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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150395, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818768

RESUMO

Serious concerns regarding stone biodeterioration have been raised due to the loss of aesthetic value and hidden dangers in stone cultural heritages and buildings. Stone biodeterioration involves a complex ecological interplay among organisms, however, the ecological mechanisms (deterministic or stochastic processes) that determine the microbial community on stone remain poorly understood. Here, using both amplicon and shotgun metagenomic sequencing approaches, we comprehensively investigated the biodiversity, assembly, and function of communities (including prokaryotes, fungi, microfauna, and plants) on various types of deteriorating limestone across different habitats in Feilaifeng. By generalizing classic ecological models to stone habitats, we further uncovered and quantified the mechanisms underlying microbial community assembly processes and microbial interactions within the biodeteriorated limestone. Community profiling revealed stable ecosystem functional potential despite high taxonomic variation across different biodeterioration types, suggesting non-random community assembly. Increased niche differentiation occurred in prokaryotes and fungi but not in microfauna and plant during biodeterioration. Certain microbial groups such as nitrifying archaea and bacteria showed wider niche breadth and likely contributing to the initiation, succession and expansion of stone biodeterioration. Consistently, prokaryotes were more strongly structured by selection-based deterministic processes, while micro-eukaryotes were more influenced by dispersal and drift-based stochastic processes. Importantly, microbial coexistence maintains network robustness within stone microbiotas, highlighting mutual cooperation among functional microorganisms. These results provide new insights into microbial community assembly mechanisms in stone ecosystems and may aid in the sustainable conservation of stone materials of interest.


Assuntos
Lagos , Microbiota , Archaea , Biodiversidade , China , UNESCO
4.
Rev. ADM ; 78(4): 209-214, jul.-ago. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292705

RESUMO

Las Escuelas de Odontología como espacios educativos universitarios son un lugar idóneo para trabajar de manera urgente los procesos de ambientalización curricular que permitan realizar de forma horizontal y vertical temáticas y contenidos para crear y recrear un tipo de cultura y conciencia más amigable con el medio ambiente, y contribuir con conductas y actitudes sustentables en los estudiantes, docentes y trabajadores administrativos hacia una reducción significativa en la contaminación del ambiente local, regional y mundial, colaborando en ello con la solución a la regularización del clima y el control de los desastres ocasionados por el cambio climático. Además de esto, a ser las Escuelas de Odontología instituciones educativas que pueden funcionar bajo el paradigma de la sustentabilidad, se lograría contribuir al aseguramiento de los recursos naturales renovables y no renovables para las nuevas generaciones, además del logro de un importante ahorro económico en el gasto corriente de las escuelas (AU)


The Dental School as university educational spaces are an ideal place to urgently work on the curricular greening processes that allow working horizontally and vertically with themes and contents that allow creating and recreating a type of culture and awareness that is more friendly to the environment and contribute with sustainable behaviors and attitudes in students, teachers and administrative workers a more significant reduction in pollution of the local, regional and global environment, collaborating in this with the solution to the regularization of the climate and the control of disasters caused by change climate. In addition, being the School of Dentistry educational institutions that can function under the paradigm of sustainability, it would be possible to contribute to the assurance of renewable and non-renewable natural resource for the new generations, in addition to achieving significant economic savings in current spending from school (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Faculdades de Odontologia/tendências , Mudança Climática , Educação em Saúde Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Nações Unidas , Currículo , UNESCO , México
6.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(6): 3425-3433, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891130

RESUMO

The present study investigated the biofilm organisms growing on selected monuments of the Champaner Pavagadh complex (Gujarat, India), which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The cyanobacteria and microalgae were isolated from biofilms collected through non-destructive methods. The identification of these biological organisms was done using micro-morphological characters and confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The exopolysaccharide of each of the isolated strains was extracted, hydrolysed and analysed by the HPTLC. Six isolated strains representing five cyanobacteria and one microalga belong to the genera Desmonostoc, Nostoc, Leptolyngbya, Chroococcidiopsis and Asterarcys. The relationships between substrates' specificity of these isolated biofilm organisms and those identified globally were evaluated using maximum parsimony analysis to generate a consensus phylogenetic tree. The five strains of cyanobacteria isolated were closely clustered with cyanobacteria belonging to a tropical region. At the generic level, no relationship between the species and substratum specificity was recorded. The exopolysaccharide analysis of the isolated strains revealed the presence of seven monosaccharides. While glucose was present in all the analysed species, the concentration of either fucose or arabinose was high. The current study presents a novel HPTLC-based method for determination of monosaccharides composition from the extracellular polymeric substances.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Cianobactérias , Microalgas , Filogenia , UNESCO , Biodiversidade , Cianobactérias/química , Cianobactérias/genética , Cianobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Índia , Microalgas/química , Microalgas/genética , Microalgas/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
7.
Conserv Biol ; 35(5): 1426-1436, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448452

RESUMO

Africa contains much of Earth's biological and cultural-linguistic diversity, but conserving this diversity is enormously challenging amid widespread poverty, expanding development, social unrest, and rapidly growing human population. We examined UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) Natural World Heritage Sites (WHSs) on continental Africa and nearby islands-48 protected areas containing globally important natural or combined natural and cultural resources-to gauge the potential for enlisting Indigenous peoples in their conservation. We used geographic information system technology to identify instances where Natural WHSs co-occur with Indigenous languages, a key indicator of cultural diversity. And, we compared the geographic ranges for 4 taxa and selected freshwater species with occurrence of all Indigenous languages within Natural WHSs and subsections of WHSs covered by the geographic extent of Indigenous languages to measure the correlation between linguistic and biological diversity. Results indicated that 147 languages shared at least part of their geographic extent with Natural WHSs. Instances of co-occurrence where a WHS, a language, or both were endangered marked localities particularly deserving conservation attention. We examined co-occurrence of all languages and all species, all languages and endangered species, and endangered languages and endangered species and found a correlation between linguistic and biological diversity that may indicate fundamental links between these very different measures of diversity. Considering only endangered species or endangered languages and species reduced that correlation, although considerable co-occurrence persisted. Shared governance of government-designated reserves is applicable for natural WHSs because it capitalizes on the apparent connection between culture and nature. Natural WHSs in Africa containing speakers of Indigenous languages present opportunities to conserve both nature and culture in highly visible settings where maintaining natural systems may rely on functioning Indigenous cultural systems and vice versa.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Animais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Humanos , Linguística , UNESCO
10.
Cuad Bioet ; 31(102): 167-182, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910670

RESUMO

In this paper present, from a bioethical perspective, a reflection on how to reconcile efforts to combat the COVID-19 pandemic with the safeguard of human rights. To do this, I develop three points. First, the regulatory framework that justifies the restriction or suspension of rights in the face of serious threats to public health. Second, the declarations of the international bioethics committees on the way in which human rights should be protected during public health crisis. And third, a review of the main rights threatened both by the public health crisis and by the means adopted to combat it. Before going into each of these points, I offer a preliminary note to clarify certain legal concepts and underline the need to overcome disjunctive approaches in considering human rights.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/ética , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/ética , COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comissão de Ética , União Europeia , Liberdade , Recursos em Saúde/ética , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribuição , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/ética , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Pandemias/ética , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos do Paciente/ética , Direitos do Paciente/legislação & jurisprudência , Autonomia Pessoal , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Quarentena/ética , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência , Sujeitos da Pesquisa , Alocação de Recursos/ética , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha , UNESCO
11.
Cuad Bioet ; 31(102): 231-243, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910674

RESUMO

The crisis in the health system caused by COVID-19 has left some important humanitarian deficits on how to care for the sick in their last days of life. The humanization of the dying process has been affected in three fundamental aspects, each of which constitutes a medical and ethical duty necessary. In this study, I analyze why dying accompanied, with the possibility of saying goodbye and receiving spiritual assistance, constitutes a specific triad of care and natural obligations that should not be overlooked - even in times of health crisis - if we do not want to see human dignity violated and violated some fundamental rights derived from it.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Casas de Saúde/ética , Pandemias/ética , Idoso , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comissão de Ética , Política de Saúde , Recursos em Saúde/ética , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribuição , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pessoalidade , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Alocação de Recursos/ética , SARS-CoV-2 , Justiça Social , UNESCO , Populações Vulneráveis
13.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-6182

RESUMO

On 12 August 2020, WHO and UNESCO broadcast a live webinar: Youth Engagement for Global Action. Many young people are essential workers, or volunteering to support their community. Young health professionals and students have been supporting the COVID-19 response from hospitals, research centers and testing clinics. Other youth are working in advocacy and risk communication initiatives such as producing community radio shows and media and information literacy learning resources to counter disinformation and promote peer-education, conducting surveys on behavioural insights to inform response strategies, translating and disseminating public health information and inspiring online hand washing challenges. Join youth representatives from around the world, UNESCO Director-General Audrey Azoulay and WHO Director-General Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus to learn about COVID-19 initiatives around the world.


Assuntos
Adulto Jovem , UNESCO , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Comunicação , Comunicação em Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Estigma Social , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Acesso à Informação , Rede Social , Crowdsourcing
14.
Environ Int ; 142: 105803, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563009

RESUMO

Biotransport is often associated with migration patterns of species, including large, anadromous salmonids. Several studies have reported biotransport of persistent organic pollutants in the Northern Hemisphere, but there is no published information on biotransport ocurring south of the equator. Chile's Patagonia is one of the last largely intact natural areas in the world. The objective of this study was to determine whether persistent organic pollutants are transported by the invasive Pacific Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) from the Pacific Ocean to Chilean Patagonia. Samples of juvenile and adult Chinook salmon were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. The results revealed that concentrations of POPs in adults migrating into Patagonian rivers were significantly higher than those found in juveniles migrating seaward. A mass balance analysis indicates that Chinook salmon are a source of persistent organic pollutants to Chilean Patagonia inland waters. Capsule: Biotransport of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) by Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) from the Pacific Ocean to Chilean Patagonia has been confirmed by mass balance of POPs.


Assuntos
Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Chile , Oceano Pacífico , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes , Salmão , UNESCO , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
Ter Arkh ; 92(3): 4-6, 2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598785

RESUMO

The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights was adopted at the UNESCO General Conference on October 19, 2005. From today's perspective, it must be recognized that it was adopted at a historically important period in the development of civilization; It has always been seen as a document that significantly expanded the declaration on human rights, as it gave a new interpretation of human activity in modern society. Next year marks 25 years of active implementation of the main provisions of the declaration in the field of education, research and cultural heritage. Scientific ideas about the world were changing dynamically, new pedagogical technologies developed, society more than ever began to perceive cultural heritage more acutely. Under the influence of these processes, our ideas about moral values ​​and ethical principles changed. An idea of ​​bioethics has formed; The term implies versatile human activities, including not only the doctor-patient relationship, but also the active participation of a person in the field of industry, climate change, as well as new areas such as editing the human genome, transplantology and much more.


Assuntos
Bioética , Nações Unidas , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Relações Médico-Paciente , UNESCO
16.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 28(5): 522-528, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367617

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the impact of the Global Leaders in Development (GLIDE) module to determine whether the concepts of global mindset, citizenship and leadership can be effectively taught within a short-term didactic module. METHODS: Faculty members of PharmAlliance, a partnership between three schools of pharmacy, created a three-week optional, non-credit-bearing distance-based global leadership development module. Material and assignments focused on the concepts of global mindset, global citizenship and global leadership as applied to the global health issues of non-communicable diseases, universal health coverage and primary care. Student self-rated growth was measured with an adapted fifteen question pre-post-survey that also included open-ended questions. KEY FINDINGS: Most statements showed growth on the pre-post-survey with seven being statistically significant (P < 0.05). The largest growth involved students' perceived potential to be a global leader in pharmacy (global leadership category), the students' connectedness to the pharmacy profession worldwide (global citizenship category) and the students' awareness of global challenges faced in the pharmacy profession (global mindset category). Qualitative analysis identified several themes for each of the open-ended questions. Student expectations focused on the desire to expand their global mindset, better understand global pharmacy practice, develop teamwork skills and understand global pharmacy challenges and strategies for engagement. CONCLUSIONS: The concepts of global mindset, global citizenship and global leadership may help promote awareness of global health challenges, opportunities to make a global difference in a local context and connectivity to the profession on a global scale.


Assuntos
Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Saúde Global , Liderança , Faculdades de Farmácia/organização & administração , Estudantes de Farmácia/psicologia , Currículo , Educação em Farmácia/organização & administração , Docentes/organização & administração , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Ensino/organização & administração , UNESCO
17.
Environ Pollut ; 264: 114590, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388294

RESUMO

Devon Great Consols (DGC) is a region in south west England where extensive mining for Cu, Sn and As took place in the nineteenth century. Because of its historical and geological significance, DGC has protected status and is part of the Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape UNESCO World Heritage Site. Recently, the region was opened up to the public with the construction or redevelopment of various trails, tracks and facilities for walking, cycling and field visits. We used portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometry to measure, in situ, the concentrations of As in soils and dusts in areas that are accessible to the public. Concentrations ranged from about 140 to 75,000 µg g-1 (n = 98), and in all but one case exceeded a Category 4 Screening Level for park-type soil of 179 µg g-1. Samples returned to the laboratory and fractionated to <63 µm were subjected to an in vitro assessment of both oral and inhalable bioaccessibility, with concentrations ranging from <10 to 25,500 µg g-1 and dependent on the precise nature and origin of the sample and the physiological fluid applied. Concentrations of As in PM10 collected along various transects of the region averaged over 30 ng m-3 compared with a typical concentration in UK air of <1 ng m-3. Calculations using default EPA and CLEA estimates and that factor in for bioaccessibility suggest a 6-h visit to the region results in exposure to As well in excess of that of minimum risk. The overall risk is exacerbated for frequent visitors to the region and for workers employed at the site. Based on our observations, we recommend that the remodelling or repurposing of historical mine sites require more stringent management and mitigation measures.


Assuntos
Arsênio/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Inglaterra , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Mineração , UNESCO
18.
Turk J Med Sci ; 50(SI-1): 495-508, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299201

RESUMO

Nobody can be fully prepared to a pandemic. Of course there are signs of it, the scientists can predict, alarming speeches can be made. But there are always alarmist people around, maybe that is why sometimes even the most serious warnings may be not considered by the authorities on time. The first patients may be lost without a proper diagnosis. When everybody realizes that there may be a big problem in the horizon, sometimes it is too late. That is why it is very important to monitor contagious diseases and follow the warnings and releases of national and international disease control centers and other related organizations. China celebrated Lunar New Year with more than 40 thousand families on the 18 of January 2020. Nobody seem to be expecting this emerging new viral pneumonia outbreak appeared in Wuhan, in the last days of 2019, will break the chains and turn out to be a pandemic! But maybe this time it was not too late. There were four important pandemics within the last century: Spanish Flu, Hong Kong Flu, Asian Flu and Swine Flu. Each left different story behind. Millions of people had infected, hundreds, thousands of people died. This time, the Modern World had different tools to limit the SARS CoV2 outbreak. The national and international institutions of our globe were all communicating and taking precautions in a very fast manner than ever. However, this time, unexpectedly, the SARS-CoV-2 contagion was also faster. Besides the international organizations like WHO, UNESCO and UNICEF, the roles of local authorities, health ministries, disease control centers, health protection agencies, research centers and universities are all very important in different operational levels to control and survive from the pandemic. This paper will review the immediate response of different national and international institutions and authorities to COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Cooperação Internacional , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação à Distância/métodos , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Turquia , UNESCO , Estados Unidos , Universidades , Organização Mundial da Saúde
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(3): 177, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062807

RESUMO

The Quebrada de Humahuaca in North West Argentina is a world heritage site listed by the UNESCO since 2003. As pollution is increasing dramatically, a pluridisciplinary, annual-long survey was conducted along the valley to determine dominant patterns in waste management and water quality. Along with the habit of discarding waste into the river, urbanizations have been identified as having a deep influence on the river water quality: iron together with maximum peaks of nitrite and nitrate are related with the anthropogenic activity at Humahuaca, whereas the concentrations of arsenic increase from north to south, with maximum peaks of up to 13.50 and 14.50 µg L-1 measured during the rainy season at Maimará and Volcán, respectively. In this underdeveloped region, economic struggles and waste management customs revealed as major factors causing the environmental degradation. The inclusion in the UNESCO's sites list was insufficient in preserving this world heritage site. The approach discussed in this article suggests a straightforward analytical measurement of the river hydrochemical properties during the rainy season in arid/semi-arid regions with monsoonal regime, to assess the effects of waste dumping along watercourses. In addition to scientific evaluations, both public acceptance and the establishment of proper waste management infrastructure are fundamental to ensuring the preservation of human and environmental health.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Argentina , Humanos , UNESCO , Qualidade da Água
20.
Recenti Prog Med ; 110(11): 513-515, 2019 11.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808428

RESUMO

The historical hill-site zone of Prosecco's wine production was recognised as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. This area is part of the province of Treviso, an area where in recent years many lands have been occupied by the viticulture to produce this type of wine, due to a growing demand of prosecco, especially on international markets. Currently viticulture occupies 31% of the total agricultural area of the province. This is determining an important alteration of the landscape of the area, with serious loss of biodiversity. Even more, this intensive cultivation requires the use of many pesticides (in 2018, 4,622 tons were sold, equivalent to more than 36 kg per hectare of arable land), that are harmful to the health of the population. They can cause acute effects by inhalation or contact during the treatment of the vines, and chronic effects for the continuous intake of small doses through contaminated waters. To safeguard the environment and health, two actions are needed: to reduce the use of pesticides by promoting organic production; to restore biodiversity by promoting other crops besides the vineyards. Our hope is that belonging to the UNESCO heritage world list favours these actions.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Praguicidas , UNESCO , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vinho , Biodiversidade , Produção Agrícola/classificação , Produção Agrícola/estatística & dados numéricos , Cultura , Humanos , Itália , Agricultura Orgânica , Praguicidas/provisão & distribuição , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
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