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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e246460, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350310

RESUMO

Abstract Field survey study was conducted season (2017). Soybeans and weeds were weekly sampled randomly. Thrips adults were identified and counted. Detection of the virus isolate and the natural incidence was determined using; Mechanical transmission, host range, DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR. The natural incidence thrips individuals was detected depending on the SVNV% in thrips individuals and weeds hosts. Ten thrips species were associated with soybean plants in the field. The most abundant species was T. tabaci, average 256.5 average no.of individuals, followed by F. occidentalis (142.5 average no. of individuals), then N. variabilis (86.6/ average no. of individuals). Fourteen thrips species occurred on 5 legumes field crops and 41 weed plant species within soybean field. The highest average number 40.6.of individuals were recorded on Ammi majus. While the lowest one 3.3 average no. of individuals were on Urtica urens. Only 21diagnostic plant species were susceptible to infection with SVNV. G. max and Vigna radiate, were the highest percentage of infection 80% followed by V. unguilata & N. benthamiana, 75%. Egyptian isolate of Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV) in this study showed a high degree of similarity and it is closely related to TSWV from Egypt (DQ479968) and TCSV from USA (KY820965) with nucleotide sequence identity of 78%. Four thrips species transmitted SVNV (F. fusca 4.0%, F. schultzei 4.3%, F. tritici 3.3% and N. variabilis 68.0% transmission). Both C. phaseoli and M. sjostedti can acquire the virus but unable to transmit it. The following species; T. tabaci, F. occidentalis, S. dorsallis and T. palmi cannot acquire or transmit SVNV. The incidence of SVNV in the field started by the end of July then increased gradualy from 12.7 to 71.3% by the end of the season. In conclusion, few thrips individuals invaded soybean crops are enough to transmit high rate of SVNV within the crop. Furthermore, several vector species are also abundant on weeds, which are the major sources of soybean viruses transmitted to the crops. This information might be important for control and reduce the incidence of SVNV infection.


Resumo O estudo de pesquisa de campo foi realizado na temporada (2017). A soja e as ervas daninhas foram amostradas semanalmente de forma aleatória. Tripes adultos foram identificados e contados. A detecção do vírus isolado e a incidência natural foram determinadas usando transmissão mecânica, gama de hospedeiros, DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR. A incidência natural de tripes em indivíduos foi detectada dependendo da % de SVNV em tripes e hospedeiros infestantes. Dez espécies de tripes foram associadas a plantas de soja no campo. A espécie mais abundante foi T. tabaci, com média de 256,5 número médio de indivíduos, seguida por F. occidentalis (142,5) e N. variabilis (86,6 / número médio de indivíduos). Catorze espécies de tripes ocorreram em 5 culturas de leguminosas e 41 espécies de plantas daninhas dentro de campos de soja. O maior número médio de 40,6 indivíduos foi registrado em Ammi majus. Enquanto o mais baixo, 3,3 número médio de indivíduos, foi no Urtica urens. Apenas 21 espécies de plantas diagnosticadas foram suscetíveis à infecção com SVNV. G. max e Vigna radiate foram os maiores percentuais de infecção, 80%, seguidos por V. unguilata e N. benthamiana, 75%. O isolado egípcio neste estudo mostrou um alto grau de similaridade e está intimamente relacionado ao TSWV do Egito (DQ479968) e ao TCSV dos EUA (KY820965), com identidade de sequência de nucleotídeos de 78%. Quatro espécies de tripes transmitiram SVNV (F. fusca 4,0%, F. schultzei 4,3%, F. tritici 3,3% e N. variabilis 68,0% de transmissão). Tanto C. phaseoli quanto M. sjostedti podem adquirir o vírus, mas não podem transmiti-lo. As seguintes espécies, T. tabaci, F. occidentalis, S. dorsallis e T. palmi não podem adquirir ou transmitir SVNV. A incidência de SVNV no campo, iniciada no final de julho, aumentou gradativamente de 12,7 para 71,3% no final da temporada. Em conclusão, poucos indivíduos de tripes invadiram a cultura da soja e são suficientes para transmitir alta taxa de SVNV dentro da cultura. Além disso, várias espécies de vetores também abundam em ervas daninhas, que são as principais fontes dos vírus da soja transmitidos às lavouras. Essas informações podem ser importantes para controlar e reduzir a incidência de infecção por SVNV.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tospovirus , Doenças das Plantas , Soja , Incidência , Urticaceae , Egito/epidemiologia , Plantas Daninhas , Necrose
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(17): 4755-4764, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36164883

RESUMO

The present study investigated the pharmacodynamic material basis of Laportea bulbifera in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Firstly, human rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocyte line MH7A was cultured in vitro and treated with tumor necrosis factor alpha(TNF-α, 50 ng·mL~(-1)). The proliferation and the levels of inflammatory cytokines such as prostaglandin E2(PGE2), interleukin-1ß(IL-1ß), and interleukin-6(IL-6) of the MH7A cells exposed to the serum containing L. bulbifera were determined to evaluate the anti-rheumatoid arthritis effects of the serum. Furthermore, the ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry fingerprints of the L. bulbifera crude extract, the drug-containing serum, and the drug-free serum were compared to identify the compounds newly generated in the serum after oral administration of the extract. According to the peak areas of common peaks and the results of anti-rheumatoid arthritis effect test, the active components were identified. The serum containing L. bulbifera significantly inhibited the proliferation of the MH7A cells activated by TNF-α and the expression of PGE2, IL-6, and IL-1ß. Thirty newly generated compounds were detected in the drug-containing serum. Among them, neochlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin, luteoloside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, and quercitrin were also present in the crude extract. Twelve characteristic peaks(3, 7, 8, 14, 18, 19, 21, 23, 24, m6, m7, and m15) were significantly correlated with the pharmaceutical effect. According to the correlations, neochlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, and chlorogenic acid had great contributions to the anti-rheumatoid arthritis activity. This study preliminarily clarified the potential pharmacodynamic substances of L. bulbifera in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, which laid a theoretical and experimental foundation for further development and application of the medicinal plant.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental , Artrite Reumatoide , Urticaceae , Animais , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Clorogênico/análogos & derivados , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dinoprostona , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-6 , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ácido Quínico/análogos & derivados , Rutina , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Urticaceae/química
3.
Molecules ; 27(16)2022 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36014458

RESUMO

Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L., Urticaceae) is commonly found in Asia, Africa, and Europe and has a long history of being used as food and traditional medicine. Recently, this plant is gaining attention as a highly nutritious food, where fresh leaves are dried and used as powder or in other forms. Leaves are rich in many bioactive compounds. This review aims to cover the traditional uses in food and medicine, as well as its nutritional composition, including its bioactive chemical constituents and reported food functional activities. Various bioactive chemical constituents have been isolated from stinging nettle to date, such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, amino acid, carotenoids, and fatty acids. Stinging nettle extracts and its compounds, such as rutin, kaempferol, and vitamin A, are also used for their nutritional properties and as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents. Future studies should focus on the proper formulation and stability testing of the functional foods containing stinging nettle and their detailed activities in clinical studies.


Assuntos
Urtica dioica , Urticaceae , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Urtica dioica/química
4.
J Biol Chem ; 298(8): 102218, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35780839

RESUMO

The stinging hairs of plants from the family Urticaceae inject compounds that inflict pain to deter herbivores. The sting of the New Zealand tree nettle (Urtica ferox) is among the most painful of these and can cause systemic symptoms that can even be life-threatening; however, the molecular species effecting this response have not been elucidated. Here we reveal that two classes of peptide toxin are responsible for the symptoms of U. ferox stings: Δ-Uf1a is a cytotoxic thionin that causes pain via disruption of cell membranes, while ß/δ-Uf2a defines a new class of neurotoxin that causes pain and systemic symptoms via modulation of voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels. We demonstrate using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology experiments that ß/δ-Uf2a is a potent modulator of human NaV1.5 (EC50: 55 nM), NaV1.6 (EC50: 0.86 nM), and NaV1.7 (EC50: 208 nM), where it shifts the activation threshold to more negative potentials and slows fast inactivation. We further found that both toxin classes are widespread among members of the Urticeae tribe within Urticaceae, suggesting that they are likely to be pain-causing agents underlying the stings of other Urtica species. Comparative analysis of nettles of Urtica, and the recently described pain-causing peptides from nettles of another genus, Dendrocnide, indicates that members of tribe Urticeae have developed a diverse arsenal of pain-causing peptides.


Assuntos
Neurotoxinas , Peptídeos , Toxinas Biológicas , Urticaceae , Humanos , Neurotoxinas/química , Dor , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/toxicidade , Toxinas Biológicas/química , Urticaceae/química , Canais de Sódio Disparados por Voltagem/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 175: 107555, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35724818

RESUMO

Climate change and geological events have long been known to shape biodiversity, implying that these can likewise be viewed from a biological perspective. To study whether plants can shed light on this, and how they responded to climate change there, we examined Oreocnide, a genus widely distributed in SE Asia. Based on broad geographic sampling with genomic data, we employed an integrative approach of phylogenomics, molecular dating, historical biogeography, and ecological analyses. We found that Oreocnide originated in mainland East Asia and began to diversify ∼6.06 Ma, probably in response to a distinct geographic and climatic transition in East Asia at around that time, implying that the last important geological change in mainland SE Asia might be 1 Ma older than previously suggested. Around six immigration events to the islands of Malesia followed, indicating that immigration from the mainland could be an underestimated factor in the assembly of biotic communities in the region. Two detected increases of diversification rate occurred 3.13 and 1.19 Ma, which strongly implicated climatic rather than geological changes as likely drivers of diversification, with candidates being the Pliocene intensification of the East Asian monsoons, and Pleistocene climate and sea level fluctuations. Distribution modelling indicated that Pleistocene sea level and climate fluctuations were inferred to enable inter-island dispersal followed by allopatric separation, underpinning radiation in the genus. Overall, our study, based on multiple lines of evidence, linked plant diversification to the most recent climatic and geological events in SE Asia. We highlight the importance of immigration in the assembly and diversification of the SE Asian flora, and underscore the utility of plant clades, as independent lines of evidence, for reconstructing recent climatic and geological events in the SE Asian region.


Assuntos
Urticaceae , Ásia , Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Plantas
6.
Molecules ; 27(12)2022 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35745034

RESUMO

Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a common perennial herb well known for its therapeutic, cosmetic and food use. Despite the popularity of nettle hydrolate, there is currently no literature describing its composition; likewise, there is still a lack of research describing in detail the parameters of hydrolates in general. U. dioica hydrolate fractions were obtained by industrial steam distillation of fresh herb. Total stinging nettle hydrolate was prepared by mixing an equal volume of each fraction. The volatiles were isolated from hydrolate samples by liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether, and analysed using GC-FID-MS. Over eighty volatile compounds were identified in U. dioica hydrolate. The main group of constituents were oxygenated compounds, mainly alcohols (e.g., (E)- and (Z)-hex-3-en-1-ol, carvacrol) and oxides (e.g., caryophyllene oxide). The content of volatiles in the representative sample of total hydrolate amounted to 58.2 mg/L. Some qualitative and quantitative changes in the composition of U. dioica hydrolate were observed during the progress of distillation. The content of low chain aliphatic alcohols ((E)- and (Z)-hex-3-en-1-ol) decreased, whereas the percentage of some monoterpene alcohols (carvacrol and α-terpineol) increased. The total content of volatiles in hydrolate also changed and decreased (128.0-6.2 mg/L) during distillation progress. According to our results, to produce stinging nettle hydrolate of good quality, the proper relationship between the amount of hydrolate and raw plant material should result in obtaining 0.74 L hydrolate from 1 kg of fresh stinging nettle herb. Therefore, it may be assumed that the high alcohol content may increase the microbiological stability of the product.


Assuntos
Urtica dioica , Urticaceae , Álcoois
7.
Chem Biodivers ; 19(7): e202200070, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35620918

RESUMO

Phytochemical investigation of the aerial part of Laportea bulbifera (Siebold & Zucc.) Wedd. (L. bulbifera) showed the isolation of seventeen compounds, including five flavonoids (1-4 and 6), one terpenoid (5), five phenolic acids (7-11), one coumarin (12), two steroids (13-14), and three alkaloids (15-17). Structure elucidations of these compounds were performed on the basis of extensive NMR experiments and compared with the published data in the references. It is remarkable that compounds (3-5) were firstly isolated from the Urticaceae family, compounds (3-8, 11 and 15-17) were firstly obtained from genus Laportea. Furthermore, the result of the chemotaxonomic significance discussion showed that compounds (2-4) may can be served as compound fingerprints to distinguish between species of L. bulbifera and genus Urtica, and what' more, we proposed a bold conjecture that isoflavones can distinguish between species of L. bulbifera and genus Urtica. At the same time, the molecular docking method was used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of these compounds on human steroid 5α-reductase 2 (SRD5α2). The results showed that compounds (1-4 and 6) had better expected effects than the positive drug finasteride can by effectively binding to the active sites of SRD5α2. This study assisted in the future phytochemical and chemotaxonomic research on genus Laportea. Simultaneously, this research provided the theoretical evidence for the application of L. bulbifera in treating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).


Assuntos
Urticaceae , Biologia Computacional , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Urticaceae/química
8.
Cells ; 11(4)2022 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35203248

RESUMO

Despite the continuous and intensive development of laboratory techniques, a light microscope is still the most common tool used in pollen grains differentiation. However, microscopy is time-consuming and needs well-educated and experienced researchers. Other currently used techniques can be categorised as images and non-images analysis, but each has certain limitations. We propose a new approach to differentiate pollen grains using the Imaging Flow Cytometry (IFC) technique. It allows for high-throughput fluorescence data recording, which, in contrast to the standard FC, also enables real-time control of the results thanks to the possibility of digital image recording of cells flowing through the measuring capillary. The developed method allows us to determine the characteristics of the pollen grains population based on the obtained fluorescence data, using various combinations of parameters available in the IDEAS software, which can be analysed on different fluorescence channels. On this basis, we distinguished pollen grains both between and within different genera belonging to the Betulaceae, Oleaceae, Urticaceae and Asteraceae families. Thereby, we prove that the proposed methodology is sufficient for accurate, fast, and cost-effective identification and potentially can be used in the routine analysis of allergenic pollen grains.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Oleaceae , Urticaceae , Betulaceae , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Pólen
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 289: 115060, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35121049

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Urtica fissa E. Pritz. are important herbs and have been traditionally used as ethnic medicine to treat rheumatism, inflammation, diabetes, and benign prostatic hyperplasia by the Han, Uighur, and other minorities in China, and also as an aphrodisiac in Uighur medicine. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To determine the effect and potential mechanism of 3, 4-divanillyltetrahydrofuran (DVTF), one of the main active components isolated from U. fissa on hypogonadism in diabetic mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The active compound DVTF was extracted and separated from the roots of U. fissa and identified using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A mouse model of diabetes was established using high fat and sugar diet combined with streptozotocin. In the treatment groups, mice were received different doses of DVTF for 4 weeks. Fasting blood glucose levels, physiological and biochemical indices, and the mating behavior of DM mice were analyzed. Changes in testicular morphology were assessed using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The expression of testosterone synthesis-related signaling proteins was detected using western blotting. Molecular docking was used to determine the binding ability of DVTF to Nur77. RESULTS: In diabetic mice, body weight and fasting blood glucose levels decreased. Mating behavior, including mount latency, mount number, and intromission number, was improved following DVTF treatment. Plasma total testosterone, free testosterone, and insulin resistance were positively associated with the recovery of testicular pathological structures in diabetic mice. DVTF treatment increased the expression of Nur77, StAR, and P450scc in the testes of diabetic mice. DVTF and Nur77 formed chemical bonds at five sites. CONCLUSION: As one of the main active components of U. fissa, DVTF exert potential therapeutic effects on testicular injury and hypogonadism caused by diabetes through activating the expression of Nur77 and testosterone synthesis related proteins. Our result will provide new insight for the clinical application of Urtica fissa E. Pritz., especially DVTF, as a potential drug candidate in the treatment of hypogonadism in diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Furanos/farmacologia , Hipogonadismo/tratamento farmacológico , Lignina/farmacologia , Urticaceae/química , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Feminino , Furanos/isolamento & purificação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipogonadismo/etiologia , Resistência à Insulina , Lignina/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Membro 1 do Grupo A da Subfamília 4 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/etiologia , Estreptozocina , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/sangue
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(2): 419-427, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35178984

RESUMO

The present study investigated the material basis of Urtica fissa for the inhibition of benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH). The active fractions were screened, and the extracts of dichloromethane and ethyl acetate exhibited significantly inhibitory activities against 5α-reductase in vitro and BPH in model rats. The chemical constituents in the active fractions were systematically investigated, and 28 compounds were obtained, which were identified as lobechine methyl ester(1), dibutyl-O-phthalate(2), 1-monolinolein(3), epipinoresinol(4), 5-hydroxy-3,4-dimethyl-5-pentanyl-2(5H)-furanone(5), E-7,9-diene-11-methenyl palmitic acid(6), evofolin B(7), ficusal(8), threo-2,3-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-ethoxypropan-1-ol(9), α-viniferin(10),(9R,7E)-9-hydroxy-5,7-mengatigmadien-4-one-9-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside(11), indole-3-carboxaldehyde(12), p-hydroxy ethyl cinnamate(13), benzyl alcohol-O-ß-D-glucoside(14), L-methionine(15), 4-methoxyaniline(16), 6-aminopurine(17), 8'-acetyl oilvil(18), 4-methoxyl-8'-acetyl oilvil(19), vanillic acid(20), ß-hydroxypropiovanillone(21), 7-hydroxy-6-methoxycoumarin(22), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde(23), pinoresinol(24), erythro-1,2-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,3-propanediol(25), urticol(26), urticol-7-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside(27), and lobechine(28). Compounds 1-17 were isolated from U. fissa for the first time. Meanwhile, compound 1 was a new natural product. Compounds 10, 11, 19, 21, and 27 exhibited significant inhibitory effects on 5α-reductase.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Prostática , Urticaceae , Animais , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos , Urticaceae/química
11.
Nat Prod Res ; 36(9): 2239-2245, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993365

RESUMO

Four p-coumaroylated sesquiterpenoids (1-4), including three new ones (1, 2, and 4), were isolated from the whole plants of Pilea cavaleriei. Their structures were established on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison with data reported in the literature. Compounds 1-4 were evaluated for their antimycobacterial activities, and 2 and 4 were active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv with the MIC values of 19.6 ± 0.19 and 17.4 ± 0.12 µg/mL, respectively.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Sesquiterpenos , Urticaceae , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sesquiterpenos/química , Urticaceae/química
12.
Nat Prod Res ; 36(1): 157-164, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498564

RESUMO

Two new norlignans, pouzolignan N (1) and pouzolignan O (2), together with five known norlignans, pouzolignan F (3), pouzolignan G (4), pouzolignan H (5), pouzolignan L (6), and gnetifolin F (7) were isolated from the aerial parts of Pouzolzia sanguinea (Blume) Merr. Their chemical structures were elucidated via HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopic methods. Absolute configurations at stereocenters were confirmed by comparisons of CD spectra with those of TD-DFT calculations. Compounds 1-6 exhibited chemical structures unique to Pouzolzia species. At a concentration of 30 µM, compounds 1-7 exhibited weak cytotoxic activity toward CAL27 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines (cell viability from 65.3 ± 0.86 to 98.8 ± 1.23%). They also inhibited anoctamin-1 activity with inhibitory rates from 8.1 ± 0.87 to 24.3 ± 1.41%.


Assuntos
Urticaceae , Estrutura Molecular , Componentes Aéreos da Planta
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 282: 114651, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537282

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Metabolic syndrome is currently recognized as the major cause of morbidity, with dramatic complications on life expectancy and health status. Myrianthus arboreus is a medicinal plant traditionally used in local communities as a safe remedy in treating diabetes and other metabolic diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the impact of a methanol extract of Myrianthus arboreus leaf (MAL) in a mice model of metabolic syndrome induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) intake. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were assigned to the following groups: control, obese control, and obese treated with MAL extract (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. Control mice received a standard chow diet, while all obese mice were fed with HFD. Animal weight and food consumption were periodically measured. At the end of the treatment, fasting blood glucose and metabolic plasma analysis (insulin level, triglycerides, and total cholesterol (TC)) were performed. The HFD-induced inflammatory status and the expression of several obesity-related markers were evaluated in liver and fat using qPCR and Western blot analysis. In addition, the phytochemical composition of MAL was identified by GC-MS and HPLC-MS. RESULTS: MAL administration significantly reduced body weight gain, basal glycemia, and insulin resistance, and improved plasma lipid profile compared with HFD-fed mice. Similarly, this extract improved the HFD-associated inflammatory status in mice by gene expression modulation of different inflammatory markers involved in this experimentally induced metabolic condition. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate the novel applicability of MAL, thus suggesting it as a promising therapeutic approach for the management of metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Urticaceae/química , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e246460, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34878000

RESUMO

Field survey study was conducted season (2017). Soybeans and weeds were weekly sampled randomly. Thrips adults were identified and counted. Detection of the virus isolate and the natural incidence was determined using; Mechanical transmission, host range, DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR. The natural incidence thrips individuals was detected depending on the SVNV% in thrips individuals and weeds hosts. Ten thrips species were associated with soybean plants in the field. The most abundant species was T. tabaci, average 256.5 average no.of individuals, followed by F. occidentalis (142.5 average no. of individuals), then N. variabilis (86.6/ average no. of individuals). Fourteen thrips species occurred on 5 legumes field crops and 41 weed plant species within soybean field. The highest average number 40.6.of individuals were recorded on Ammi majus. While the lowest one 3.3 average no. of individuals were on Urtica urens. Only 21diagnostic plant species were susceptible to infection with SVNV. G. max and Vigna radiate, were the highest percentage of infection 80% followed by V. unguilata & N. benthamiana, 75%. Egyptian isolate of Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV) in this study showed a high degree of similarity and it is closely related to TSWV from Egypt (DQ479968) and TCSV from USA (KY820965) with nucleotide sequence identity of 78%. Four thrips species transmitted SVNV (F. fusca 4.0%, F. schultzei 4.3%, F. tritici 3.3% and N. variabilis 68.0% transmission). Both C. phaseoli and M. sjostedti can acquire the virus but unable to transmit it. The following species; T. tabaci, F. occidentalis, S. dorsallis and T. palmi cannot acquire or transmit SVNV. The incidence of SVNV in the field started by the end of July then increased gradualy from 12.7 to 71.3% by the end of the season. In conclusion, few thrips individuals invaded soybean crops are enough to transmit high rate of SVNV within the crop. Furthermore, several vector species are also abundant on weeds, which are the major sources of soybean viruses transmitted to the crops. This information might be important for control and reduce the incidence of SVNV infection.


Assuntos
Tospovirus , Egito/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Necrose , Doenças das Plantas , Plantas Daninhas , Soja , Urticaceae
15.
Zootaxa ; 5040(2): 247-264, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811043

RESUMO

This is the first record of Urticaceae-feeding trumpet moths (Tischeriidae) from Asia. We describe Paratischeria boehmerica Dikus Stonis, sp. nov. and P. grossa Dikus Stonis, sp. nov., two distinctive new species of Tischeriidae recently discovered from Laos, South East Asia, feeding on plants of the nettle family. Urticaceae is a rare host-plant family for leaf-mining Tischeriidae worldwide. The new species are illustrated with photographs of the adults, male and female genitalia, and the leaf mines.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Urticaceae , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Ásia , Genitália , Plantas
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(15): 3846-3852, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472258

RESUMO

The lignans in Urtica cannabina were isolated by preparative HPLC, silica, and ODS column chromatographies, and identified by NMR and HR-MS. The inhibitory activities on 5α-reductase were evaluated in vitro. As a result, ten secolignans,(2R,4S)-2,4-bis(3-methoxyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-butoxypropanol(1), 3,4-trans-3-hydroxymethyl-4-[bis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl] butyrolactone(2), 3,4-trans-3-hydroxymethyl-4-[(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)(3-methoxyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl] butyrolactone(3), 3,4-trans-3-hydroxymethyl-4-[bis(3-methoxyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl] butyrolactone(trans urticol, 4), 3,4-trans-3-hydroxymethyl-4-[bis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl] butyrolactone-3-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside(5), 3,4-trans-3-hydroxymethyl-4-[(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)(3-methoxyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]butyrolactone-3-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside(6), 3,4-trans-3-hydroxymethyl-4-[bis(3-methoxyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]butyrolactone-3-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside(trans-urticol-7-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside, 7), cycloolivil-4-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside(8), isolariciresinol-4'-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside(9), and olivil-4'-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside(10), together with a polyphenol [α-viniferin(11)], were isolated from U. cannabina for the first time. Compound 1 was a new lignan. Compound 7 was potent in inhibiting 5α-reductase.


Assuntos
Colestenona 5 alfa-Redutase/farmacologia , Lignanas , Urticaceae , Inibidores de 5-alfa Redutase , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Lignanas/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Urticaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Urticaceae/enzimologia
17.
Oecologia ; 196(4): 1095-1106, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302532

RESUMO

Many studies have inferred the way in which natural selection, genetic drift and gene flow shape the population genetic structures, but very few have quantified the population differentiation under spatially and temporally varying levels of selection pressure, population fluctuation and gene flow. In Nara Park (6.6 km2), central Japan, where several hundred sika deer (Cervus nippon) have been protected for more than 1,200 years, heavily- or moderately-haired nettle (Urtica thunbergiana) populations have evolved probably in response to intense deer browsing. Here, we analysed the genetic structure of two Nara Park populations and five surrounding populations using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. A total of 546 marker loci were genotyped from 210 individuals. A Bayesian method estimated 5.5% of these loci to be outliers, which are putatively under natural selection. Neighbour-joining, principal coordinates and Bayesian clustering analyses using all-loci, non-outlier loci and outlier loci datasets showed that the Nara Park populations formed a cluster distinct from the surroundings. These results indicate the genome-wide differentiation of the Nara Park populations from the surroundings. Moreover, these imply the following: (1) gene flow is limited between these populations and thus genetic drift is a major factor causing the differentiation; and (2) natural selection imposed by intense deer browsing has contributed to some extent to the differentiation. In conclusion, sika deer seems to have counteracted genetic drift to drive the genetic differentiation of hairy nettles in Nara Park. This study suggests that a single herbivore species could lead to genetic differentiation among plant populations.


Assuntos
Cervos , Deriva Genética , Herbivoria , Urticaceae/genética , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Japão
18.
Nat Prod Res ; 35(9): 1537-1543, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938337

RESUMO

One new cis p-coumaroyl copaborneol-type sesquiterpenoid (1), together with its known trans isomer (2) and six other known p-coumaroyl humulane-type sesquiterpenoids (3-8), were isolated from the whole plants of Pilea cavaleriei. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-4 exhibited moderate antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.


Assuntos
Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Urticaceae/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Sesquiterpenos/química , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia
19.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(2)2021 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668609

RESUMO

Plant stinging hairs have fascinated humans for time immemorial. True stinging hairs are highly specialized plant structures that are able to inject a physiologically active liquid into the skin and can be differentiated from irritant hairs (causing mechanical damage only). Stinging hairs can be classified into two basic types: Urtica-type stinging hairs with the classical "hypodermic syringe" mechanism expelling only liquid, and Tragia-type stinging hairs expelling a liquid together with a sharp crystal. In total, there are some 650 plant species with stinging hairs across five remotely related plant families (i.e., belonging to different plant orders). The family Urticaceae (order Rosales) includes a total of ca. 150 stinging representatives, amongst them the well-known stinging nettles (genus Urtica). There are also some 200 stinging species in Loasaceae (order Cornales), ca. 250 stinging species in Euphorbiaceae (order Malphigiales), a handful of species in Namaceae (order Boraginales), and one in Caricaceae (order Brassicales). Stinging hairs are commonly found on most aerial parts of the plants, especially the stem and leaves, but sometimes also on flowers and fruits. The ecological role of stinging hairs in plants seems to be essentially defense against mammalian herbivores, while they appear to be essentially inefficient against invertebrate pests. Stinging plants are therefore frequent pasture weeds across different taxa and geographical zones. Stinging hairs are usually combined with additional chemical and/or mechanical defenses in plants and are not a standalone mechanism. The physiological effects of stinging hairs on humans vary widely between stinging plants and range from a slight itch, skin rash (urticaria), and oedema to sharp pain and even serious neurological disorders such as neuropathy. Numerous studies have attempted to elucidate the chemical basis of the physiological effects. Since the middle of the 20th century, neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, histamine, serotonin) have been repeatedly detected in stinging hairs of Urticaceae, but recent analyses of Loasaceae stinging hair fluids revealed high variability in their composition and content of neurotransmitters. These substances can explain some of the physiological effects of stinging hairs, but fail to completely explain neuropathic effects, pointing to some yet unidentified neurotoxin. Inorganic ions (e.g., potassium) are detected in stinging hairs and could have synergistic effects. Very recently, ultrastable miniproteins dubbed "gympietides" have been reported from two species of Dendrocnide, arguably the most violently stinging plant. Gympietides are shown to be highly neurotoxic, providing a convincing explanation for Dendrocnide toxicity. For the roughly 648 remaining stinging plant species, similarly convincing data on toxicity are still lacking.


Assuntos
Euphorbiaceae/efeitos adversos , Irritantes/efeitos adversos , Neurotransmissores/efeitos adversos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/efeitos adversos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Tricomas/efeitos adversos , Urticaceae/efeitos adversos , Animais , Etnofarmacologia , Euphorbiaceae/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Herbivoria , Humanos , Irritantes/metabolismo , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Tricomas/metabolismo , Urticaceae/metabolismo
20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 137: 111379, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761602

RESUMO

The hypoglycaemic and anti-hyperlipidaemic effects of the 70% ethanol stem bark extract of Myrianthus libericus (MLB), used traditionally in the management of diabetes in Ghana, was evaluated in this study using streptozotocin (45 mg/kg)-induced diabetic rats. In vitro hypoglycaemic activities of the extract and one of its principal compounds, friedelan-3-one were then investigated using α-amylase inhibitory and glucose uptake assay in C2C12 myotubes. In silico analysis of the pharmacokinetic and toxicity properties of the compound was also performed. MLB significantly (p < 0.001) reduced the elevated blood glucose levels and corrected considerably (p < 0.01) the altered serum lipid profiles of the diabetic rats which was comparable to glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). Together with friedelan-3-one, the extract markedly inhibited the activity of α-amylase and promoted glucose uptake in C2C12 cells. Whereas MLB significantly (p < 0.001) up-regulated PI3K and PPARγ transcripts with a corresponding increase in GLUT-4 transcripts within the muscle cells, friedelan-3-one only up-regulated PI3K and GLUT-4 transcripts to promote glucose transport. Friedelan-3-one was shown to be non-carcinogenic, non-hepatotoxic, has decent oral bioavailability and a good compound for optimisation into a drug candidate. The study has demonstrated that MLB possess hypoglycaemic and anti-hyperlipidaemic activities and could be used as a therapeutic agent in the management of diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Urticaceae/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Simulação por Computador , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Glucose/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Glibureto/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacocinética , Hipoglicemiantes/toxicidade , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , PPAR gama/biossíntese , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/biossíntese , Casca de Planta/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triterpenos/farmacocinética , Triterpenos/toxicidade , Regulação para Cima , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores
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