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1.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 361: 109460, 2022 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785387

RESUMO

A series of alkyl gallates were evaluated for the antibacterial activity against two common Gram-negative foodborne bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) associated with seafood. The length of the alkyl chain plays a pivotal role in eliciting their antibacterial activities and octyl gallate (OG) exerted an excellent inhibitory efficacy. To extend the aqueous solubility, stability, and bactericidal properties of octyl gallate (OG), an inclusion complex between OG and ß-cyclodextrin (ßCD), OG/ßCD, was prepared and identified with various methods including X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Furthermore, the enhanced inhibitory effect and potential antibacterial mechanism of OG/ßCD against two Gram-negative and Gram-positive foodborne bacteria were comprehensively investigated. The results show that OG/ßCD could function against bacteria through effectively damaging the membrane, permeating into cells, and then disturbing the activity of the respiratory electron transport chain to cause the production of high-level intracellular hydroxyl radicals. Moreover, the reinforced OG/ßCD-incorporated polylactic acid (PLA) nanofibers were fabricated using the electrospinning technique as food packaging to extend the Chinese giant salamander fillet's shelf life at 4 °C. This research highlights the antibacterial effectiveness of OG/ßCD in aqueous media, which can be used as a safe multi-functionalized food additive combined with the benefits of electrospun nanofibers to extend the Chinese giant salamander fillets shelf life by 15 d at 4 °C.


Assuntos
Nanofibras , Pseudomonas fluorescens , Vibrio parahaemolyticus , beta-Ciclodextrinas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , China , Ácido Gálico/análogos & derivados , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Urodelos , beta-Ciclodextrinas/farmacologia
2.
Zootaxa ; 5068(1): 60-80, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810722

RESUMO

The California Floristic Province contains numerous ecological regions and a complex geological and geographical history that make it one of the worlds biodiversity hotspots. A number of wide-ranging taxa span across these regions and show complex patterns of dispersal, vicariance and lineage diversification, making localized small ranged species with lower levels of vagility essential to understanding the overall region. Here, we investigate the biogeography and population structure of the California Giant Salamander (Dicamptodon ensatus) (Eschscholtz 1833), an endemic species localized to a narrow coastal region between two areas of biological significance in the California Floristic Province, the North Coast Divide and Monterey Bay. We sequenced one mtDNA fragment (control region) for 133 individuals and a subset of 38 individuals for the anonymous nuclear locus E16C7. We analyzed these sequences with phylogenetic, coalescent, Bayesian clustering, and population genetic approaches in order to infer population structure, phylogenetic structure, and biogeographic history. Additionally, we examined occurrence data with species distribution modeling to generate a habitat suitability map to aid our interpretation of geographic structure. Our analyses recovered 4 major mtDNA lineages, two of which are combined into 3 major lineages when nuDNA is examined. These 3 major lineages are bounded by 4 major current or past geological features; the North Coast Divide, the former Wilson Grove Embayment/current Petaluma Gap, San Francisco Bay, and Monterey Bay. Other low-vagility species linked to moist microclimates and forest habitat do share similarities with the genetic patterns of D. ensatus hinting at a larger role for the past Wilson Grove embayment and modern Petaluma Gap in California biogeography.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial , Urodelos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , California , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Estruturas Genéticas , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Urodelos/genética
3.
Zoolog Sci ; 38(5): 397-404, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664914

RESUMO

Vulnerability of animals immediately after hatching may induce plasticity in early ontology that becomes important for subsequent survival and growth. Ezo salamanders (Hynobius retardatus) are amphibians inhabiting ponds in Hokkaido, Japan where ezo brown frogs (Rana pirica) spawn on occasion. The salamander larvae must achieve sufficient size in order to successfully capture frog tadpoles, and we examined whether the presence of tadpoles causes development of greater body and/or gape size in newly hatched salamander larvae, which will in turn result in advantageous future prey-predator interactions. To examine this hypothesis, we conducted three laboratory experiments to demonstrate the phenotypic plasticity of salamander hatchlings in response to the presence or absence of frog tadpoles and to screen the type of signals involved in the expression of the phenotypic plasticity. First, salamander hatchlings were reared alone or with tadpoles, and the growth and morphological traits of the hatchlings were compared. The results showed that hatchling larvae grew faster with a more developed gape in the presence of tadpoles. Next, to identify the type of signals inducing this plasticity, two separate experiments with manipulated chemical and visual signals from tadpoles were conducted. The findings showed that faster growth and a more developed gape were induced by chemical but not visual signals. This plasticity may be an adaptive strategy because it increases the likelihood of preying on tadpoles in future prey-predator interactions.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Urodelos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Boca/anatomia & histologia , Boca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Comportamento Predatório , Ranidae , Urodelos/fisiologia , Água/química
4.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 71(10)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623952

RESUMO

A bacterial strain designated 32AT was isolated from the skin of an Anderson's salamander (Ambystoma andersoni) and subjected to a comprehensive taxonomic study. The strain was Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile, oxidase- and urease-negative, and catalase-positive. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons placed the strain in the genus Luteolibacter with highest sequence similarities to Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis A4T-83T (95.2%), Luteolibacter gellanilyticus CB-286403T (95.1%) and Luteolibacter cuticulihirudinis E100T (94.9%). Genomic sequence analysis revealed a size of 5.3 Mbp, a G+C-content of 62.2 mol% and highest ANI values with Luteolibacter luteus (71.2%), Luteolibacter yonseiensis (71.4%) and L. pohnpeiensis (69.5%). In the polyamine pattern, 1,3-diaminopropane and spermidine were predominant. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The quinone system was composed of the major menaquinones MK-9 and MK-10. Major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, the unidentified aminolipid AL2, the unidentified phospholipid PL2 and the unidentified aminophospholipid APL1. The fatty acid profile contained major amounts of iso-C14:0, iso-C16:0, C16 : 0 and C16 : 1 ω9c. In addition, C14 : 0, C15:0, anteiso-C15 : 0, summed feature 2 (C14 : 0 3OH and/or iso-C16 : 0 I), and the hydroxylated fatty acids iso-C14 : 0 3OH, iso-C16 : 0 3OH and C16 : 0 3-OH were detected. Physiologically, strain 32AT is distinguishable from its next relatives. Based on phylogenetic, genomic, physiological and chemotaxonomic data, strain 32AT represents a novel species of the genus Luteolibacter for which we propose the name Luteolibacter ambystomatis sp. nov. The type strain is 32AT (=CCM 9141T=LMG 32214T).


Assuntos
Ambystoma , Urodelos , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Verrucomicrobia
5.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 146: 157-164, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672265

RESUMO

We examined 7 cutaneous mixed tumors in 2 wild-captured Japanese giant salamanders Andrias japonicus. The tumors were either already present and/or increased in size, or newly occurred during capativity. We sampled the 7 tumors from these animals and 3 verrucose protrusions from 3 unaffected animals, as controls, and examined them pathologically and virologically. The tumors (5 mm to 4 cm in size) were papillary protrusions or pendulated on the skin surface. The cut surface of the tumors was white, lobulated, partially hard, and contained mucus. All tumors presented similar histological characteristics of a hyaline structure and exhibited biphasic proliferation, with neoplastic epithelial cells partially composing the pseudo-ductal structure and staining positive for cytokeratin AE1/AE3. Vimentin 3B4-positive blast-like mesenchymal cells proliferated to fill the gaps in the epithelial components. Transition from unique mucous gland to neoplastic tissue was observed. The hyaline structure was stained blue by AZAN stain, Alcian blue-periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) double stain, and toluidine blue (TB) stain of pH 7.0, but was unstained by TB with pH values of 4.1 and 2.5. The mucus in the neoplastic tissue and in the mucous gland in verrucose protrusions was stained blue by Alcian blue-PAS double stain; TB staining at pH 7.0, 4.1, and 2.5 revealed metachromasy. No virus was detected in the tumors. The 7 tumors were diagnosed as cutaneous mixed tumors, and it was confirmed that the neoplastic cells originated from the mucous gland in the dermis. The biological behavior and pathological development of tumors should be elucidated because the tumors have the potential to negatively affect A. japonicus.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cutâneas , Pele , Animais , Japão , Neoplasias Cutâneas/veterinária , Coloração e Rotulagem/veterinária , Urodelos
6.
Zool Res ; 42(6): 772-782, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643071

RESUMO

Salamanders are unique among tetrapods in their ability to regenerate their limbs throughout life. Like other poikilothermic amphibians, salamanders also show a remarkable capacity to survive long periods of starvation. Whether the physiological reserves necessary for tissue regeneration are preserved or sacrificed in starved salamanders is unknown. In the current study, we maintained Iberian ribbed newts ( Pleurodeles waltl) under extreme physiological stress to assess the extent of regeneration and identify the molecular and cellular changes that may occur under such conditions. After 19 months of complete food deprivation, the animals exhibited extensive morphological and physiological adaptations but remained behaviorally active and vigilant. Autophagy was elevated in different tissues and the transformed gut microbiota indicated remodeling of the intestinal tract related to autophagy. Upon limb amputation in animals starved for 21 months, regeneration proceeded with progenitor cell proliferation and migration, leading to limb blastema formation. However, limb outgrowth and patterning were substantially attenuated. Blockage of autophagy inhibited cell proliferation and blastema formation in starved animals, but not in fed animals. Hence, tissue autophagy and the regenerative response were tightly coupled only when animals were under stress. Our results demonstrate that under adverse conditions, salamanders can exploit alternative strategies to secure blastema formation for limb regeneration.


Assuntos
Extremidades/lesões , Extremidades/fisiologia , Regeneração/fisiologia , Urodelos/metabolismo , Urodelos/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Animais , Autofagia/fisiologia , Privação de Alimentos/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos
7.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 399, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702356

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Athletic performances are dynamic movements that are physically challenging and often predict individual success in ecological contexts. They stem from a complex integration of multiple phenotypic traits-e.g., morphological, physiological and behavioural-that dictate animal survival and individual fitness. However, directly quantifying athletic performances can be particularly challenging in cryptic, slow-moving species or not very reactive in attitude. Here we present and describe a rapid, simple, and low-cost method to measure athletic performance in post-metamorphic individuals of the fire salamander Salamandra salamandra. While extremely reactive during the larval stage, adult salamanders are, in fact, cryptic and relatively slow-moving. RESULTS: Forcing terrestrial juveniles to swim under standard, albeit ecologically plausible, laboratory conditions, and using an automatic point-mass tracking tool, we were able to measure maximal and average performance indicators of post-metamorphic individuals. This method avoids inter-individual variation in motivation, as it forces individuals to perform at their best. Moreover, with this method, measures of athletic performance will be directly comparable between larval and terrestrial stages, allowing to study the contribution of carryover effects to the wide range of processes implicated in the eco-evo-devo of athletic performance in salamanders.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Salamandra , Animais , Humanos , Larva , Fenótipo , Urodelos
8.
J Mol Evol ; 89(8): 576-587, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392385

RESUMO

Proteinaceous pheromones that diversify through gene duplication can result in shifts in courtship cocktails that may serve as a mechanism for reproductive isolation. The molecular evolution of pheromones has been extensively studied in salamanders, but how these genes and associated novel courtship glands have codiversified has not been evaluated. In this study we used transcriptional analyses to examine the relationship between pheromone diversification and gland type in three divergent lineages of plethodontid salamanders. Our results revealed that plethodontid salamanders express up to eight divergent Sodefrin Precursor-like Factor genes (spf, representing both alpha and beta subfamilies) along with Plethodontid Modulating Factor (pmf) and Plethodontid Receptivity Factor (prf). Expression of pheromone genes is tissue specific with pmf, prf, and some spf genes restricted to the mental gland. In contrast, the caudal gland shows strong expression of the other spf genes. We found evidence for punctuated changes in pheromone cocktail composition related to the loss of metamorphosis, and subsequent extreme reduction of the mental gland, in a paedomorphic lineage. Our study provides insight into how pheromone diversification can be partitioned into unique glands, which may lead to cocktail specificity in behavioral modules during courtship.


Assuntos
Feromônios , Urodelos , Animais , Corte , Evolução Molecular , Proteínas , Urodelos/genética
9.
Oecologia ; 196(4): 1073-1083, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338861

RESUMO

Phenology is a key driver of population and community dynamics. Phenological metrics (e.g., first date that an event occurred) often simplify information from the full phenological distribution, which may undermine efforts to determine the importance of life history events. Data regarding full phenological distributions are especially needed as many species are shifting phenology with climatic change which can alter life-history patterns and species dynamics. We tested whether skewness, kurtosis or maximum duration of breeding phenology affected juvenile emigration phenology and survival in natural populations of ringed (Ambystoma annulatum) and spotted salamanders (A. maculatum) spanning a 7-year period at two study locations. We evaluated the relative importance of different phenological metrics in breeding phenology and larval density dependence on emigration phenology and survival. We found that variability in emigration phenology differed by species, with ringed salamanders having a shorter duration and distributions that were more often right-skewed and leptokurtic compared to spotted salamanders. Emigration phenology was not linked to any measure of variability in breeding phenology, indicating phenological variability operates independently across life stages and may be subject to stage-specific influences. Emigration duration and skewness were partially explained by larval density, which demonstrates how phenological distributions may change with species interactions. Further tests that use the full phenological distribution to link variability in timing of life history events to demographic traits such as survival are needed to determine if and how phenological shifts will impact species persistence.


Assuntos
Lagoas , Urodelos , Ambystoma , Animais , Mudança Climática , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano
10.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255393, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407101

RESUMO

Identifying the historical processes that drive microhabitat transitions across deep time is of great interest to evolutionary biologists. Morphological variation can often reveal such mechanisms, but in clades with high microhabitat diversity and no concomitant morphological specialization, the factors influencing animal transitions across microhabitats are more difficult to identify. Lungless salamanders (family: Plethodontidae) have transitioned into and out of the arboreal microhabitat many times throughout their evolutionary history without substantial morphological specialization. In this study, we explore the relationship between microhabitat use and broad-scale climatic patterns across species' ranges to test the role of climate in determining the availability of the arboreal microhabitat. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we reveal that arboreal species live in warmer, lower elevation regions than terrestrial species. We also employ ecological niche modeling as a complementary approach, quantifying species-level pairwise comparisons of niche overlap. The results of this approach demonstrate that arboreal species on average display more niche overlap with other arboreal species than with terrestrial species after accounting for non-independence of niche model pairs caused by geographic and phylogenetic distances. Our results suggest that occupation of the arboreal microhabitat by salamanders may only be possible in sufficiently warm, low elevation conditions. More broadly, this study indicates that the impact of micro-environmental conditions on temporary microhabitat use, as demonstrated by small-scale ecological studies, may scale up dramatically to shape macroevolutionary patterns.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Urodelos , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Ecossistema
11.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 145: 145-157, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196284

RESUMO

Disease monitoring is an essential step in translocation projects, specifically in amphibians where emerging pathogens such as the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) are linked to population declines. The eastern hellbender Cryptobranchus alleganiensis is a large, fully aquatic salamander experiencing precipitous range-wide population declines; however, the role Bd plays in these declines is unclear. To augment declining hellbender populations and determine effects of translocation on Bd prevalence, we conducted a translocation study of wild adult hellbenders from 2 source streams with abundant hellbender populations to 2 streams with declining populations in east Tennessee, USA. In 2018, we implanted radio transmitters into 30 hellbenders and sampled them periodically for Bd until 17 of the 30 hellbenders were translocated in 2019. We attempted to recapture translocated hellbenders approximately every 45 d for 3 mo to determine Bd prevalence post-release. We used qPCR to detect Bd and quantify zoospore loads on positive samples. Hellbenders had a pre-translocation Bd prevalence of 50% (15 of 30), which decreased to 10% (1 of 10) post-translocation. The average zoospore load for positive samples was 73.63 ± 30.82, and no hellbenders showed signs of chytridiomycosis throughout the study. Although we detected no significant effect of translocation on Bd prevalence, we observed a reduction in Bd prevalence post-release. Our results indicate that translocation did not lead to an increase in pathogen prevalence in translocated wild adult hellbenders, suggesting that chytrid did not impact the success of short-term translocations of eastern hellbenders in the Blue Ridge ecoregion.


Assuntos
Quitridiomicetos , Micoses , Anfíbios , Animais , Batrachochytrium , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/veterinária , Prevalência , Urodelos
12.
Ecology ; 102(11): e03488, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292592

RESUMO

The Metabolic Theory of Ecology explains ecological variation spanning taxonomic organization, space, and time based on universal physiological relationships. The theory depends on two core parameters: the normalization constant, a mass-independent measure of metabolic rate expected to be invariant among similar species, and the scaling coefficient, a measure of metabolic change with body mass commonly assumed to follow the universal 3/4 scaling law. However, emerging evidence for adaptive microevolution of metabolic rates led us to hypothesize that metabolic rate might exhibit evolved variation among populations on microgeographic scales. To evaluate our hypothesis, we explored evidence for evolved variation in the scaling coefficient and normalization constant within a spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) metapopulation in Connecticut, USA. We measured standard metabolic rate in common-garden raised spotted salamanders from 22 different populations and tested for the effects of six ecological variables suspected in advance to select for divergent physiology. We found that metabolic rate rose with body mass with a log-log slope of 0.97 that was statistically different from the expected 3/4 scaling law. Although we found no evidence for interpopulation variation in the scaling coefficient, we found evidence for interpopulation variation in the normalization constants among populations. Metabolic variation was best explained by differences in population density among ponds. Our results provide mixed support for Metabolic Theory of Ecology assumptions about parameter invariance and illustrate how fundamental physiological processes such as metabolic rate can evolve across microgeographic spatial scales.


Assuntos
Ambystoma , Urodelos , Animais , Lagoas , Densidade Demográfica
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14743, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285310

RESUMO

Caudata is an order of amphibians with great variation in genome size, which can reach enormous dimensions in salamanders. In this work, we analysed the activity of transposable elements (TEs) in the transcriptomes obtained from female and male gonads of the Chinese fire-bellied newt, Cynops orientalis, a species with a genome about 12-fold larger than the human genome. We also compared these data with genomes of two basal sarcopterygians, coelacanth and lungfish. In the newt our findings highlighted a major impact of non-LTR retroelements and a greater total TE activity compared to the lungfish Protopterus annectens, an organism also characterized by a giant genome. This difference in TE activity might be due to the presence of young copies in newt in agreement also with the increase in the genome size, an event that occurred independently and later than lungfish. Moreover, the activity of 33 target genes encoding proteins involved in the TE host silencing mechanisms, such as Ago/Piwi and NuRD complex, was evaluated and compared between the three species analysed. These data revealed high transcriptional levels of the target genes in both newt and lungfish and confirmed the activity of NuRD complex genes in adults. Finally, phylogenetic analyses performed on PRDM9 and TRIM28 allowed increasing knowledge about the evolution of these two key genes of the NuRD complex silencing mechanism in vertebrates. Our results confirmed that the gigantism of the newt genomes may be attributed to the activity and accumulation of TEs.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Inativação Gênica , Genoma , Salamandridae/genética , Proteínas de Anfíbios/classificação , Proteínas de Anfíbios/genética , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Gônadas/metabolismo , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/classificação , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Masculino , Filogenia , Salamandridae/metabolismo , Proteína 28 com Motivo Tripartido/classificação , Proteína 28 com Motivo Tripartido/genética , Urodelos/genética
14.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254611, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292988

RESUMO

Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are thought to be strictly postsynaptic within the retina. They carry visual signals from the eye to the brain, but do not make chemical synapses onto other retinal neurons. Nevertheless, they form gap junctions with other RGCs and amacrine cells, providing possibilities for RGC signals to feed back into the inner retina. Here we identified such feedback circuitry in the salamander and mouse retinas. First, using biologically inspired circuit models, we found mutual inhibition among RGCs of the same type. We then experimentally determined that this effect is mediated by gap junctions with amacrine cells. Finally, we found that this negative feedback lowers RGC visual response gain without affecting feature selectivity. The principal neurons of the retina therefore participate in a recurrent circuit much as those in other brain areas, not being a mere collector of retinal signals, but are actively involved in visual computations.


Assuntos
Células Amácrinas/metabolismo , Junções Comunicantes/metabolismo , Células Ganglionares da Retina/metabolismo , Sinapses/metabolismo , Vias Visuais/fisiologia , Células Amácrinas/citologia , Animais , Camundongos , Células Ganglionares da Retina/citologia , Urodelos
15.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 163: 107239, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214665

RESUMO

The prevalence of incomplete lineage sorting complicates the examination of hybridization and species-level paraphyly with gene trees of a small number of loci. In Asian mountain salamanders of the genus Batrachuperus, possible hybridization and species paraphyly had been identified by utilizing mitochondrial genealogy and fixed allozyme differences. Here we sampled 2909 UCEs in 44 local populations from all six Batrachuperus species, inferred gene and species trees, compared them with mitochondrial and allozyme results, and examined the potential hybridization and species paraphyly. The clustering pattern of single-locus trees, increased proportion of heterozygous SNPs, allele frequency-based migration edge estimation, and intrapopulation long branches (as expected from an increase of genetic lineage and nucleotide diversity) support that an eastern B. karlschmidti population has experienced admixture with B. tibetanus. On the 2909-UCE concatenated and species trees, lower nodal supports were observed when similar proportions of loci agreed with alternative topologies, i.e., a reciprocal monophyly between a Pengxian lineage and the remainder of B. pinchonii (0.379) or a paraphyly of the latter with respect to Pengxian (0.362). The UCE phylogenomics agreed with the relatively recent groupings in the allozyme dendrogram. Despite incomplete lineage sorting, the mitochondrial trees were similar to the UCE trees for deeper relationships of the genus. However, one significant branch-length level discordance was identified. The branch between the common ancestor of B. daochengensis and B. yenyuanensis and common ancestor of the genus was approximately three times shorter on the mitochondrial tree than on the UCE tree, suggesting that the split of the mitochondrial lineages was likely a few million years earlier than the split of species. This finding supports considering possible ancestral polymorphism when interpreting different divergence dates estimated from mitochondrial and genome-wide data.


Assuntos
Hibridização Genética , Urodelos , Animais , Genoma , Filogenia
16.
Zootaxa ; 4966(2): 202214, 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186622

RESUMO

We describe Bolitoglossa qeqom sp. nov. from an isolated cloud forest in Cerro Guachmalén, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, based on multiple lines of evidence (morphological, molecular, and biogeographic data). This region comprises a mountain ridge without previous herpetological surveys. The new species is a large salamander with uniform purplish-black coloration and is distinguished by having relatively long legs with only one costal groove between adpressed limbs, numerous maxillary teeth, few vomerine teeth, only one phalange free of webbing in digit III of feet, and a relatively short tail. It is geographically closest to its sister clade of B. lincolni + B. franklini and the xeric Chixoy river canyon appears to be the major biogeographic barrier that isolated the new taxon. The cloud forest inhabited by this species has undergone severe habitat destruction in the region and land conservation actions are urgent.


Assuntos
Florestas , Urodelos/anatomia & histologia , Urodelos/classificação , Animais , Guatemala , Filogenia
17.
Naturwissenschaften ; 108(4): 27, 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137928

RESUMO

In vertebrates, the main tissue devoted to energy storage is the adipose tissue. In salamanders, energy reserves can also be stored in the adipose tissues of the tail. Therefore, we evaluated if energy storage in salamanders' tails is related to individual body condition, life cycle and environmental constraints. We calculated a scaled measure of tail width for 345 salamanders belonging to six Mediterranean taxa exhibiting wide phylogenetic, behavioural and ecological variation. We related this measure to the Scaled Mass Index (SMI), a body condition index which reliably predicts body fat. We found significant relationships between the SMI and scaled tail width in the terrestrial Spectacled salamander and Alpine salamanders, independently of sex. At the same time, we found that energy storage in the tail is maximum in Alpine Salamanders, which experience reduced activity periods and restricted access to resources. Conversely, we found a significant effect of sex in Imperial cave salamanders, where females store reserves in the tail to counterbalance resource investment in parental care, and in Corsican Brook Newts, where the reproductive function of males' tails may imply a greater tail width. Finally, in the biphasic Great Crested Newt, tail width was not related to SMI in both sexes.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Cauda/anatomia & histologia , Urodelos/anatomia & histologia , Urodelos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Cauda/metabolismo
18.
Sci Data ; 8(1): 150, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108483

RESUMO

European plethodontid salamanders (genus Speleomantes; formerly Hydromantes) are a group of eight strictly protected amphibian species which are sensitive to human-induced environmental changes. Long-term monitoring is highly recommended to evaluate their status and to assess potential threats. Here we used two low-impact methodologies to build up a large dataset on two mainland Speleomantes species (S. strinatii and S. ambrosii), which represents an update to two previously published datasets, but also includes several new populations. Specifically, we provide a set of 851 high quality images and a table gathering stomach contents recognized from 560 salamanders. This dataset offers the opportunity to analyse phenotypic traits and stomach contents of eight populations belonging to two Speleomantes species. Furthermore, the data collection performed over different periods allows to expand the potential analyses through a wide temporal scale, allowing long-term studies.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Urodelos , Animais , França , Itália , Fenótipo
19.
J Comp Pathol ; 185: 87-95, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119237

RESUMO

Dramatic declines in amphibians worldwide highlight the need for a better understanding of diseases affecting these species. To delineate the health issues of amphibians submitted to Texas A&M University System (2016-2020), the databases were queried on the basis of defined selection criteria. A total of 502 anurans (157 frogs [44 species] and 345 toads [10 species]) and 30 caudatans (23 salamanders [6 species] and 7 newts [4 species]) were reviewed. A most likely cause of death or major pathological finding (CD-MPF) leading to euthanasia was identified in 295 (55%) Anura cases and 15 (50%) Caudata cases. Of the 532 records reviewed, anurans included 492 captive, seven free-ranging and three undetermined specimens. All caudatans were captive. The most common CD-MPF in anurans was infectious/inflammatory (228/295; 77%), involving mycobacteriosis (73/228; 32%), chlamydiosis (44/228; 19%) and mycosis (32/228; 14%). Neoplasia was less common (28/295; 9%). Infectious/inflammatory lesions (14/15; 93%) were the main CD-MPFs in caudatans. Infectious diseases are a significant threat to captive amphibians in Texas and these results may aid personnel involved in amphibian conservation programmes, veterinarians and diagnosticians.


Assuntos
Anfíbios , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Anuros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Urodelos
20.
Zootaxa ; 4979(1): 5769, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187014

RESUMO

Zootaxa is a mega-journal that since its inception, 20 years ago, has contributed to the documentation of the planet's biodiversity. Its role concerning terrestrial vertebrates has been crucial especially for amphibians, which are the most threatened class of vertebrates. As current editors of the Amphibia section, we reviewed the state of knowledge of taxonomic publications on amphibians over the last two decades (from 2001 to 2020). Our review reveals that 2,533 frogs, 259 salamanders, and 55 caecilians have been named in these 20 years, mainly in the tropical regions of South America, Asia, and Africa. More than half (57%) of these species descriptions were published in only 10 journals. At least 827 species of the new amphibians (29% of the total) were described in Zootaxa. This mega-journal has served also as a place of publication for monographs and systematic reviews, in addition to short articles documenting the vocalizations of anurans and the morphology of embryos and larvae. Its efficient evaluation process, the freedom of manuscript length, including full-color figures, and free of cost for the authors, has made Zootaxa a favorite for amphibian researchers. In an era of accelerating rates of biodiversity loss, documenting, describing, naming, and proposing evolutionary scenarios for species is, more than ever, an urgent task.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/classificação , Animais , Anuros/classificação , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Urodelos/classificação
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