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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2578: 63-81, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152281

RESUMO

Understanding antibody specificity and defining response profiles to antigens continue to be essential to both vaccine research and therapeutic antibody development. Peptide scanning assays enable mapping of continuous epitopes in order to delineate antibody-antigen interactions beyond traditional immunoassay formats. We have developed a relatively low-cost method to generate peptide microarray slides for antibody binding studies that allow for interrogation of up to 1536 overlapping peptides derived from the target antigens on a single microslide. Using an IntavisAG MultiPep RS peptide synthesizer and a Digilab MicroGrid II 600 microarray printer robot, each peptide is tagged with a polyethylene glycol aminooxy terminus to improve peptide solubility, orientation, and conjugation efficiency to the slide surface. Interrogation of the surface can then be performed using polyclonal immune sera or monoclonal antibodies, and sensitive detection using an InnoScan 1100 AL scanner with fluorescent-conjugated secondary reagents maximizes conservation of reagents.


Assuntos
Análise Serial de Proteínas , Vacinas , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Mapeamento de Epitopos/métodos , Epitopos , Soros Imunes , Peptídeos , Polietilenoglicóis , Análise Serial de Proteínas/métodos
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2578: 237-247, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152292

RESUMO

Phage display is a molecular biology cloning technique that allows the expression of genes of interest along with the phage surface protein. The technique described for the following method used a genomic library for the expression of peptides composed of 12 amino acids, with the objective of selecting peptides which presented specific affinity to the molecules of interest. As a target, purified extracellular vesicles from cell cultures of cells 5637 and RT4 were chosen, which in turn have enormous application and can help to understand the functioning of bladder cancer, allowing the development of new vaccines, drugs, therapies, and diagnoses.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Vesículas Extracelulares , Vacinas , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Bacteriófagos/genética , Bacteriófagos/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Biblioteca de Peptídeos , Peptídeos/química , Tecnologia , Vacinas/metabolismo
3.
J Infect Chemother ; 29(1): 39-42, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36168999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries have recommended the use of booster vaccinations. The relationship between the degree of adverse vaccine reactions and elevated antibody titers is of interest; however, no studies have investigated the temporal changes in antibody titers based on repeated measurements after a third dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine. METHODS: This prospective longitudinal cohort study was conducted with 62 healthcare workers who received a third dose of the BNT162b2 at Okayama University Hospital, Japan. Venous blood draw and fingertip whole blood test sample collection were conducted at the early (3-13 days) and 1-month time points; only FWT sample collection was conducted at the 2-month time point. Information on adverse reactions within 1 week after vaccination was also obtained. The association between fever of 37.5 °C or higher and antibody titers after the third dose of BNT162b2 was examined using a mixed-effects model and Poisson regression with robust variance. RESULTS: A trend toward higher antibody titers in the early period after vaccination was observed in the febrile individuals, but the differences were not significant at 1 and 2 months post-vaccination (the partial regression coefficient for fever was 8094.3 [-1910.2, 18,098.8] at 1 month after vaccination, and 1764.1 [-4133.9, 7662.1] at 2 months after vaccination in the adjusted models). CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that the presence of fever after the third vaccine does not predict a sustained elevation in serum antibody titers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Humanos , Vacina BNT162 , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pandemias , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Antivirais
4.
Ann Ig ; 35(1): 75-83, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35532052

RESUMO

Background: Vaccination has saved millions of lives through the protection of individuals and populations from communicable diseases. Vaccine hesitancy, defined as the delay in acceptance or refusal of vaccines despite the availability of vaccination services, has become a growing global concern. The objective of this study was to investigate parents'/caregivers' hesitancy toward childhood vaccination and its predictors in Albania. Study design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Methods: The data comes from a survey conducted on a sample of parents/caregivers (89.6% mothers) of children aged 6 months to 8 years at health care vaccination centers in seven Albanian cities from December 2020 to February 2021. Parents/caregivers (one per child) were interviewed by trained healthcare staff using a standardized questionnaire on six main content domains, including immunization behavior, beliefs about vaccine safety and efficacy, attitudes about vaccines, vaccination confidence, estimation of vaccine delay, and the intention to immunize children against SARS-CoV-2, and a self-reported hesitancy. The Albanian Ministry of Health approved the questionnaire, after it was translated, validated and adapted to the local setting. Statistical analyses included independent sample t-tests (p<0.05) and a logistic regression (OR; 95% C.I.). Results: A total of 475 parents/caregivers of children aged from 6 months to 8 years, attending childhood vaccination in public health services, were interviewed. To the question "how hesitant you are about childhood vaccination", a high number of parents/caregivers (46%) responded that they do not feel hesitant at all, and 32% were not hesitant, a small number of parents/caregivers said they are very hesitant (5%) or somewhat hesitant (12%). A binary logistic model was fitted to the data to test the hypothesis regarding the relationship between parental vaccine hesitancy and possible predictors. A lower parental attitude toward childhood vaccines (OR = 3.7; 95% C.I. 1.102-12.421), a health center with a high vaccine delay (OR = 2.878; C.I. 95% 1.735-4.773), and low confidence in health staff information (OR = 2.042; 95% C.I. 1.156-3.605) were all independent predictors of parental vaccine hesitancy. Regarding intention to vaccinate children against COVID-19, when available, nearly 75% of parents/caregivers showed hesitancy. Conclusions: Our results highlighted the role of positive parents'/caregivers' attitudes toward childhood vaccines followed by high staff confidence and good health center organization in order to deal with vaccine hesitancy, particularly for traditional and well-known childhood vaccines. Nevertheless, the hesitancy can be a critical barrier for childhood vaccination when we have to introduce a new vaccine, as is demonstrated in the recent vaccination campaign against the ongoing pandemic of SARS-CoV2.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidadores , Estudos Transversais , Hesitação Vacinal , Albânia , RNA Viral , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Pais , Vacinação
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2552: 255-266, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36346596

RESUMO

The design of optimized protein antigens is a fundamental step in the development of new vaccine candidates and in the detection of therapeutic antibodies. A fundamental prerequisite is the identification of antigenic regions that are most prone to interact with antibodies, namely, B-cell epitopes. Here, we describe an efficient structure-based computational method for epitope prediction, called MLCE. In this approach, all that is required is the 3D structure of the antigen of interest. MLCE can be applied to glycosylated proteins, facilitating the identification of immunoreactive versus immune-shielding carbohydrates.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Vacinas , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Anticorpos , Epitopos de Linfócito B , Antígenos , Mapeamento de Epitopos/métodos
6.
Int J Aging Hum Dev ; 96(1): 76-90, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35702009

RESUMO

This analysis investigates how age, race/ethnicity, and geographic location contributed to vaccine hesitancy in a sample of 645 New York City (NYC) Transport Workers Union (TWU), Local 100 members surveyed in August 2020. Union members ages 50+ were 46% less likely to be vaccine hesitant than their younger counterparts (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.42, 0.97). Non-Whites (OR 3.95; 95% 2.44, 6.39) and those who did not report their race (OR 3.10; 95% CI 1.87, 5.12) were significantly more likely to be vaccine hesitant than Whites. Those who were not concerned about contracting COVID-19 in the community had 1.83 greater odds (95% CI 1.12, 2.98) of being vaccine hesitant than those who were concerned. Older respondents tended to reside in Queens while vaccine hesitant and non-White respondents were clustered in Brooklyn. General trends observed in COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy persist in a population of high risk, non-healthcare essential workers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Humanos , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Hesitação Vacinal , Vacinação , Pais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
7.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-3, 01/jan./2022. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358188

RESUMO

Na atualidade, fotografar ou gravar o instante da imunização contra a Covid-19 se tornou rotina compartilhada nas redes sociais. Essa exposição instigou a observação de uma questão relevante: a técnica de aplicação está correta? Com a veiculação de imagens, é possível visualizar as vacinas sendo administradas em diferentes áreas do músculo deltoide, o que pode acarretar efeitos adversos. A otimização da qualificação técnica e pedagógica dos profissionais que elaboram e ministram as capacitações, bem como o envolvimento efetivo dos vacinadores nos treinamentos para injeção intramuscular é uma necessidade constante para evitar mais danos à saúde da população


Currently, photographing or recording the instant of immunization against Covid-19 has become a shared routine on social networks. This exposition prompted the observation of a relevant question: is the application technique correct? With the transmission of images, it is possible to visualize the vaccines being administered in different areas of the deltoid muscle, which can cause adverse effects. The optimization of the technical and pedagogical qualification of the professionals who design and deliver the training, as well as the effective involvement of vaccinators in training for intramuscular injection, is a constant need to avoid further damage to the health of the population


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Imunização , Otimização de Processos , Músculo Deltoide , Injeções
8.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-49200

RESUMO

Além dos exames realizados durante o pré-natal, existem também diversas vacinas que devem ser recebidas pela mulher.


Assuntos
Vacinas/imunologia , Gravidez
9.
Vaccine ; 40(50): 7262-7269, 2022 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36333226

RESUMO

Vaccines are among the safest and most effective primary prevention measures. Thanks to the synergistic global efforts of research institutions, pharmaceutical companies and national health services, COVID-19 vaccination campaigns were successfully rolled out less than a year after the start of the pandemic. While the unprecedented speed of development and approval of COVID-19 vaccines has been applauded as a public health success story, it also spurred considerable controversy and hesitancy even amongst individuals that did not previously hold anti-vaccination stances. This study aimed to compare pre- and post-pandemic vaccine confidence trends in different demographic groups by analysing the outcomes of two online surveys run respectively in November 2019 and January 2022 involving a total of 1009 participants. Non-parametric tests highlighted a statistically significant decline in vaccine confidence in the 2022 cohort compared to the 2019 cohort, with median Vaccine Confidence Score dropping from 22 to 20 and 23.8% of participants reporting that their confidence in vaccines had declined since the onset of the pandemic. While the majority of internal trends were comparable between the two surveys with regards to gender, graduate status and religious belief, vaccine confidence patterns showed considerable alterations with regards to age and ethnicity. Middle-aged participants were considerably more hesitant than younger groups in the 2019 cohort, however this was not the case in the 2022 survey. In both surveys White participants showed significantly higher vaccine confidence than those from Black backgrounds; in the 2022 cohort, unlike the pre-pandemic group, Asian participants showed significantly lower confidence than White ones. This study suggests that paradoxically, despite the success of COVID-19 vaccination campaigns, vaccine confidence has significantly declined since the onset of the pandemic; the comparison of a pre- and post-pandemic cohort sheds light on the differential effect that the pandemic had on vaccine confidence in different demographic groups.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Programas de Imunização
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18811, 2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335206

RESUMO

COVID-19, first reported in late 2019, is an ongoing pandemic that has been causing devastation across the globe. Although there are multiple vaccines that can prevent severe symptoms, effective COVID-19 therapeutics are still of importance. Using our proprietary in silico engine, we screened more than 22,000 unique compounds represented by over half a million gene expression profiles to uncover compounds that can be repurposed for SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses in a timely and cost-efficient manner. We then tested 13 compounds in vitro and found three with potency against SARS-CoV-2 with reasonable cytotoxicity. Bortezomib and homoharringtonine are some of the most promising hits with IC50 of 1.39 µM and 0.16 µM, respectively for SARS-CoV-2. Tanespimycin and homoharringtonine were effective against the common cold coronaviruses. In-depth analysis highlighted proteasome, ribosome, and heat shock pathways as key targets in modulating host responses during viral infection. Further studies of these pathways and compounds have provided novel and impactful insights into SARS-CoV-2 biology and host responses that could be further leveraged for COVID-19 therapeutics development.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Mepesuccinato de Omacetaxina , Pandemias , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico
11.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 4535541, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36337272

RESUMO

The spread of COVID-19 has affected more than 200 countries and has caused serious public health concerns. The infected cases are on the increase despite the effectiveness of the vaccines. An efficient and quick surveillance system for COVID-19 can help healthcare decision-makers to contain the virus spread. In this study, we developed a novel framework using machine learning (ML) models capable of detecting COVID-19 accurately at an early stage. To estimate the risks, many models use social networking sites (SNSs) in tracking the disease outbreak. Twitter is one of the SNSs that is widely used to create an efficient resource for disease real-time analysis and can provide an early warning for health officials. We introduced a pipeline framework of outbreak prediction that incorporates a first-step hybrid method of word embedding for tweet classification. In the second step, we considered the classified tweets with external features such as vaccine rate associated with infected cases passed to machine learning algorithms for daily predictions. Thus, we applied different machine learning models such as the SVM, RF, and LR for classification and the LSTM, Prophet, and SVR for prediction. For the hybrid word embedding techniques, we applied TF-IDF, FastText, and Glove and a combination of the three features to enhance the classification. Furthermore, to improve the forecast performance, we incorporated vaccine data as input together with tweets and confirmed cases. The models' performance is more than 80% accurate, which shows the reliability of the proposed study.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mídias Sociais , Vacinas , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Surtos de Doenças
12.
Front Public Health ; 10: 994330, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36339202

RESUMO

Background and purpose: As Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) continues to spread around the world, COVID-19 vaccines are the most effective weapons against the global pandemic. Yet vaccine hesitancy remains a serious problem and can pose certain hazards to individuals' mental health, such as rising anxiety. Therefore, based on Self-Discrepancy Theory, this paper aims to explore the role of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy on individual generalized anxiety disorder and its influence mechanisms through two studies. Methods: Study one involved 654 Chinese participants using the Vaccine Hesitancy Questionnaire and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale. In Study two, the Vaccine Hesitation Questionnaire, GAD-7 scale, Perceived Risk of COVID-19 pandemic scale, and Vaccination Status Questionnaire were used and data from 3,282 Chinese residents was collected. Results: Vaccine hesitancy directly increases generalized anxiety disorder; risk perception plays a partial mediating role between vaccine hesitancy and generalized anxiety disorder; vaccination status moderated vaccine hesitancy's effect on risk perception and generalized anxiety disorder. Conclusion: Vaccine hesitancy predicts generalized anxiety disorder through risk perception, but the mediating role of risk perception is moderated by vaccination status, which means that for the vaccinated group when their vaccine hesitancy is reduced, it will be easier to reduce the risk perception and thus the generalized anxiety disorder.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Humanos , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Hesitação Vacinal , Pandemias , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Percepção
13.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1015090, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36339217

RESUMO

Italy was the first country in Europe to make vaccination against COVID-19 mandatory for healthcare professionals by imposing restrictions in cases of non-compliance. This study investigates the opinions of the Italian healthcare professionals' categories affected by the regulation. We performed a qualitative online survey: the questionnaire comprised both close- and open-ended questions. The final dataset included n = 4,677 valid responses. Responses to closed-ended questions were analyzed with descriptive statistics. The framework method was applied for analyzing the open-ended questions. The sample spanned all health professions subject to compulsory vaccination, with a prevalence of physicians (43.8%) and nurses (26.3%). The vaccine adhesion before the introduction of the obligation was substantial. 10.4% declared not to have adhered to the vaccination proposal. Thirty-five percent of HPs who opted not to get vaccinated said they experienced consequences related to their choice. The trust in the vaccine seems slightly cracked, demonstrating overall vaccine confidence among professionals. Nonetheless, our results show that whether (or not) professionals adhere to vaccination is not a reliable indicator of consent to how it was achieved. There are criticisms about the lawfulness of the obligation. The data show a great variety of participants interpreting their roles concerning public and individual ethics. The scientific evidence motivates ethics-related decisions-the epidemic of confusing and incorrect information affected professionals. The Law triggered an increased disaffection with the health system and conflicts between professionals. Dealing with the working climate should be a commitment to assume soon.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Humanos , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Itália/epidemiologia
14.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1040270, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36339337

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis remains to be a significant public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions. Despite remarkable progress that has been made in the control of the disease over the past decades, its elimination remains a daunting challenge in many countries. This disease is an inflammatory response-driven, and the positive outcome after infection depends on the regulation of immune responses that efficiently clear worms and allow protective immunity to develop. The innate immune responses play a critical role in host defense against schistosome infection and pathogenesis. Initial pro-inflammatory responses are essential for clearing invading parasites by promoting appropriate cell-mediated and humoral immunity. However, elevated and prolonged inflammatory responses against the eggs trapped in the host tissues contribute to disease progression. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of innate immune responses is important for developing effective therapies and vaccines. Here, we update the recent advances in the definitive host innate immune response to schistosome infection, especially highlighting the critical roles of pattern recognition receptors and cytokines. The considerations for further research are also provided.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose , Vacinas , Animais , Imunidade Inata , Schistosoma , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão
15.
Vaccine ; 40(48): 6987-6997, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36374709

RESUMO

Attitudes toward vaccination are doubtless an important determinant of public health, and this became evident after the first year of the last COVID-19 pandemic. The issue, long-debated within European societies, especially with respect to occasional surges of diseases in given years, has become a crucial determinant of the wellbeing of a country since 2021. In this study, using microdata from a 2019 Eurobarometer survey, we frame and deepen our knowledge about the main determinants of vaccination attitudes as observed by the related literature. We argue that a positive attitude toward vaccination may be due to individualistic or altruistic reasons, or various incentives; our analysis aims to improve our knowledge about the determinants of such a complex decision. Our findings, obtained by means of a quantitative analysis that employs Ordered Probit, Ordered Logit and Generalized Ordered Logit estimations, provide complete support for some of the theories that have been debated in the literature, limited support for others because of mixed evidence, and no support for some.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Humanos , Altitude , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Atitude
16.
Front Immunol ; 13: 999534, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36341356

RESUMO

Up to now, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still affecting worldwide due to its highly infectious nature anrapid spread. Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is an independent risk factor for severe COVID-19 outcomes, and they have a certain correlation in some aspects. Particularly, the activated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and hypercoagulation state play an important role in the underlying mechanism linking COVID-19 to DKD. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor is considered a potential therapy for COVID-19 and has similarly shown organ protection in DKD. In addition, neuropilin-1 as an alternative pathway for angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 also contributes to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 entering the host cells, and its decreased expression can affect podocyte migration and adhesion. Here, we review the pathogenesis and current evidence of the interaction of DKD and COVID-19, as well as focus on elevated blood glucose following vaccination and its possible mechanism. Grasping the pathophysiology of DKD patients with COVID-19 is of great clinical significance for the formulation of therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Vacinas , Humanos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18929, 2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36344597

RESUMO

To reveal waning humoral immunity after second dose BNT162b2 vaccinations in a rural Japanese community and determine factors affecting antibody titers. We aimed to report Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody against the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S1) protein levels and neutralizing activity in a large scale community based cohort. METHODS: Participants in the observational cross-sectional study received a second dose of vaccination with BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) and were not previously infected with COVID-19. Questionnaire-collected data on sex, age, adverse vaccine reactions, and medical history was obtained. RESULTS: Data from 2496 participants revealed that older age groups reached a low antibody titer 90-120 days after the second vaccination. Neutralizing activity decreased with age; 35 (13.3%) of those aged ≥ 80 years had neutralizing activity under the cut-off value. Neutralizing activity > 179 days from the second vaccination was 11.6% compared to that at < 60 days from the second vaccination. Significantly lower IgG antibody titers and neutralizing activity were associated with age, male sex, increased time from second vaccination, smoking, steroids, immunosuppression, and comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Antibody titer decreased substantially over time. Susceptible populations, older people, men, smokers, steroid users, immunosuppression users, and people with three or more comorbidities may require a special protection strategy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Masculino , Humanos , Idoso , Imunidade Humoral , Estudos Transversais , Vacina BNT162 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Japão , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Anticorpos Neutralizantes
18.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 31(3): e2022055, 2022.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36351058

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of immunization errors in the public health service of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, based on errors reported on the National Immunization Program Information System between 2015 and 2019. A descriptive analysis and calculation of the incidence for the state's health macro-regions were performed. RESULTS: A total of 3,829 notifications were analyzed. Children younger than 1 year old were the most affected (39.1%) and the intramuscular route accounted for 29.4% of the errors. The most frequently reported error was administration of vaccines outside minimum and maximum recommended ages (37.7%). There was a higher incidence of errors in Vale do Aço (26.5/100,000) and Triângulo do Norte (22.6/100,000) macro-regions. CONCLUSION: Immunization errors showed a heterogeneous incidence among the macro-regions of the state of Minas Gerais, between 2015-2019, and the administration of vaccines outside minimum and maximum recommended ages was the most frequently reported error.


Assuntos
Imunização , Vacinas , Criança , Lactente , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Incidência
19.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(40): 5801-5806, 2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36353201

RESUMO

The whole world has been continuously afflicted by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic for the past 3 years. Many countries have tried many methods to control this virus infection with varying successes and failures. The gut microbiota is a biosystem spanning the entire length of the digestive tract and playing important roles in health and disease. It is much affected by COVID-19. In return it also substantially impacts infection. In particular, the gut microbiota has established a bidirectional interaction with the COVID-19 vaccines, enhancing or reducing vaccine efficacy by virtue of its varying components. Conversely, COVID-19 vaccines also make a substantial impact on the gut microbiota, re-ducing its overall population and biodiversity. It is hoped that by exploring and harnessing this bidirectional interaction we may break new ground and develop new methods to prevent and treat this formidable virus infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Vacinas , Viroses , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19
20.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 23: e68, 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36330835

RESUMO

AIM: This review aims are to (1) identify relevant quantitative research on parental childhood vaccine hesitancy with vaccine uptake and vaccination intention being relevant outcomes and (2) map the gaps in knowledge on vaccine hesitancy to develop suggestions for further research and to guide interventions in this field. BACKGROUND: Vaccine hesitancy recognises a continuum between vaccine acceptance and vaccine refusal, de-polarising past anti-vaccine, and pro-vaccine categorisations of individuals and groups. Vaccine hesitancy poses a serious challenge to international efforts to lessen the burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. Potential vaccination barriers must be identified to inform initiatives aimed at increasing vaccine awareness, acceptance, and uptake. METHODS: Five databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles published between 1998 and 2020 in the fields of medicine, nursing, public health, biological sciences, and social sciences. Across these datasets, a comprehensive search technique was used to identify multiple variables of public trust, confidence, and hesitancy about vaccines. Using PRISMA guidelines, 34 papers were included so long as they focused on childhood immunisations, employed multivariate analysis, and were published during the time frame. Significant challenges to vaccine uptake or intention were identified in these studies. Barriers to vaccination for the target populations were grouped using conceptual frameworks based on the Protection Motivation Theory and the World Health Organization's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization Working Group model and explored using the 5C psychological antecedents of vaccination. FINDINGS: Although several characteristics were shown to relate to vaccine hesitancy, they do not allow for a thorough classification or proof of their individual and comparative level of influence. Understudied themes were also discovered during the review. Lack of confidence, complacency, constraints, calculation, and collective responsibility have all been highlighted as barriers to vaccination uptake among parents to different degrees.


Assuntos
Hesitação Vacinal , Vacinas , Criança , Humanos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Vacinação/psicologia , Pais/psicologia
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