Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 25
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 22 Suppl 1: 93-102, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30672079

RESUMO

In Mediterranean ecosystems, some natural areas are exposed to severe anthropogenic impact. Especially in summer, the considerable number of tourists visiting such areas, often with vehicles, causes deposition of dust over the vegetation due to formation of powder clouds, also favoured by wind erosion, high temperature, low precipitation and incoherent soil structure. The main aim of this study was to analyse whether the deposition of dust can induce changes in leaf anatomical functional traits and in the efficiency of photosynthetic apparatus in Centranthus ruber, a species widespread in Mediterranean ecosystems. Leaf morpho-functional traits were quantified in plants growing at sites characterised by high (HD) and low (LD) dust deposition, in periods with high anthropogenic impact. Analyses included quantification of chlorophyll fluorescence emission parameters, photosynthetic pigment concentration as well as stomatal size and frequency, leaf lamina thickness, quantification of intercellular spaces and phenolics in the mesophyll through microscopy. The overall analysis suggested that the different conditions of dust deposition induced different adjustment of morpho-functional traits in leaves of C. ruber. High dust deposition shielded the leaf lamina, protecting the photosynthetic apparatus from excess light and favoured plant photochemical efficiency. Leaves exposed to low dust deposition showed higher accumulation of phenolic compounds, protecting chloroplast membranes and characterised by high thermal dissipation of excess light. Such adaptive phenomena can affect vegetation dynamics due to possible different species-specific plant responses, resulting in different plant competitiveness under the limiting conditions of Mediterranean environments.


Assuntos
Poeira , Folhas de Planta , Valerianaceae , Erupções Vulcânicas , Clorofila , Ecossistema , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/toxicidade
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 190: 110106, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877546

RESUMO

In this work, the essential oil (EO) and supercritical CO2 fluid extract (SF extract) of four Valerianaceae plants (Valeriana officinalis L., Valeriana officinalis L. var. latifolia Miq., Valeriana jatamansi Jones and Nardostachys chinensis Bat.) were chemically characterized. GC-MS analysis identified 74 compounds, representing 35.2%-82.4% of the total EOs and SF extracts. The EO was dominated by low-molecular-weight components while the SF extract was rich in fatty acids. Bornyl acetate and camphene were the characteristic compounds in EO and SF extracts. The efficacy of six extracts against three stored-product insects was investigated. In contact assays, V. officinalis exhibited strongest toxicity to red flour beetle (LD50 = 10.0 µg/adult), and V. jatamansi EO was the most active one against the cigarette beetle (LD50 = 17.6 µg/adult), while V. officinalis var. latifolia EO showed outstanding efficacy against the booklouse (LD50 = 40.2 µg/cm2). Binary mixtures of two major compounds (camphene and bornyl acetate) were assessed for the contact toxicity to the red flour beetle. Additive effect existed in the natural proportion of V. officinalis, and synergism was observed in that of V. officinalis var. latifolia. This work confirmed the insecticidal efficacy of the species of the Valerianaceae family, and it would offer some information for the development of botanical insecticide.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/química , Canfanos/química , Repelentes de Insetos/toxicidade , Valerianaceae , Animais , Besouros , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Repelentes de Insetos/análise , Insetos , Inseticidas/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química
3.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(5): 481-491, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061266

RESUMO

Conjugated linolenic acids (CLNs) are naturally occurring fatty acids that are believed to have anticancer properties. In this study, we examined various plant seeds from herbs to discover seed oils containing CLNs. The ultraviolet spectra of total lipids from these seeds were measured. An absorption maximum around 270 nm was observed in seed oils belonging to the Valerianaceae family (Centranthus ruber and Valeriana officinalis). When the fatty acid compositions of these seed oils were measured, CLNs were detected. By silica column chromatography, neutral lipids (NLs), glycolipids, and phospholipids were eluted from seed oils of C. ruber and V. officinalis. Then, fatty acid compositions of these fractions were measured. This revealed that most of the CLNs in these seed oils existed in the NL fraction. When the NL fractions of these seed oils were reacted with lipase, CLNs showed good sensitivity to lipase hydrolysis. This suggested that the CLNs in the seed oils of C. ruber and V. officinalis existed predominantly at the sn-1,3 position of triacylglycerol and less at the sn-2 position. These results suggested that the CLNs from the seed oils of C. ruber and V. officinalis could easily be taken up by cancer cells as free fatty acids and had good potential as antitumor substances.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacocinética , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Valeriana/química , Valerianaceae/química , Animais , Camundongos
4.
J Chromatogr A ; 1580: 126-133, 2018 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30401539

RESUMO

Considering chemical complexity of plant crude extracts, purification of natural products is a rate limiting process to identify new compounds as well as to obtain standard references for quantitative or qualitative purposes. In the present work, a centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) method was developed to isolate and produce high quality reference standards of valtrate and 7-homovaltrate from Centranthus ruber L. roots. These two compounds are controversial aglycon iridioids regulated by the legislation on plant-based dietary supplements. A new biphasic solvent system suitable for CPC separation of valepotriates was developed. It was composed of methanol/hexane/water (5/5/0.8, v/v/v). It yielded a partition coefficient near 1 and a theoretical selectivity of 1.3 between both targeted compounds. Optimization of CPC experimental parameters at the analytical scale (50 mL- and 100 mL-column capacity) enabled compounds' separation with a flow rate of 8 mL/min at 2500 rpm. Then a scale up from a 100 mL-column capacity to a 1000 mL-column capacity has been studied using the "free-space between peaks" concept. It allowed an injected quantity 16 times higher in comparison to the maximal loading capacity of the 100 mL-column. Both valtrate and 7-homovaltrate were recovered in one single step with a purity over 97%. Further MS and NMR characterization allowed to confirm unambiguously the compounds' structures. The highly efficient CPC separation developed in this work provides valepotriates in amounts suitable for further study and strong bases for future industrial development.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida , Iridoides/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Valerianaceae/química , Iridoides/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metanol/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Solventes/química
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 17(1): 205, 2017 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29149840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While floral symmetry has traditionally been assessed qualitatively, recent advances in geometric morphometrics have opened up new avenues to specifically quantify flower shape and size using robust multivariate statistical methods. In this study, we examine, for the first time, the ability of geometric morphometrics to detect morphological differences in floral dorsoventral asymmetry following virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). Using Fedia graciliflora Fisch. & Meyer (Valerianaceae) as a model, corolla shape of untreated flowers was compared using canonical variate analysis to knockdown phenotypes of CYCLOIDEA2A (FgCYC2A), ANTHOCYANIDIN SYNTHASE (FgANS), and empty vector controls. RESULTS: Untreated flowers and all VIGS treatments were morphologically distinct from each other, suggesting that VIGS may cause subtle shifts in floral shape. Knockdowns of FgCYC2A were the most dramatic, affecting the position of dorsal petals in relation to lateral petals, thereby resulting in more actinomorphic-like flowers. Additionally, FgANS knockdowns developed larger flowers with wider corolla tube openings. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide a method to quantify the role that specific genes play in the developmental pathway affecting the dorsoventral axis of symmetry in zygomorphic flowers. Additionally, they suggest that ANS may have an unintended effect on floral size and shape.


Assuntos
Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Oxigenases/genética , Valerianaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clonagem Molecular , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Genes de Plantas/genética , Oxigenases/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Valerianaceae/anatomia & histologia , Valerianaceae/genética
6.
Ann Bot ; 115(4): 641-9, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25725007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Floral spurs are hollow, tubular outgrowths that typically conceal nectar. By their involvement in specialized pollinator interactions, spurs have ecological and evolutionary significance, often leading to speciation. Despite their importance and diversity in shape and size among angiosperm taxa, detailed investigations of the mechanism of spur development have been conducted only recently. METHODS: Initiation and growth of the nectar-yielding petal spur of Centranthus ruber 'Snowcloud' was investigated throughout seven stages, based on bud size and developmental events. The determination of the frequency of cell division, quantified for the first time in spurs, was conducted by confocal microscopy following 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining of mitotic figures. Moreover, using scanning electron microscospy of the outer petal spur surface unobstructed by trichomes, morphometry of epidermal cells was determined throughout development in order to understand the ontogeny of this elongate, hollow tube. KEY RESULTS: Spur growth from the corolla base initially included diffuse cell divisions identified among epidermal cells as the spur progressed through its early stages. However, cell divisions clearly diminished before a petal spur attained 30 % of its final length of 4·5 mm. Thereafter until anthesis, elongation of individual cells was primarily responsible for the spur's own extension. Consequently, a prolonged period of anisotropy, wherein epidermal cells elongated almost uniformly in all regions along the petal spur's longitudinal axis, contributed principally to the spur's mature length. CONCLUSIONS: This research demonstrates that anisotropic growth of epidermal cells - in the same orientation as spur elongation - chiefly explains petal spur extension in C. ruber. Representing the inaugural investigation of the cellular basis for spur ontogeny within the Euasterids II clade, this study complements the patterns in Aquilegia species (order Ranunculales, Eudicots) and Linaria vulgaris (order Lamiales, Euasterids I), thereby suggesting the existence of a common underlying mechanism for petal spur ontogeny in disparate dicot lineages.


Assuntos
Divisão Celular , Valerianaceae/citologia , Valerianaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/citologia , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/ultraestrutura , Indóis , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Tricomas/citologia , Tricomas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tricomas/ultraestrutura , Valerianaceae/ultraestrutura
7.
Am J Bot ; 98(12): e369-71, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22106438

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Microsatellite markers were isolated and characterized in Plectritis congesta for studying the evolution of this highly variable species. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used 454 sequencing of DNA enriched for microsatellite repeats to develop microsatellite markers. This produced 262079 reads with an average length of 324 bp, representing approximately 800 microsatellite regions from which 48 primers were tested. Eleven markers reliably amplified without optimization. These primer pairs showed a high degree of heterozygosity and allelic diversity. Unexpectedly, half of the markers contained multiple peaks, with up to four alleles per individual, which suggests that either polyploidy or isolated gene duplication has occurred within this clade. These primers successfully cross-amplified in P. macrocera, indicating the utility of these markers for the genus. CONCLUSIONS: With variation in mating system and habitat, a mix of duplicated and nonduplicated markers, and high genetic variance, Plectritis is an ideal candidate model genus for studying the ecological and evolutionary consequences of gene duplication.


Assuntos
DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Valerianaceae/genética , Alelos , Marcadores Genéticos , Heterozigoto , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Motivos de Nucleotídeos/genética , Ploidias , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
Chem Biodivers ; 8(10): 1921-9, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22006721

RESUMO

To explore the diversity in the essential oil yield and composition of Valeriana jatamansi Jones (syn. V. wallichii DC) growing wild in Uttarakhand (Western Himalaya), 17 populations were collected from different locations and grown under similar conditions. Comparative results showed considerable variations in the essential oil yield and composition. The essential oil yield varied from 0.21 to 0.46% in the fresh roots and rhizomes of different populations of V. jatamansi. Analysis of the essential oils by GC (RI) and GC/MS and the subsequent classification by principal component analysis (PCA) resulted in six clusters with significant variations in their terpenoid composition. Major components in the essential oils of the different populations were patchouli alcohol (1; 13.4-66.7%), α-bulnesene (3; <0.05-23.5%), α-guaiene (4; 0.2-13.3%), guaiol (5; <0.05-12.2%), seychellene (6; 0.2-9.9%) viridiflorol (<0.05-7.3%), and ß-gurjunene (7; 0.0-7.1%). V. jatamansi populations with contents of 1 higher than 60% may be utilized commercially in perfumery.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/química , Terpenos/química , Valerianaceae/química , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa , Ciclopropanos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Índia , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Rizoma/química , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Sesquiterpenos de Guaiano , Terpenos/análise
9.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 25(8): 1173-9, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19938454

RESUMO

Quorum sensing is an important gene regulatory mechanism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and controls the expression of numerous virulence factors. We designed and constructed a screening system for quorum-sensing inhibitors. We developed the system by using the lasI and rhlA promoters fused with promoterless sacB as reporters. Using this system we screened a number of Chinese herb extracts, and identified three herb extracts containing inhibitors to the quorum-sensing system and to its regulated genes. The screening system developed was highly efficient and sensitive. It could serve as a useful tool to identify herb compounds that block infections but unlikely render antibiotic resistance in pathogens.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Percepção de Quorum/efeitos dos fármacos , Acanthaceae/química , Genes Reporter , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Valerianaceae/química
10.
Am Nat ; 170 Suppl 2: S28-55, 2007 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17874383

RESUMO

We explore patterns of diversification in the plant clades Adoxaceae and Valerianaceae (within Dipsacales), evaluating correlations between biogeographic change (i.e., movements into new areas), morphological change (e.g., the origin of putative key innovations associated with vegetative and reproductive characters), and shifts in rates of diversification. Our findings indicate that rates of diversification in these plants tend to be less tightly correlated with the evolution of morphological innovations but instead exhibit a pronounced correlation with movement into new geographic areas, particularly the dispersal of lineages into new mountainous regions. The interdependence among apparent novelties (arising from their nested phylogenetic distribution) and the correlation between morphological and biogeographic change suggests a complex history of diversification in Dipsacales. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of incorporating biogeographic history in studies of diversification rates and in the study of geographic gradients in species richness. Furthermore, these results argue against a simple deterministic relationship between dispersal and diversification: like other factors that may influence the probability of speciation and/or extinction, the impact of dispersal on diversification rates depends on being in the right place at the right time.


Assuntos
Adoxaceae/classificação , Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Geografia , Valerianaceae/classificação , Adaptação Biológica , Adoxaceae/anatomia & histologia , Adoxaceae/genética , Funções Verossimilhança , Filogenia , Fatores de Tempo , Valerianaceae/anatomia & histologia , Valerianaceae/genética
11.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 127(8): 1263-5, 2007 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17666879

RESUMO

Sedative effect of the aqueous extract of Centranthus longiflorus ssp. longiflorus (Cle-1) on intact and adrenalectomized rats was investigated using a thiopental sleeping test to clarify the relationship of this effect on adrenal gland hormones, particularly glucocorticoids. Adrenal gland hormones were found to play an important role in inhibiting the sedative effect of the investigated drugs. It is clear, however, that these hormones are not glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids were not responsible for shortening the sleep period.


Assuntos
Glândulas Suprarrenais/fisiologia , Adrenalectomia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Valerianaceae , Animais , Glucocorticoides/fisiologia , Masculino , Ratos , Tiopental/farmacologia , Água
12.
Arch Pharm Res ; 28(10): 1161-3, 2005 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16276973

RESUMO

Five compounds of iridoids, lignan and phenylpropanoid glycosides were isolated from the roots of Valeriana jatamansi by column chromatography. Their structures were elucidated as 11-methoxyviburtinal (1), baldrinal (2), prinsepiol-4-omicron-beta-D-glucoside (3), coniferin (4), and hexacosanic acid (5) by spectroscopic analysis. 11-Methoxyviburtinal was a new compound, and others were isolated from the plant for the first time.


Assuntos
Iridoides/isolamento & purificação , Valerianaceae/química , Iridoides/química , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Raízes de Plantas/química
13.
Planta Med ; 70(6): 509-14, 2004 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15229801

RESUMO

Antitubercular bioassay-guided fractionation of the n-hexane- and CH (2)Cl (2)-soluble extracts of the above-ground biomass and roots of Valeriana laxiflora led to the isolation of a new iridolactone, (4R,5R,7S,8S,9S)-7-hydroxy-8-hydroxymethyl-4-methyl-perhydrocyclopenta[ c]pyran-1-one ( 1), and a new lignan, (+)-1-hydroxy-2,6-bis- epi-pinoresinol ( 2), along with eleven known compounds, betulin ( 3), betulinic acid ( 4), 5,7-dihydroxy-3,6,4'-trimethoxyflavone ( 5), 23-hydroxyursolic acid ( 6), oleanolic acid ( 7), tricin ( 8), ursolic acid ( 9), ferulic acid, (+)-1-hydroxypinoresinol, prinsepiol, and 5,7,3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The absolute stereochemistry of 1 was determined by chemical transformations and Mosher ester procedures. In a microplate alamar blue assay against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, compounds 2 - 9 exhibited minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 15.5 - 127 microg/mL, while the other isolates were regarded as inactive (MIC > 128 microg/mL). In addition, all the isolates were tested for cytotoxicity against African green monkey Vero cells in order to evaluate their selectivity potential.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Valerianaceae , Animais , Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Células Vero/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Planta Med ; 70(7): 594-7, 2004 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15254851

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to demonstrate competition between caffeine and a fixed valerian/hop extract combination (Ze91019) by the central adenosine mechanism. EEG was used to describe the action of caffeine on the central nervous system after oral administration (200 mg) in healthy volunteers. In addition to caffeine, the volunteers (16 in each group) received either placebo or verum (2 and 6 tablets containing the valerian/hop extract). The EEG responses were recorded every 30 min thereafter. The verum medication was capable of reducing (2 tablets) or inhibiting (6 tablets) the arousal induced by caffeine. This pharmacodynamic action was observed 60 minutes after oral administration, indicating not only competition between the antagonist caffeine and the partial agonist, i. e., the valerian/hop extract but also bio-availability of the compound(s) responsible for the agonistic action. In conclusion, the valerian/hop extract acts via a central adenosine mechanism which is possibly the reason for its sleep-inducing and -maintaining activity.


Assuntos
Humulus , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Receptor A2A de Adenosina/efeitos dos fármacos , Valerianaceae , Administração Oral , Adulto , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Cafeína/farmacologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Raízes de Plantas
15.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 31(1): 340-50, 2004 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15019629

RESUMO

Valerianaceae is a relatively small (ca. 350 species), but morphologically diverse angiosperm clade. Sequence data from the entire ndhF gene, the trnL-F intergenic spacer region, the trnL intron, the matK region, the rbcL-atpB intergenic spacer region and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA were collected for 21 taxa within Dipsacaceae and Valerianaceae (1 and 20, respectively). These data were included in several phylogenetic analyses with previously published sequences from Dipsacales. Results from these analyses (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analysis) are in strong agreement with many of the conclusions from previous studies, most importantly: (1) Valerianaceae is sister to Dipsacaceae; (2) Triplostegia is more closely related to species of Dipsacaceae than to Valerianaceae; and (3) Valeriana appears not to be monophyletic, with Valeriana celtica falling outside the remainder of the species of Valeriana sampled here (with very strong support). With the exception of V. celtica, these data support two major clades within Valeriana; one that is exclusively New World and another that is distributed in both the Old and New World. Although the species of Valerianaceae and its sister group Dipsacaceae plus Triplostegia, are widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere, and the data imply that Valerianaceae diversified initially in Asia (the Himalayan Patrinia and Nardostachys falling at the base of the clade), the center of modern species diversity for the group is in the Andes of South America with as many as 175 species restricted to that region. Although the exclusively South American taxa form a clade in the chloroplast and combined ITS and chloroplast analyses, support values tend to be low. Future studies will need to include additional data, in the form of both characters and taxa, before any strong conclusions about the character evolution, diversification, and biogeography of the South American valerians can be made.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/genética , Cloroplastos/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas , Valerianaceae/fisiologia , Teorema de Bayes , DNA de Plantas , Endorribonucleases/genética , Funções Verossimilhança , Dados de Sequência Molecular , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Nucleotidiltransferases/genética , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/genética , Regiões não Traduzidas , Valerianaceae/genética
16.
Ann Bot ; 93(3): 283-93, 2004 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14988097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The monophyly of Valerianaceae and the precise delimitation of the family are not totally resolved. Our knowledge on the phylogeny of the group is only partial: on a morphological basis, some contradicting taxonomic proposals have been published, which demonstrates the difficulties in establishing a natural classification of the family and especially in proposing a relevant treatment of the large genus Valeriana. The aims of this study are to contribute to the phylogeny and generic delineation of the Valerianaceae on the basis of molecular data. METHODS: A cladistic analysis of the sequences of one plastid (matK) and one nuclear (ITS) molecular marker was carried out, both individually and in combination. KEY RESULTS: The results of the analyses of both regions confirm that the family is monophyletic, with the exclusion of Triplostegia. The tribe Patrinieae is monophyletic, and the tribe Valerianeae is also a natural group. Two of the subtribes of Valerianeae, Fediinae and Centranthinae, are also monophyletic, with the exclusion of the genus Plectritis from Fediinae. The subtribe Valerianinae, on the other hand, is paraphyletic. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm, for the first time on a molecular basis, the suggested paraphyly of Valeriana in its present circumscription, with profound nomenclatural and taxonomic implications. The correlation between molecular phylogeny and biogeography is close. In the course of the plastid DNA sequencing, a polymorphism concerning the matK gene was found, a fact that should be carefully evaluated in phylogenetic analyses.


Assuntos
DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Endorribonucleases/genética , Nucleotidiltransferases/genética , Filogenia , Polimorfismo Genético , Valerianaceae/genética , Caprifoliaceae/classificação , Caprifoliaceae/enzimologia , Caprifoliaceae/genética , DNA de Cloroplastos/genética , DNA de Plantas/química , DNA de Plantas/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Pseudogenes/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Valerianaceae/classificação , Valerianaceae/enzimologia
17.
Phytochemistry ; 61(8): 937-41, 2002 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12453521

RESUMO

The new iridoid glycosides, 4'-deoxykanokoside A and 4'-deoxykanokoside C, were isolated from the methanolic root extract of Centranthus longiflorus ssp. longiflorus. They were accompanied by the three known iridoid glycosides, kanokoside A, kanokoside C and valerosidatum, and two known phenylpropanoid glycosides, coniferin and isoconiferinoside. The structures were elucidated mainly by spectroscopic methods. The presence of 4-deoxy glucose as a part of plant glycosides is rather unusual. Cytotoxic effects of the isolated compounds were also investigated.


Assuntos
Iridoides/química , Iridoides/isolamento & purificação , Valerianaceae/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular
18.
Z Naturforsch C J Biosci ; 57(9-10): 791-6, 2002.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12440713

RESUMO

The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of roots, stems with leaves and inflorescences of Valeriana italica Lam. and Valeriana tuberosa L. were studied by GC/MS. Seventy-three and forty-one constituents were identified from each plant, respectively. The major constituent of the oil obtained from the roots of V. italica was isolated and identified as 15-acetoxyvaleranone. Its stereochemistry and conformation has been studied using NMR spectroscopy and molecular modelling. The oils obtained from V. tuberosa completely lacked the characteristic valerane or kessane sesquiterpenes.


Assuntos
Acetatos/química , Naftalenos/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Valerianaceae/química , Acetatos/isolamento & purificação , Flores/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Conformação Molecular , Naftalenos/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Caules de Planta/química , Estereoisomerismo
19.
Pharmazie ; 57(8): 559-61, 2002 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12227198

RESUMO

The aqueous extract of Centranthus longiflorus ssp. longiflorus (CLE) was investigated for sedative, anticonvulsant and behaviour modifying activity using thiopental sleeping, caffeine induced convulsion and forced swimming depression tests. When the effects of the aqueous extract of CLE (100 mg/kg) was compared to diazepam, it showed similar sedative and anticonvulsant effects to those produced by diazepam (5 mg/kg).


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diazepam/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Valerianaceae/química , Adenosina/farmacologia , Animais , Cafeína , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Plantas Medicinais/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/prevenção & controle , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Natação/psicologia , Tiopental/farmacologia , Turquia , Valerianaceae/toxicidade , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/farmacologia
20.
C R Biol ; 325(2): 131-9, 2002 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11980174

RESUMO

A preliminary analysis of the sequence alignment of the chloroplast intergene atp beta-rbcL in tribe Valerianeae reveals that insertion-deletion evolutionary events ('indels'), combined with nucleotide substitutions, have occurred in large zones in some of the studied taxa. Due to the frequent occurrence and large size of indels within this tribe, intergene length varies from 531 to 788 base pairs within the studied species. This situation poses gap coding problems that we had to tackle before phylogenetic analysis. Four methods of gap coding were used: elimination of gapped sites ('complete omission'), 'missing data', 'fifth base' and Barriel's coding method, which translates indels into new multistate characters in the data matrix. After application of these four methods of data treatment, phylogenetic analyses (maximum parsimony) did not lead to very different results. Three robust clades emerged in each case, corresponding to the Centranthinae subtribe (genus Centranthus), the Fediinae subtribe (genera Fedia and Valerianella), and the American species of Valeriana. The theoretical basis and biological significance of these four methods are discussed in order to apply the best ones in future studies.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/genética , DNA Intergênico/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Valerianaceae/genética , Pareamento de Bases , Sequência de Bases , ATPases de Cloroplastos Translocadoras de Prótons/genética , Sequência Consenso , Evolução Molecular , Genes de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutagênese Insercional , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Deleção de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Especificidade da Espécie , Valerianaceae/classificação
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...