hypothesize that these regions may reflect the contribution of familial and environmental stress shared amongst the twins. The observed strong genetic contribution to REM sleep EEG power in early adolescence establish REM sleep neurophysiology as a potentially strong endophenotype, even in adolescence-a period marked by significant brain maturation.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Sono REM , Adolescente , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Polissonografia , Sono/fisiologia , Sono REM/genética , Gêmeos
19.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 38(8-9): 663-668, 2022.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36094236

RESUMO

A digital twin is the virtual double of a system. This article shows how, within a hospital, decision-makers can mobilize this technology to improve the quality of care. Specifically, digital twins of services and care processes can be performant in risk management inherent in a health crisis. However, the articulation of virtual twins with simulations in the real world seems the best option for professionals to become rational and pragmatic practitioners, able to apprehend uncertainty and prepared to face the unknown in the troubled context that we know.


Title: Le jumeau numérique en santé - Apports organisationnels et limites épistémologiques dans un contexte de crise sanitaire. Abstract: Un jumeau numérique est une représentation virtuelle d'un système, tel qu'un organe ou un processus de soins. L'articulation des jumeaux numériques à des simulations réalisées dans le monde réel semble une piste prometteuse afin que les professionnels deviennent des praticiens rationnels et pragmatiques, capables à la fois de gérer des risques et d'appréhender l'incertitude. Cet article montre comment, au sein d'un hôpital, les décideurs peuvent mobiliser cette technologie pour améliorer la qualité des soins, en particulier dans un contexte de crise sanitaire.


Assuntos
Organizações , Gêmeos , Hospitais , Humanos
20.
Rev Esp Patol ; 55 Suppl 1: S21-S26, 2022 09.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36075658

RESUMO

Twin pregnancies with complete hydatidiform mole and coexisting live fetus are very rare, with only about 300 reported cases. This type of pregnancy is considered a high obstetric risk due to the possibility of severe maternal-fetal complications. Although the clinical and ultrasound findings can be highly suggestive of this type of pregnancy, the definitive diagnosis is usually reached by histopathological examination. The differential diagnosis usually includes partial hydatidiform mole and hydropic pregnancies, which can present similar findings in specimens from the first trimester of pregnancy and thus it is important to interpret correctly the differentiating features. The use of immunohistochemistry for p57 can prove very useful, although some cases show an aberrant expression. We present a case of a twin pregnancy with complete hydatidiform mole associated with a live fetus, with magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound for radiopathological correlation. We discuss the differential diagnosis and the utility of p57 immunohistochemistry.


Assuntos
Mola Hidatiforme , Neoplasias Uterinas , Feminino , Feto/patologia , Humanos , Mola Hidatiforme/diagnóstico , Mola Hidatiforme/patologia , Gravidez , Gravidez de Gêmeos , Gêmeos , Neoplasias Uterinas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Uterinas/patologia
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