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1.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 59-66, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe psychological and psychosocial consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic are expected, especially for people already vulnerable to biological or psychosocial stressors, including those with mental health problems. The study aimed to investigate factors associated with the loss of jobs and unemployment during the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, we investigated whether mental illness was associated with a higher risk of losing one's job because of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Nineteen thousand four hundred ninety-six adults living in Italy were administered an online protocol including a sociodemographic checklist and questionnaires investigating suicide ideation and risk, mental health status and general distress (stress, anxiety, and depression), resilience, and perceived support. RESULTS: One thousand two hundred seventy-four reported having lost their job because of the COVID-19 pandemic, and 5.4% of the sample reported a mental illness (mostly a depressive disorder). Unemployment was independently associated with mental illness, poor mental health, and depression. Mental illness was associated with the risk of losing one's job because of the COVID-19 pandemic, but not at the multivariate analyses. Those who lost their job because of the COVID-19 pandemic (compared to others) reported worse mental health and depression. LIMITATIONS: The presence of mental illness was self-reported by respondents and the administered measures were self-reported questionnaires affected by social desirability and other response bias. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic and social isolation measures and lockdown used to contain its spread among the Italian population were associated with occupational insecurity, especially among the more vulnerable social categories.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Mentais , Adulto , Ansiedade , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Depressão , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Desemprego
2.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 43(10): 765-774, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate depression and sexual function among pregnant and non-pregnant women throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A total of 188 women, 96 pregnant and 92 non-pregnant were included. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX) were applied to the participants after obtaining sociodemographic data. RESULTS: The depression scores of pregnant and non-pregnant women were similar (p = 0.846). We found that the depression scores were significantly higher among the group of participants who have lower economic status (p = 0.046). Moreover, the depression score was significantly higher among women who lost their income during the pandemic (p = 0.027). The score on the ASEX was significantly higher, and sexual dysfunction was more prevalent among women who have lower levels of schooling and income (p < 0.05). Likewise, the ASEX scores were significantly higher (p = 0.019) among the group who experienced greater income loss throughout the pandemic. Upon comparing the pregnant and non-pregnant groups, we detected that sexual dysfunction had a significantly higher rate among pregnant women (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In times of global crisis, such as the current pandemic, low-income families have an increased risk of experiencing depression and sexual dysfunction. When we compared pregnant women with non-pregnant women, depression scores were similar, but pregnant women were at a 6.2 times higher risk of developing sexual dysfunction.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Gestantes/psicologia , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Fatores Econômicos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2 , Comportamento Sexual , Turquia/epidemiologia , Desemprego/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 678293, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722431

RESUMO

Background: The reduction of child and adolescent deaths (defined as decedents aged 0-19 years) remains a crucial public health priority also in high-income countries such as Finland. There is evidence of a relationship between socioeconomic gradients and child mortality, but the association is considered complex and relatively poorly understood. Exploiting a Finnish dataset with nationwide coverage, the present study aimed to shed light on the sociodemographic predictors of child and adolescent mortality at the municipality level. Methods: A public database of Statistics Finland was queried for municipality-level data on sociodemographic traits and child and adolescent deaths in Finland during the years 2011-2018. The sociodemographic indicators included total population size, child and adolescent population size, sex distribution, mean age, education, unemployment, median income, population density, rurality, percentage of individuals living in their birth municipality, household size, overcrowded households, foreign language speakers, divorce rate, car ownership rate, and crime rate. The sociodemographic indicators were modeled against child and adolescent mortality by means of generalized estimating equations. Results: A total of 2,371 child and adolescent deaths occurred during the 8-year study period, yielding an average annual mortality rate of 26.7 per 100,000 individuals. Despite a fluctuating trend, the average annual decline in child and adolescent deaths was estimated to be 3% (95% confidence interval 1-5%). Of the sociodemographic indicators, population density was associated with higher child and adolescent mortality (rate ratio 1.03, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.06), whereas the percentage of foreign language speakers was associated with lower child and adolescent mortality (0.96, 0.93-0.99). Conclusion: Densely populated areas should be the primary focus of efforts to reduce child and adolescent mortality. Of note is also the apparently protective effect of foreign language speakers for premature mortality. Future studies are welcomed to scrutinize the mediating pathways and individual-level factors behind the associations detected in this study.


Assuntos
Família , Desemprego , Adolescente , Criança , Cidades , Escolaridade , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769684

RESUMO

Economic crises cause significant shortages in disposable income and a sharp decline in the living conditions, affecting healthcare sector, hitting the profitability and sustainability of companies leading to raises in unemployment. At micro level, these sharp decreases in earnings associated with unemployment and furthermore with the lack of social protection will impact the quality of life and finally the health of individuals. In time of crisis, it becomes vital to support not only the critical sectors of the economy, the assets, technology, and infrastructure, but to protect jobs and workers. This health crisis has hit hard the jobs dynamics through unemployment and underemployment, the quality of work (through wages, or access to social protection), and through the effects on specific groups, with a higher degree of vulnerability to unfavorable labor market outcomes. In this context, providing forecasts as recent as possible for the unemployment rate, a core indicator of the Romanian labor market that could include the effects of the market shocks it becomes fundamental. Thus, the paper aims to offer valuable forecasts for the Romanian unemployment rate using univariate vs. multivariate time series models for the period 2021-2022, highlighting the main patterns of evolution. Based on the univariate time series models, the paper predict the future values of unemployment rate based on its own past using self-forecasting and implementing ARFIMA and SETAR models using monthly data for the period January 2000-April 2021. From the perspective of multivariate time series models, the paper uses VAR/VECM models, analyzing the temporal interdependencies between variables using quarterly data for the period 2000Q1-2020Q4. The empirical results pointed out that both SETAR and VECM provide very similar results in terms of accuracy replicating very well the pre-pandemic period, 2018Q2-2020Q1, reaching the value of 4.1% at the beginning of 2020, with a decreasing trend reaching the value of 3.9%, respectively, 3.6% at the end of 2022.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Desemprego , Economia , Emprego , Humanos , Renda , Romênia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
5.
Trials ; 22(1): 705, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Employment is associated with better outcomes of substance use treatment and protects against relapse after treatment completion. Unemployment rates are high for people with substance use disorders (SUD) who undergo treatment, with Norwegian estimates ranging from 81 to 91%. Evidence-based vocational models are lacking for patients in SUD treatment but exist for patients with psychosis in terms of Individual Placement and Support (IPS). The aim of the IPS for substance use disorders (IPS-SUD) trial is to investigate the effect of IPS in a SUD population. METHODS/DESIGN: The IPS-SUD trial is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing IPS to an enhanced control intervention. The study is a seven-site, two-arm, pragmatic, parallel-group, superiority RCT. Participants are randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either IPS plus treatment as usual (TAU) or to receive a self-help guide book and 12-h workshop plus 1-h individual vocational guidance plus TAU. Aiming to recruit 200 participants, we will be able to detect a 20% difference in the main outcome of employment with 90% power. We will make assessments at inclusion and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups and obtain outcome data on employment from national mandatory registries. The primary outcome will be at least 1 day of competitive employment during the 18-month follow-up period. Secondary employment outcomes will capture the pattern and extent of employment in terms of total time worked (days/hours), time to first employment, number of different jobs, duration of the longest employment, and sustained employment. Secondary non-employment outcomes will be substance use, mental distress, and quality of life measured by validated instruments at 6, 12, and 18 months follow-up assessments. To be eligible, participants must be between 18 and 65 years, currently unemployed and in treatment for SUD. DISCUSSION: The IPS-SUD trial will provide evidence for the use of IPS in a SUD population. Findings from the study will have implications for service delivery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04289415 . Registered on February 28, 2020.


Assuntos
Readaptação ao Emprego , Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos Psicóticos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Emprego , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reabilitação Vocacional , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Desemprego
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 227, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630839

RESUMO

Introduction: as the COVID-19 pandemic rages on, sub-Saharan Africa remains at high risk given the poor adherence to pandemic control protocols. Misconceptions about the contagion may have given rise to adverse risk behaviours across population groups. This study evaluates risk perception among 2,244 residents of seven countries in sub-Saharan Africa (Botswana, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe) in relation to socio-demographic determinants. Methods: an online survey was conducted via social media platforms to a random sample of participants. Risk perception was evaluated across six domains: loss of income, food scarcity, having a relative infected, civil disorder, criminal attacks, or losing a friend or relative to COVID-19. A multivariable ordinal logistic regression was conducted to assess socio-demographic factors associated with the perceived risk of being affected by COVID-19. Results: 595 (27%) respondents did not consider themselves to be at risk, while 33% perceived themselves to be at high risk of being affected by the pandemic with respect to the six domains evaluated. Hospital-based workers had the highest proportional odds (3.5; 95%CI: 2.3-5.6) high perceived risk. Teenage respondents had the highest predictive probability (54.6%; 95% CI: 36.6-72.7%) of perceiving themselves not to be at risk of being affected by COVID-19, while Zambia residents had the highest predictive probability (40.7%; 95% CI: 34.3-47.0%) for high-risk perception. Conclusion: this study reveals the need to increase awareness of risks among socio-demographic groups such as younger people and the unemployed. Targeted risk communication strategies will create better risk consciousness, as well as adherence to safety measures.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Assunção de Riscos , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Fatores Etários , COVID-19/psicologia , Comunicação , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Probabilidade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desemprego , Adulto Jovem
7.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(3): 263-270, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667317

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Historically, pandemics have resulted in higher mortality rates in the most vulnerable populations. Social determinants of health (SDH) have been associated with people morbidity and mortality at different levels. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between SDH and COVID-19 severity and mortality. METHODS: Retrospective study, where data from patients with COVID-19 were collected at a public hospital in Chile. Sociodemographic variables related to structural SDH were classified according to the following categories: gender, age (< 65 years, ≥ 65 years), secondary education (completed or not), work status (active, inactive) and income (< USD 320, ≥ USD 320). RESULTS: A total of 1,012 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases were included. Average age was 64.2 ± 17.5 years. Mortality of the entire sample was 14.5 %. Age, level of education, unemployment and income had a strong association with mortality (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The findings reinforce the idea that SDH should be considered a public health priority, which is why political efforts should focus on reducing health inequalities for future generations.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682501

RESUMO

This study examined a cross-sectional association between self-reported low back pain (LBP) and unemployment among working-age people, and estimated the impact of self-reported LBP on unemployment. We used anonymized data from a nationally representative survey (24,854 men and 26,549 women aged 20-64 years). The generalized estimating equations of the multivariable Poisson regression models stratified by gender were used to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for unemployment. The population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated using Levin's method, with the substitution method for 95% CI estimation. The prevalence of self-reported LBP was 9.0% in men and 11.1% in women. The prevalence of unemployment was 9.3% in men and 31.7% in women. After adjusting for age, socio-economic status, lifestyle habits, and comorbidities, the PR (95% CI) for the unemployment of the LBP group was 1.32 (1.19-1.47) in men and 1.01 (0.96-1.07) in women, compared with the respective non-LBP group. The PAF (95% CI) of unemployment associated with self-reported LBP was 2.8% (1.6%, 4.2%) in men. Because the total population of Japanese men aged 20-64 in 2013 was 36,851 thousand, it was estimated that unemployment in 1037 thousand of the Japanese male working population was LBP-related.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Dor Lombar/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Desemprego
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unemployment, underemployment, and the quality of work are national occupational health risk factors that drive critical national problems; however, to date, there have been no systematic efforts to document the public health impact of this situation. METHODS: An environmental scan was conducted to explore the root causes and health impacts of underemployment and unemployment and highlight multilevel perspectives and factors in the landscape of underemployment and unemployment. METHODS: included a review of gray literature and research literature, followed by key informant interviews with nine organizational representatives in employment research and policy, workforce development, and industry to assess perceived needs and gaps in practice. RESULTS: Evidence highlights the complex nature of underemployment and unemployment, with multiple macro-level underlying drivers, including the changing nature of work, a dynamic labor market, inadequate enforcement of labor protection standards, declining unions, wage depression, and weak political will interacting with multiple social determinants of health. Empirical literature on unemployment and physical, mental, and psychological well-being, substance abuse, depression in young adults, and suicides is quite extensive; however, there are limited data on the impacts of underemployment on worker health and well-being. Additionally, organizations do not routinely consider health outcomes as they relate to their work in workforce or policy development. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Several gaps in data and research will need to be addressed in order to assess the full magnitude of the public health burden of underemployment and unemployment. Public health needs to champion a research and practice agenda in partnership with multisector stakeholders to illuminate the role of employment quality and status in closing the gap on health inequities, and to integrate workforce health and well-being into labor and economic development agendas across government agencies and industry.


Assuntos
Suicídio , Desemprego , Emprego , Humanos , Percepção , Saúde Pública , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Am J Public Health ; 111(S3): S215-S223, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709876

RESUMO

Public Health 3.0 approaches are critical for monitoring disparities in economic, social, and overall health impacts following the COVID-19 pandemic and its associated policy changes to slow community spread. Timely, cross-sector data as identified using this approach help decisionmakers identify changes, track racial disparities, and address unintended consequences during a pandemic. We applied a monitoring and evaluation framework that combined policy changes with timely, relevant cross-sector data and community review. Indicators covered unemployment, basic needs, family violence, education, childcare, access to health care, and mental, physical, and behavioral health. In response to increasing COVID-19 cases, nonpharmaceutical intervention strategies were implemented in March 2020 in King County, Washington. By December 2020, 554 000 unemployment claims were filed. Social service calls increased 100%, behavioral health crisis calls increased 25%, and domestic violence calls increased 25%, with disproportionate impact on communities of color. This framework can be replicated by local jurisdictions to inform and address racial inequities in ongoing COVID-19 mitigation and recovery. Cross-sector collaboration between public health and sectors addressing the social determinants of health are an essential first step to have an impact on long-standing racial inequities. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(S3):S215-S223. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306422).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Política de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Saúde Pública , COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Vigilância da População , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Washington
11.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(9): 1491-1500, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495714

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic precipitated an unemployment crisis in the US that surpassed the Great Recession of 2007-09 within the first three months of the pandemic. This article builds on the limited early evidence of the relationship between the pandemic and health insurance coverage, using county-level unemployment and Medicaid enrollment data from North Carolina, a large state that did not expand Medicaid. We used linear and county fixed effects models to assess this relationship, accounting for county-level social vulnerability, physical and virtual access to Medicaid enrollment, and COVID-19 case burden. Using data from January 2018 through August 2020, we estimated that the passthrough rate-the share of unemployed people who gained Medicaid coverage-was approximately 15 percent statewide but higher in more socially vulnerable counties. This low passthrough rate during a period of increased unemployment resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic means that Medicaid was unable to completely fulfill its countercyclical role, in which it grows to meet greater need during periods of widespread economic hardship, because of North Carolina's stringent Medicaid eligibility criteria. Working toward greater adoption of Medicaid expansion may help ensure that the US is better prepared for the next crisis by ensuring access to health insurance coverage.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Medicaid , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , North Carolina , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Desemprego , Estados Unidos
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18538, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535687

RESUMO

This paper analyzes the impact of mobility contraction on employee furlough and excess deaths in Italy during the COVID-19 crisis. Our approach exploits rainfall patterns across Italian administrative regions as a source of exogenous variation in human mobility to pinpoint the causal effect of mobility restrictions on excess deaths and furlough workers. Results confirm that the first countrywide lockdown has effectively curtailed the COVID-19 epidemics restricting it mainly to the northern part of the country, with the drawback of a countrywide increase in unemployment risk. Our analysis points out that a mobility contraction of 1% leads to a mortality reduction of 0.6%, but it induces an increase of 10% in Wage Guarantee Funds allowed hours. We discuss return-to-work policies and prioritizing policies for administering COVID-19 vaccines in the most advanced stage of a vaccination campaign when the healthy active population is left to be vaccinated.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Desemprego , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália , Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
Prev Med ; 152(Pt 1): 106498, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538366

RESUMO

This review summarizes recent research in four environmental areas affecting risk of deaths by suicide. Politically, the weight of the evidence suggests that laws increasing social welfare expenditures and other policies assisting persons with low incomes (e.g., minimum wage) tend to lower suicide rates. Other legal changes such as those restricting firearms and alcohol availability can also prevent suicides. The social institutions of marriage, as well as parenting, continue to serve as protective factors against suicide, although the degree of protection is often gendered. Religiousness tends to be inversely associated with suicide deaths at the individual level of analysis, but the mediators need exploration to determine what accounts for the association: social support, better mental health, better physical health, less divorce, or other covariates. Cultural definitions of the traditional male role (e.g., breadwinner culture) continue to help explain the high male to female suicide ratio. New work on the "culture of suicide" shows promise. The degree of approval of suicide is sometimes the single most important factor in predicting suicide. At the individual level of analysis, two of the strongest predictors of suicide are economic ones: unemployment and low socio-economic status. Attention is drawn to enhancing the minimum wage as a policy known to lower state suicide rates. Limitations of research include model mis-specification, conflicting results especially when ecological data are employed, and a need for more research exploring moderators of established patterns such as that between religiousness and suicide.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Suicídio , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Desemprego
14.
Menopause ; 28(10): 1176-1180, 2021 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469936

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Menopause is associated with an increased prevalence of sleep difficulties. We evaluated the economic burden of sleep disturbances among working midlife women. METHODS: This retrospective, longitudinal cohort study collected data from the US Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) database of women age 42-52 years at enrollment. We assessed the association between sleep disturbances (trouble falling asleep, waking early, or nocturnal awakenings) and workplace productivity (employment [yes/no] and work hours/wk) for women who were employed at the baseline visit and had ≥1 follow-up visit. We estimated overall economic burden by multiplying changes in productivity by median age-specific hourly US wages. Each woman's data were compared from visit to visit and were excluded after the first observed unemployment. Regression analysis was used to estimate associations between changes in sleep and changes in workplace productivity while controlling for relevant characteristics that varied over time. RESULTS: The analysis included 2,489 working women (19,707 visits); 31% became unemployed during follow-up. Risk of unemployment was 31% higher for women with versus without new-onset sleep disturbances (P  = 0.0474). Onset of sleep disturbances was associated with a 0.44-0.57 hours/wk reduction in work time (not significant). Using the more conservative reduction (0.44 h), sleep problems were associated with an annual loss of $517 to $524 per woman and $2.2 billion/yr in lost productivity among women age 42-64 nationwide. CONCLUSIONS: New-onset sleep problems in midlife women are associated with significant increases in risk of unemployment and ∼$2 billion/yr in lost productivity nationwide.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Desemprego
15.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 68(11): e29324, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467648

RESUMO

Childhood cancersurvivors may be differentially impacted by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). From April to June of 2020, we examined psychosocial/health concerns in 4148 adult survivors and 571 siblings. Although more survivors reported concerns about getting sick (p = .002) and needing hospitalization (p = .003) in general, survivors and siblings were comparably concerned about being infected with and the consequences of COVID-19. Cranial radiation was associated with social isolation (relative risk [RR] = 1.3, CI = 1.1-1.7), and central nervous system (CNS) tumors were associated with unemployment due to COVID-19 (RR = 1.7, CI = 1.2-2.2). Some survivors appear more vulnerable and may require more support to meet health care and vocational needs during COVID-19, though siblings also perceive substantial risk.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Irmãos , Isolamento Social , Desemprego
16.
Soc Sci Med ; 287: 114332, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500321

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Physical pain is one of the most severe of human experiences. It is thus one of the most important to understand. OBJECTIVE: This paper reports the first cross-country study of the links between physical pain and the state of the economy. A key issue examined is how the level of pain in a society is influenced by the unemployment rate. METHODS: The study uses pooled cross-sectional Gallup data from 146 countries (total N > 1.3 million). It estimates fixed-effects regression equations that control for personal characteristics. RESULTS: More than a quarter of the world's citizens are in physical pain. Physical pain is lower in an economic boom and greater in an economic downturn. Estimated effect sizes are substantial. Remarkably, increases in pain are borne almost exclusively by women and found principally in rich nations. These findings have paradoxical aspects. The counter-cyclicality of physical pain is not what would be predicted by conventional economic analysis: during an expansion, people typically work harder and longer, and accidents and injuries increase. Nor are the study results due to unemployed citizens experiencing more pain (although they do). Instead, the study's findings are consistent with an important hypothesis proposed recently, using different kinds of evidence, by brain and behavioural-science researchers (e.g., Wiech and Tracey, 2009; Chou et al.; 2016). The hypothesis is that economic worry can create physical pain. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first cross-country evidence that the level of physical pain in a nation depends on the state of the economy. Pain is high when the unemployment rate is high. That is not because of greater pain among people who lose their jobs - it extends far beyond that into wider society. The increase in physical pain in a downturn is experienced disproportionately by women.


Assuntos
Dor , Desemprego , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Dor/epidemiologia
17.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1729, 2021 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with disadvantages are a high-risk group of unemployment or underemployment. Disadvantages include disability, under-education, or being a member of a minority, etc. Effective labor market programs could be a key in raising employment and quality of life among this high-risk group of society. The TOP 6.8.2.-15-NA1 project is one of the main Hungarian labor market programs. The project's primary aims are increasing the employability of disadvantaged unemployed and supporting the efficiency of job-seeking. METHODS: Our goal was to analyze the effects and methodology of the TOP 6.8.2.-15-NA1 project in Hungary. The sample of our study contains participants of the project (n = 300), based in Zala County, Hungary. RESULTS: After 28 days, 53.3% of participants had a job. At the 180th day status, the rate of employed people was 47.3%. We could identify low-educated participants and older participants as higher-risk groups of long-term unemployment. CONCLUSIONS: We emphasize the role of these services (job-seeking clubs, organization of job fairs, and mentorship) in the long-term individual success of participants. Improving the employment rate for people with disadvantages is a critical factor for enhancing the quality of life for individuals with disadvantages.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Desemprego , Emprego , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Ocupações
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many patients on maintenance dialysis experience financial hardship. Existing studies are mainly cost analyses that quantify financial hardship in monetary terms, but an evaluation of its impact is also warranted. This review aims to explore the definition of financial hardship and its relationship with symptom burden among patients on dialysis. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in November 2020, using six electronic databases. Studies published in English that examined the associations between financial hardship and symptom burden were selected. Two reviewers independently extracted data and appraised the studies by using the JBI Critical Appraisal Checklists. RESULTS: Fifty cross-sectional and seven longitudinal studies were identified. Studies used income level, employment status, healthcare funding, and financial status to evaluate financial hardship. While relationships between decreased income, unemployment, and overall symptom burden were identified, evidence suggested that several symptoms, including depression, fatigue, pain, and sexual dysfunction, were more likely to be associated with changes in financial status. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that poor financial status may have a negative effect on physical and psychological well-being. However, a clear definition of financial hardship is warranted. Improving this assessment among patients on dialysis may prompt early interventions and minimize the negative impact of financial hardship.


Assuntos
Estresse Financeiro , Diálise Renal , Estudos Transversais , Emprego , Humanos , Desemprego
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501622

RESUMO

Background: This study investigated the associations between employment transitions and psychological distress among a cohort of 45 years and older Australians. Methods: This study was based on the 45 and Up Study, a large prospective cohort of participants aged 45 years and older (N = 267,153), followed up over the period 2006-2015. The risk of psychological distress was compared between various employment transitions categories by specifying an ordered logistic regression model adjusting for confounders. Results: Compared to participants who remained employed at baseline and follow-up, higher psychological distress was found among those who transitioned from being employed to unemployed (OR = 2.68, 95%CI 2.13-3.33) and to not being in the labour force or retired (OR = 2.21, 95%CI 1.85-2.62). Higher psychological distress was also evident among those who remained unemployed from baseline to follow-up (OR = 2.00, 95%CI 1.10-3.43), and those who transitioned from being retired to being unemployed (OR = 1.55, 95%CI 1.03-2.27). Conversely, lower psychological distress was found among those who transitioned from being unemployed to being employed (OR = 0.35, 95%CI 0.25-0.51). In general, lower psychological distress was found among 'positive' employment transitions (transitioning to being employed or retired). Conclusions: Policies focussing on re-employment in older age, as well as unemployment schemes, might be helpful in reducing psychological distress among middle- and old-age Australians.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Desemprego , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Emprego , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
J Forensic Sci ; 66(6): 2092-2103, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498734

RESUMO

Numerous studies have highlighted significant correlations between major psychiatric disorders and criminal behavior. However, the plethora of literature on criminality among patients with major psychiatric disorders originated in the West. The objective of the present paper is to review criminal behavior among individuals with mental illness in Arab countries. Attributes of individuals assessed by forensic psychiatric committees and identifying various aspects that may reinforce criminality among individuals with mental illness were considered. Following the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review of literature from three databases (Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science) was carried out. A total of 20 articles were included. The publications span between 1975 and 2020 and originated in seven different Arab countries including Egypt, Kuwait, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, Jordan, and Algeria. Individuals evaluated by forensic psychiatric committees were predominantly males. Excluding substance use disorder, psychotic disorders were the most commonly diagnosed disorders among individuals evaluated by forensic psychiatry committees. Concerning schizophrenia, concomitant substance use and nonadherence to therapy were significantly associated with increased criminality. The review demonstrates that substance use is certainly linked to violence. There is a significant association between mental illness and criminal behavior. Therefore, awareness of different characteristics and risk factors behind criminal behavior among mentally ill offenders could allow us to design and implement effective preventative measures. The Arab's contribution in this field of forensic psychiatry is relatively small. Indeed, further investigation and contributions from the Arab world are required.


Assuntos
Mundo Árabe , Crime , Comportamento Criminoso , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Vítimas de Crime , Escolaridade , Psiquiatria Legal , Humanos , Defesa por Insanidade , Estado Civil , Adesão à Medicação , Cooperação do Paciente , Prisioneiros , Distribuição por Sexo , Desemprego
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