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1.
Zootaxa ; 5016(2): 257-270, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810451

RESUMO

Culex ekaterinae sp. nov. is described based on an adult male embedded in amber from the Rovno region, northwestern Ukraine. The new species is compared with its presumed closest known relative, i.e. Culex erikae Szadziewski et Szadziewska, 1985 described from adults in Baltic amber. The two species exhibit distinct differences in the size of the main body parts, including the antenna, maxillary palpus and proboscis, as well as in the venation of the wing, the structure of the ungues and male genitaliacharacters crucial in the diagnosis of adult mosquitoes. A redescription of Culiseta gedanica Szadziewski et Gika, 2011, to date known from a single adult male, is presented based on a male in amber from Voronki, Rovno region. A tabulation of fossil Culicidae with their geological ages is provided.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Culicidae , Animais , Fósseis , Masculino , Ucrânia
2.
Zootaxa ; 5023(3): 366-388, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810958

RESUMO

A list of 41 species of Crambidae and Pyralidae families recorded from different regions of Ukraine for the first time is given. Two species are found in Ukraine for the first time: Pyralis cardinalis Kaila, Huemer, Mutanen, Tyllinen Wikstrm, 2020 and Euclasta splendidalis (Herrich-Schffer, 1848), and two species are found in continental Ukraine for the first time: Diasemiopsis ramburialis (Duponchel, 1833) and Spoladea recurvalis (Fabricius, 1775). The hitherto unknown female genitalia of Bradyrrhoa imperialella (Ragonot, 1887) are described and the differences of external characters between females of B. imperialella and B. gilveolella (Treitschke, 1833) are briefly discussed. A brief note on the distribution of twin species Elegia atrifasciella Ragonot, 1887 and E. fallax (Staudinger, 1881) and Delplanqueia inscriptella (Duponchel, 1837) and D. dilutella ([Denis Schiffermller], 1775) in Ukraine is given.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Animais , Feminino , Ucrânia
3.
Zootaxa ; 5057(3): 85-101, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811203

RESUMO

The fossil record of the family Acipenseridae (sturgeons) extends to the Late Cretaceous (c. 85 MY), with a ghost lineage extending to approximately 120 MY when the first members of the family Polyodontidae are known. Much of the fossil record of Acipenseridae is formed by isolated and fragmentary dermal bones, which bear characteristic surface ornamentation. In this paper, we report on a collection of fossil sturgeons from the Upper Miocene deposits of southern Ukraine. These specimens include those used by Widhalm to establish †Acipenser euhuso, which is a nomen nudum. While we do not establish a new taxon for these specimens, the morphological variation of those elements that are preserved does suggest the presence of several species represented in this fauna.


Assuntos
Peixes , Fósseis , Animais , Ucrânia
4.
Georgian Med News ; (319): 152-160, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749342

RESUMO

The purpose of the article is to determine the feasibility and necessity of the mandatory participation of a psychiatrist in the conduct of a forensic psychiatric examination under the legislation of Ukraine and Georgia. The task is to outline the ways of improving the norms of the criminal law of both countries in the legal and medical spheres based on the analysis of the norms of the Criminal Procedure Code of Ukraine and the Criminal Procedure Code of Georgia. It has been established that the constitutional provision of the right to human health (in particular the researched one) in Ukraine and Georgia is contained not only in the codes and medical legislation of both states, but also in a number of international legal acts that have been ratified by their parliaments. The analysis of the relevant norms carried out in the article revealed the imperfection of concepts and terms, methods and methods of implementing the norms that should reflect the specified right. The authors of the article found that the main problem of realizing the human right to full legal and medical protection in the conduct of forensic psychiatric examination, as well as in the exercise of the rights and duties of an expert psychiatrist, is the lack of a clear procedure for the participation of a doctor in the conduct of judicial and investigative actions. Scientific research has established that the Criminal Procedure Code of Ukraine, the Criminal Procedure Code of Georgia and methodological recommendations regarding the participation of a psychiatrist in carrying out procedural measures to collect evidence in the commission of a crime have common features, wording and requirements. The authors of the article revealed that the requirements of international legal norms and a certain specificity of the situation for conducting a forensic psychiatric examination dictate the need to amend the criminal procedural legislation of Ukraine and Georgia. Changes in the legislation of these countries should be aimed at a clearer formulation of the basic concepts and terms of the doctor's participation in the conduct of judicial and investigative actions. These new norms of the law will act as a guarantee for the realization of the right to health, meet the basic international principles and requirements in the field of health care and law.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Direitos Humanos , Medicina Legal , República da Geórgia , Humanos , Ucrânia
5.
Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 27(3): 170-177, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743502

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is mainly a disease of children and young adults. The onset of disease is associated with 3 classical symptoms: polydipsia, polyphagia, and polyuria. Hyperglycaemia is the main and primary metabolic disorder in T1D. One of the complications developing as a result of microangiopathy is diabetic nephropathy (DN). Additionally, diabetes remains the most common reason for progressing to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The aim of the study was to evaluate the most initial metabolic and functional disorders in diabetic children and children with DN. The study involved 76 children with T1D and diabetic nephropathy (aged 3 to 17 years). The levels of ET-1 measured using ELISA assay and ratio of lipid oxidation measured spectrophotometrically. Main clinical parameters (blood pressure, glycaemia, albuminuria, creatininaemia, HbA1C, cholesterol levels) were measured using conventional methods available in Clinical Paediatric Hospital No. 6 (Kyiv, Ukraine). The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated using the Schwartz formula. Patterns of the BP changes, kidney function impairment, ET-level, and metabolic and functional disorders in children with T1D and DN were found.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Albuminúria , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Ucrânia
6.
Wiad Lek ; 74(9 cz 1): 2025-2032, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725271

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To obtain the estimates of the сurrent incidence rate of perinatal infections, risk factors, as well as their associated impact on mortality and determine the antimicrobial resistance of responsible pathogens in Ukraine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: We performed a multicentre retrospective cohort study was based on surveillance data. This study included infants aged 0 to 6 days delivered in 2017-2019 at 11 Ukrainian regional perinatal centers. Definitions of perinatal infections and mortality were used from the CDC/WHO/UNICEF. RESULTS: Results: Of 18,348 liveborn infants, 472 (2.6%) perinatal infections were detected. The incidence of perinatal infection was 25.7 per 1000 live births. The most frequently identified types of infections were: bloodstream infections, 35.6 %, lower respiratory tract infections, 21.4%, Meningitis, 18.2%, Conjunctivitis, 11.9%, skin and soft tissue infections, 6.6%, Dacryocystitis, 3.8%, and urinary tract infections, 2.5%. Early mortality rates from perinatai infections was 51.1%, with an incidence of 13.1 deaths/1000 live births. Potential risk factors the development of perinatal infections and mortality were low birth weight, prematurity, low gestasional age, mode of delivery (manual aid), premature rupture of membranes, preterm premature rupture of membranes, prolonged rupture of membranes, turbid and meconeal amniotic fluid, infection of the mother during labor. resuscitation during delivery, invasive procedure, asphyxia. Main causative agents of perinatal infections were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, CoNS, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: This study showing that the high incidence rate of perinatal bacterial infections, as well as their associated impact on mortality, and presents a significant burden to the Ukraine.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ucrânia/epidemiologia
7.
Wiad Lek ; 74(9 cz 1): 2033-2038, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725272

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To evaluate the awareness of folic acid, its use and effects, general knowledge about neural tube defects among medical students in Ukraine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted by questioning 114 fourth and fifth years' students of the Faculty of Medicine. The questionnaire contained questions about folic acid, its dietary sources, effects and periconceptional uses; spina bifida and its main symptoms. RESULTS: Results: Overall, 96.5% of students knew that folic acid was a vitamin and 95.6% were aware of the one natural product which had a high folate level. However, awareness of its amount in different products was insufficient. Overall, 86.8% of surveyed knew that folic acid deficiency during pregnancy caused the congenital malformations. The knowledge of the synthetic folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy was low (67.5% and 53.5% respectively). Only 10 % of women among medical students consumed folic acid regularly. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Despite the high level of general knowledge about folic acid and its effects among medical students in Ukraine, there is a poor awareness of the pre-conception administration of folic acid, and the number of people who regularly take folic acid among the respondents was very low.


Assuntos
Ácido Fólico , Estudantes de Medicina , Estudos Transversais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Ucrânia
8.
Wiad Lek ; 74(9 cz 1): 2070-2075, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To increase the effectiveness of treatment of patients with onychomycosis with contraindications to administration of systemic antifungal therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The study involved 63 patients with onychomycosis of the toes aged 18 to 72 years under supervision at the clinic of the Institute of Dermatology and Venereology of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, who were divided into groups: Group I (30 patients) received naftifine hydrochloride solution and cream; Group II (33 patients) additionally used nail kit mycosan and cytoflavin 2 tablets 2 times a day for 1-1.5 months. The study implied microscopic and molecular genetic examination of nail plates before treatment and starting from the 4th week every 2 weeks. The study included patients with onychomycosis with positive results of both microscopic and PCR studies. Mycological recovery was noted in case of coincidence of results of these studies. RESULTS: Results: Mycological recovery in patients of Group II began in the sixth week in 6.3% and occurred in 100% of cases at the 24th week of treatment, depending on the severity and clinical form. The overall effectiveness of therapy at the 48th week reached 56.7% in Group I and 72.7% in Group II. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The developed method of treatment, which includes the use of naftifine hydrochloride solution and cream, nail kit micozan and cytoflavin, allows to achieve clinical and mycological recovery in 72.7% of patients and is a priority in the treatment of patients with onychomycosis with comorbid conditions.


Assuntos
Onicomicose , Administração Tópica , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Contraindicações , Humanos , Onicomicose/complicações , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Ucrânia
9.
Global Health ; 17(1): 124, 2021 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the differences in timing and composition of physical distancing policies is important to evaluate the early global response to COVID-19. A physical distancing intensity monitoring framework comprising 16 domains was recently published to compare physical distancing approaches across 12 U.S. States. We applied this framework to a diverse set of low and middle-income countries (LMICs) (Botswana, India, Jamaica, Mozambique, Namibia, and Ukraine) to test the appropriateness of this framework in the global context and to compare the policy responses in these LMICs with a sample of U.S. States during the first 100-days of the pandemic. RESULTS: The LMICs in our sample adopted wide ranging physical distancing policies. The highest peak daily physical distancing intensity during this period was: Botswana (4.60); India (4.40); Ukraine (4.40); Namibia (4.20); Mozambique (3.87), and Jamaica (3.80). The number of days each country stayed at peak policy intensity ranged from 12-days (Jamaica) to more than 67-days (Mozambique). We found some key similarities and differences, including substantial differences in whether and how countries expressly required certain groups to stay at home. Despite the much higher number of cases in the US, the physical distancing responses in our LMIC sample were generally more intense than in the U.S. States, but results vary depending on the U.S. State. The peak policy intensity for the U.S. 12-state average was 3.84, which would place it lower than every LMIC in this sample except Jamaica. The LMIC sample countries also reached peak physical distancing intensity earlier in outbreak progression compared to the U.S. states sample. The easing of physical distancing policies in the LMIC sample did not discernably correlate with change in COVID-19 incidence. CONCLUSIONS: This physical distancing intensity framework was appropriate for the LMIC context with only minor adaptations. This framework may be useful for ongoing monitoring of physical distancing policy approaches and for use in effectiveness analyses. This analysis helps to highlight the differing paths taken by the countries in this sample and may provide lessons to other countries regarding options for structuring physical distancing policies in response to COVID-19 and future outbreaks.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Botsuana , Humanos , Índia , Jamaica , Moçambique , Namíbia , Distanciamento Físico , Políticas , SARS-CoV-2 , Ucrânia , Estados Unidos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are only a few national and international studies on the health of third-level professor lecturers at universities and colleges. Work-related diseases are important and relevant for occupational medicine. The aim of the study was to examine the mental health and work-related behavior and experience patterns of Ukrainian university lecturers in age group comparisons. METHODS: Data were collected from 81 Ukrainian university lecturers (General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Questionnaire on Work-Related Behavior and Experience Patterns (AVEM)). The university lecturers were split into 4 age groups. RESULTS: 9.9% of higher education lecturers reported impaired mental health (GHQ-12). In all, 64.8% of the total sample showed AVEM risk patterns. There were differences in age groups (third age group scoring lower than the first age group on the GHQ total score). The first age group had significantly lower opinions of the subjective importance of work on their personal lives compared to the third and fourth age group, while the second age group had significantly lower opinions compared to the fourth age group. All individuals with impaired mental health in GHQ-12 had AVEM risk patterns. CONCLUSIONS: These results offer novel insights into the health of Ukrainian university lecturers. Occupational healthcare practitioners should take them into consideration in order to initiate appropriate interventions.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Universidades , Humanos , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ucrânia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682555

RESUMO

This paper presents a comparative assessment of mortality in Poland and Ukraine, including due to alcohol consumption, by sex, place of residence, and age groups. Mortality from alcohol consumption is and remains one of the health problems of the state's population. The aim of this study was to establish the difference in mortality, including due to alcohol consumption, in the two neighboring countries. The analysis was conducted in 2008 and 2018 according to statistical institutions in Poland and Ukraine. Data from the codes of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases of the 10th edition: F10, G31.2, G62.1, I42.6, K70, K86.0, and X45 were used to calculate mortality due to alcohol consumption. The share of mortality caused by alcohol consumption in Ukraine in 2008 was 3.52%, and 1.83% in 2018. At the same time, in Poland, there is an increase in this cause of death from 1.72% to 2.36%. Mortality caused by alcohol consumption is the main share of mortality in the section "Mental and behavioral disorders" in both Ukraine, at 73-74%, and Poland, at 82-92%. Changes in the mortality rate in the cities and villages of Ukraine and Poland showed different trends: Poland nated, a significant increase in mortality, while in Ukraine it has halved on average. Overall and alcohol mortality rates in both countries were higher among the male population. The analysis of mortality among people of working age showed that the highest proportion of deaths from alcohol consumption in both countries was among people aged 25-44. Despite the geographical proximity, and similarity of natural and climatic characteristics and population, mortality rates in each country reflect the difference in the medical and demographic situation, and the effectiveness of state social approaches to public health.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Saúde Pública , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Cidades , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia/epidemiologia , Ucrânia/epidemiologia
12.
Wiad Lek ; 74(8): 1885-1890, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537737

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To prove safety of the new elixir and determine the effect on regenerative processes under conditions of the experimental trauma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The formula of the new dental elixir "Apiprol" includes biologically active components of bee products (propolis, comb capping wax), plant origin compounds. The elixir was single administered, intragastrally to white nonlinear mice weighing (22±2) g at doses at 50 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, 5000 mg/kg. Acute toxicity of the new hygienic product "Apiprol" was investigated by a single application at the rate of 1000 and 5000 mg/kg animal weight. Subacute (chronic) toxicity was studied when elixir was applied to the skin of 10 mice at a single daily dose of 500 mg/kg for one month. A local irritant effect of the elixir on the oral mucosa was examined in 14 white rats daily after application for 3-5 min. The study of reparative activity was carried out on an experimental model of the wound process. RESULTS: Results: The elixir's components promote tissues regeneration, rapid epithelialization and wound surfaces healing, having a highly immune stimulating activity and antibacterial properties. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The performed study proved a complete safety of the new elixir "Apiprol" and indicated a necessity of the further development of this preparation in order to create a greater variety of dental means produced in Ukraine.


Assuntos
Pele , Cicatrização , Animais , Camundongos , Ucrânia
13.
Wiad Lek ; 74(8): 1931-1938, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To present the complex formation of all the outlined components and the interaction between them, it should be lead to the successful formation of a culture of health of future doctors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The diagnostic stage of the experimental study covered 450 students of four higher medical educational institutions: I. Horbachevsky TernopilState Medical University (150 students), Lviv National Medical University named after D. Halytsky (100 students); Bukovynian State Medical University (100 students), Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University (100 students), Ukraine. RESULTS: Results and conclusions: Analysis of the dynamics of changes in the formation of personal practical and personaldeveloping components of the future doctors' health culture from entry to final control allows us to conclude that the use of author's methods in preparing students gives better results than traditional training.


Assuntos
Médicos , Universidades , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Ucrânia
14.
Wiad Lek ; 74(8): 1945-1951, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537748

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To obtain the estimates of the current prevalence of healthcare-associated infection among neurosurgical patients and determine the antimicrobial resistance of responsible pathogens in Ukraine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: We performed a retrospective multicenter cohort study was based on surveillance data of HAIs among neurosurgical patients from 2017 to 2019 in 7 regional hospitals. Definitions of HAI were used from the CDC/ NHSN. RESULTS: Results: Of 9,711 neurosurgical patients, 1,031 (20.9%) HAIs were observed. The most frequently of HAI types were surgical site infection (53.2%), pneumonia (17.3%), urinary tract infection (15.1%) and bloodstream infection (14.4%). The overall prevalence of HAIs was 20.9% within three months and was 12.8% during one month surveillance period. Death during hospitalization was reported in 11.3% of HAI cases. Escherichia coli were most commonly reported, accounting for 24.3% of all organisms, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (15.9%), Enterococcus spp (14.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13.4%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (9.8%). Meticillin resistance was 34.6% of S.aureus isolates. Vancomycin resistance was in 7.1% of isolated enterococci. Among the gram-negative bacteria, third-generation cephalosporins resistance was found in 48.5% of K.pneumoniae and in 34.3% of E. coli isolates. Carbapenem resistance was reported in 11.7% of all included Enterobacteriaceae, also highest in K.pneumoniae, and in 32.4% of P.aeruginosa isolates and in 67.2% of Acinetobacter spp. isolates. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Healthcare-associated infections are a cause for mortality and morbidity among hospitalized neurosurgical patients. This is due to increase emergence of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens. Routinely collected surveillance data are of great value as a basis for studying the consequences of HAIs.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar , Escherichia coli , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ucrânia
15.
Wiad Lek ; 74(8): 1952-1959, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537749

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To analyze the study of the D. reticulatus ticks epidemiology and to carry out their own examinations of ticks for their infection with pathogens of infectious diseases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Identification of ticks was performed by an optoelectronic SEO system - IMAGLAB. Detection of pathogens in the studied ticks was carried out in research laboratory of I. Horbachevsky TNMU by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in real time using the amplifier "RotorGene - 6000". RESULTS: Results: The review of scientific publications concerning an epidemiological condition of D. reticulatus ticks in particular countries of Europe and in Ukraine is carried out. According to the PCR results, 5 cases out of 21 samples of Borelia burgdorferi s.l. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected. Researchers and students of I. Horbachevsky TNMU during 2017-2019 conducted field meetings in 74 locations from 10 regions of Ukraine: Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk, Zakarpattia, Ternopil, Volyn, Rivne, Zhytomyr, Chernihiv, Khmelnytsky, Vinnytsia. In 2000-2018, researchers at the Department of Acarology of the I.I. Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine the distribution of D. reticulatus in 311 locations in 79 settlements of its eastern and southern regions and the Autonomous Republic of Crimea revealed. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Medical geographic information system allows to create electronic cartographic models for scientific research and practical use for systematic monitoring, accounting and control of the medical and geographical situation of the study area on the prevalence of ticks and morbidity.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum , Dermacentor , Ixodes , Rickettsia , Animais , Humanos , Ucrânia/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
16.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 373, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556158

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Increasing access to quality, evidence-based mental health treatments, including psychotherapy, is a global priority. Knowledge of factors associated with delivery settings is critical to ensure that new practices are appropriate and effectively adapted for novel settings. Understanding perceived needs for training and interest in ongoing education is one key factor. This qualitative study aimed to identify perspectives on contemporary evidence-based psychotherapies, perceived needs for mental health training, and existing barriers and facilitators to provision of mental health services in community clinics in Ukraine. Purposive and snowball sampling was used to recruit 18 physicians and psychologists employed in community clinics in Kyiv. A combination of free-listing and semi-structured interviews was used to collect data, which were thematically coded using emergent coding. RESULTS: Findings from this study indicated that participants recognize a need for improved mental health knowledge and training, as well as suggested interest and openness to learning short-term, structured psychological interventions. Additional barriers and existing strengths described by participants provide insight into possible factors that may impact future trainings in and implementation of modern mental health approaches.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Saúde Mental , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ucrânia
17.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256627, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591848

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Eastern Europe and Central Asian (EECA) region has the highest increase in HIV incidence and mortality globally, with suboptimal HIV treatment and prevention. All EECA countries (except Russia) are low and middle-income (LMIC). While LMIC are home to 80% of all older people living with HIV (OPWH), defined as ≥50 years, extant literature observed that newly diagnosed OPWH represent the lowest proportion in EECA relative to all other global regions. We examined HIV diagnoses in OPWH in Ukraine, a country emblematic of the EECA region. METHODS: We analysed incident HIV diagnoses from 2015-2018 and mortality trends from 2016-2018 for three age groups: 1) 15-24 years; 2) 25-49 years; and 3) ≥50 years. AIDS was defined as CD4<200cells/mL. Mortality was defined as deaths per 1000 patients newly diagnosed with HIV within the same calendar year. Mortality rates were calculated for 2016, 2017, and 2018, compared to age-matched general population rates, and all-cause standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated. RESULTS: From 2015-2018, the proportion of OPWH annually diagnosed with HIV increased from 11.2% to 14.9% (p<0.01). At the time of diagnosis, OPWH were also significantly (p<0.01) more likely to have AIDS (43.8%) than those aged 25-49 years (29.5%) and 15-24 years (13.3%). Newly diagnosed OPWH had the same-year mortality ranging from 3 to 8 times higher than age-matched groups in the Ukrainian general population. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest a reassessment of HIV testing, prevention and treatment strategies in Ukraine is needed to bring OPWH into focus. OPWH are more likely to present with late-stage HIV and have higher mortality rates. Re-designing testing practices is especially crucial since OPWH are absent from targeted testing programs and are increasingly diagnosed as they present with AIDS-defining symptoms. New strategies for linkage and treatment programs should reflect the distinct needs of this target population.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Epidemias , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Europa Oriental/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Ucrânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577152

RESUMO

Lavender, otherwise known as Lavandula angustifolia Mill., is widely used in landscaping, and its oil is a valuable raw material used in many industries. Therefore, new varieties of this plant are bred. The essential oil composition obtained from fresh flowers of thirteen new Ukrainian cultivars of L. angustifolia were analysed by GC-MS, and eighty-two components were identified. Linalool and linalyl acetate were principal constituents of all of the samples, and ranged from 11.4% to 46.7% and 7.4% to 44.2%, respectively. None of the studied samples fulfilled the requirements of Ph. Eur. and ISO 3515:2002. The main reason was a high content of α-terpineol (0.5-4.5%) and/or terpinene-4-ol (1.2-18.7%). Our results are in line with multiple researchers showing that the studied lavender oils do not comply with the industry standards despite their authenticity. We also investigated the effect of the growth year on the chemical composition of five tested cultivars grown on the same plots and noticed a considerable variability between years. The obtained experimental data did not show a significant inter-year trend for the content changes of the major components. Our results allow us to deeply characterize the new cultivars and evaluate their oil for a possible use in the industry, or to designate them for future selective breeding.


Assuntos
Lavandula , Óleos Voláteis , Ucrânia
19.
Infect Genet Evol ; 95: 105087, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592415

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 was first detected in China in December 2019 and has rapidly spread around the globe. The World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic in March 2020 just three months after the introduction of the virus. Individual nations have implemented and enforced a variety of social distancing interventions to slow the virus spread, that had different degrees of success. Understanding the role of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) on COVID-19 transmission in different settings is highly important. While most such studies have focused on China, neighboring Asian counties, Western Europe, and North America, there is a scarcity of studies for Eastern Europe. The aim of this epidemiological study is to fill this gap by analyzing the characteristics of the first months of the epidemic in Ukraine using agent-based modelling and phylodynamics. Specifically, first we studied the dynamics of COVID-19 incidence and mortality and explored the impact of epidemic NPIs. Our stochastic model suggests, that even a small delay of weeks could have increased the number of cases by up to 50%, with the potential to overwhelm hospital systems. Second, the genomic data analysis suggests that there have been multiple introductions of SARS-CoV-2 into Ukraine during the early stages of the epidemic. Our findings support the conclusion that the implemented travel restrictions may have had limited impact on the epidemic spread. Third, the basic reproduction number for the epidemic that has been estimated independently from case counts data and from genomic data suggest sustained intra-country transmissions.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Genoma Viral , Modelos Estatísticos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , COVID-19/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Distanciamento Físico , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Ucrânia/epidemiologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501834

RESUMO

Background: At present, in Ukraine, there is an insufficient capacity for up-to-date surveillance of the health status of the general population; public health (PH) promotion and disease prevention activities are scarce. Additionally, there is an urgent need to ensure, develop and support an efficient public health workforce (PHW) and appropriately address existing health issues. Ukraine currently introduces PH system reforms in line with its current burden of disease, the epidemiological profile and the Essential Public Health Services (EPHOs). This analysis aims to propose a pragmatic framework to provide guidance and recommendations related to the development, support and planning of the PHW in Ukraine. Methods: We constructed a framework based on a previously published scoping review and analyzed various policy analysis approaches. In line with the recommendations found in the literature and the best practices used elsewhere, this method enabled the construction of a framework for facilitating successful PHW development. In addition, an expert workshop was held, serving as a reality check for identifying crucial areas of the PH system in Ukraine. Results: The proposed framework includes a country's background, the evidence and available policy options, such as the health system (including core functions, organizational resources, regulations and norms), health system capacities (including human resources; PH capacity assessment; datasets and databases; forecasting strategies; licensing, accreditation and quality assurance) and capacity building (including PH education, training, core competencies and ethical and professional codes of conduct). To facilitate and support effective implementation of the framework, we propose (1) implementing strategies to facilitate changes in attitude, behavior and practices among the citizens; (2) implementing strategies to facilitate the necessary behavioral changes in the PHW; (3) implementing strategies to facilitate the necessary organizational and institutional changes; (4) implementing strategies to facilitate system changes and (5) identification of potential barriers and obstacles for the implementation of these strategies. Conclusion: The report highlights the practical tactics and best practices for providing suggestions for PHW support and planning. The employment of prominent analytical tools and procedures in policymaking processes suggests an effective strategy for PHW development in Ukraine.


Assuntos
Mão de Obra em Saúde , Saúde Pública , Fortalecimento Institucional , Humanos , Ucrânia , Recursos Humanos
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