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1.
Issues Law Med ; 39(1): 76-81, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771716

RESUMO

Misleading statements in a recent Obstetrics & Gynecology article require correction. No state has an abortion law that is a total ban on abortion. Every state law permits abortion when necessary to save a mother's life. Texas law does not require an "imminent" risk and allows a doctor to use his "reasonable medical judgment" to determine if an abortion is necessary to prevent a "risk" of maternal death. Similarly, Idaho allows a doctor to use his "good faith medical judgment" to determine when to intervene, without need for "immediacy".


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Texas , Idaho , Estados Unidos , Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Valor da Vida , Aborto Legal/legislação & jurisprudência
2.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 150-162, Ene-Abri, 2024. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-229037

RESUMO

Este estudio presenta distintos tipos de evidencias de validez y confiabilidad de la Escala de Autenticidad (AS) en una muestra de Brasil y Portugal. El estudioconsiste en una encuesta con 1.077 brasileños y 622 portugueses. Se testó el modelo con tres factores correlacionados (autoalienación, vivir auténtico y aceptación de la influencia externa), el modelo unidimensional y el modelo bifactorial. Se retuvo el modelo con tres factores correlacionados, con las tres subescalas alcanzando confiabilidad moderada a buena. Análisis factorial confirmatorio multigrupo sugirió invariancia escalar para cultura, género, edad, educación, ocupación y preocupación e impacto relacionados con Covid. Los ítems fueron evaluados por graded response model(GRM), sugiriendo que las tres subescalas no discriminan las personas con altos rasgos de autenticidad. GRM y estadísticas descriptivas indican que la escala de puntuación es inapropiada, particularmente para la subescala vivir auténtico, que es afectada por efecto techo. Las asociaciones con presencia de sentido mostraron evidencia adicional de validez. A pesar de las limitaciones, la AS es una medida adecuada para evaluar la autenticidad en diferentes grupos. Se discuten posibles modificaciones para el aprimoramiento de la AS.(AU)


This study introduces distinct types of validity and reliability evidence of the Authenticity Scale (AS) in a sample from Brazil and Portugal. It consists of an online survey with 1,077 Brazilian citizens and 622 Portuguese citizens. The study tested the model with three correlated factors (self-alienation, authentic living, and accepting external influence), the unidimensional model, and the bifactor model. The model with three correlated factors was retained, with the three subscales demonstrating moderate to good reliability. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis suggested scalar invariance across culture, gender, age, education, occupation, and Covid-related concern and impact. The items were assessed by graded response model (GRM), which suggested that the three subscales are not able to distinguish respondents with high authenticity traits. GRM and descriptive statistics indicated that the rating-scale is inappropriate, particularly for authentic living subscale, which is affected by ceiling effect. Associations with presence of meaning showed additional validity evidence. Despite the limitations, the AS is an effective measure to assess authenticity across different groups. Potential modifications for the improvement of the AS are discussed.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Autoimagem , 35111 , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Valor da Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Psicologia , Psicologia Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Brasil , Portugal , Análise Fatorial
3.
Bioethics ; 38(5): 419-424, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38652592

RESUMO

Parthenogenesis is a form of asexual reproduction in which a gamete (ovum or sperm) develops without being fertilized. Tomer Jordi Chaffer uses parthenogenesis to challenge Don Marquis' future-like-ours (FLO) argument against abortion. According to Marquis, (1) what makes it morally wrong to kill us is that it would deprive us of a possible future that we might come to value-a future "like ours" (FLO) and (2) human fetuses are numerically identical to any adult human organism they may develop into, and thus have a FLO. Chaffer contends that if human ova are capable of parthenogenesis, then they would have a FLO, which contraception may deprive them of, but contends this is absurd. Bruce P. Blackshaw challenges Chaffer, contending sexually fertilized embryos are not identical to unfertilized ovum, but this would yield a more absurd implication, that fertilization deprives an ovum of a FLO! Here I show Marquis' account of identity rules out both Chaffer's and Blackshaw's accounts.


Assuntos
Partenogênese , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Masculino , Aborto Induzido/ética , Valor da Vida , Fertilização , Óvulo , Feto
4.
Med Health Care Philos ; 27(2): 189-203, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363499

RESUMO

This paper critically engages with how life not worth living (LNWL) and cognate concepts are used in the field of beginning-of-life bioethics as the basis of arguments for morally requiring the application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and/or germline genome editing (GGE). It is argued that an objective conceptualization of LNWL is largely too unreliable in beginning-of-life cases for deriving decisive normative reasons that would constitute a moral duty on the part of intending parents. Subjective frameworks are found to be more suitable to determine LNWL, but they are not accessible in beginning-of-life cases because there is no subject yet. Conceptual and sociopolitical problems are additionally pointed out regarding the common usage of clear case exemplars. The paper concludes that a moral requirement for the usage of PGD and GGE cannot be derived from the conceptual base of LNWL, as strong reasons that can be reliably determined are required to limit reproductive freedom on moral grounds. Educated predictions on prospective well-being might still be useful regarding the determination of moral permissibility of PGD and/or GGE. It is suggested that due to the high significance of subjective experience in the normativity of beginning-of-life bioethics, the discipline is called to more actively realize the inclusion of people with disabilities. This regards for instance research design, citation practices, and language choices to increase the accessibility of societal debates on the reproductive ethics of genetic technologies.


Assuntos
Edição de Genes , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Humanos , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/ética , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/psicologia , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação/ética , Edição de Genes/ética , Bioética , Valor da Vida , Obrigações Morais , Início da Vida Humana/ética , Princípios Morais , Filosofia Médica
7.
Value Health ; 27(3): 356-366, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38048985

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess whether recently proposed alternatives to the quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), intended to address concerns about discrimination, are suitable for informing resource allocation decisions. METHODS: We consider 2 alternatives to the QALY: the health years in total (HYT), recently proposed by Basu et al, and the equal value of life-years gained (evLYG), currently used by the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review. For completeness we also consider unweighted life-years (LYs). Using a hypothetical example comparing 3 mutually exclusive treatment options, we consider how calculations are performed under each approach and whether the resulting rankings are logically consistent. We also explore some further challenges that arise from the unique properties of the HYT approach. RESULTS: The HYT and evLYG approaches can result in logical inconsistencies that do not arise under the QALY or LY approaches. HYT can violate the independence of irrelevant alternatives axiom, whereas the evLYG can produce an unstable ranking of treatment options. HYT have additional issues, including an implausible assumption that the utilities associated with health-related quality of life and LYs are "separable," and a consideration of "counterfactual" health-related quality of life for patients who are dead. CONCLUSIONS: The HYT and evLYG approaches can result in logically inconsistent decisions. We recommend that decision makers avoid these approaches and that the logical consistency of any approaches proposed in future be thoroughly explored before considering their use in practice.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Valor da Vida , Humanos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Alocação de Recursos/métodos
8.
Med Law Rev ; 32(1): 81-100, 2024 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38007608

RESUMO

This article investigates the question of whether a death caused by negligence in the healthcare context is capable of violating the right to life under Article 2 of the European Convention on Human Rights. This provision imposes extensive positive obligations upon Contracting States, including an operational duty to take reasonable steps to save a life that they know, or ought to know, is at risk. This article addresses the question of exactly when such an operational duty arises, with particular focus on the healthcare context in which deaths caused by medical negligence have not traditionally been regarded as amounting to violations of the right to life. This article argues that two key factors in determining the existence of an operational duty to save life are the assumption of responsibility and nature of risk. It also argues for the need to take surrounding circumstances into account and for an increased use of the right to life in holding public bodies to account for deaths caused by negligence in the healthcare context.


Assuntos
Imperícia , Valor da Vida , Humanos , Atenção à Saúde , Direitos Humanos
9.
J Med Ethics ; 50(3): 209-211, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37979974

RESUMO

I have recently offered a defence of human equality, and consequently an argument against abortion. This has been objected to by Bozzo, on the grounds that my account of human equality is unclear and could be grounded in utilitarian or Kantian ethics, that my account struggles to ground the permissibility of therapeutic abortions, and that my proposed foundation for human equality itself is parasitic on a scalar property which generates the same difficulties I am attempting to solve. I provide an account of human equality which cannot easily be grounded in utilitarianism or Kantianism, offer a variety of defences of therapeutic abortion consistent with treating the mother and child equally, and show that even if the value of humanness is ultimately grounded in a scalar quality, my argument succeeds.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Gravidez , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Dissidências e Disputas , Valor da Vida
10.
N Engl J Med ; 389(21): 1931-1933, 2023 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37982429
12.
Nurs Open ; 10(11): 7178-7185, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37608606

RESUMO

AIM: This study aims to explore the sources of meaning in life (MIL) and its impact on South Korean older adults during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. DESIGN: This study had a qualitative descriptive study design. METHODS: The study participants included 18 older adults. Six focus group interviews were conducted. Data were analysed using content analysis. RESULTS: The subcategories 'Continued learning and growth', 'Self-transcending practices' and 'Efforts to maintain good health' were extracted under the category 'Sources of MIL for older adults'. Similarly, the subcategories 'Tremendous changes brought about by the virus' and 'Varying patterns of adjustment to the pandemic' were extracted under the category 'Changes in the sources of MIL since the COVID-19 outbreak'. PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: Our study provides an in-depth understanding of the changed sources of MIL for older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings serve as useful guidance for planning interventions for older adults to lead meaningful lives during the COVID-19 pandemic and post-pandemic crises.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , População do Leste Asiático , Valor da Vida , Idoso , Humanos , Povo Asiático , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Grupos Focais , Pandemias , Pesquisa Qualitativa , População do Leste Asiático/psicologia
13.
Eur J Health Law ; 30(4): 481-489, 2023 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37582523

RESUMO

The case Mortier v. Belgium is the first case where the Court comments on the figure of euthanasia. The area of euthanasia in particular raises the issue of finding a balance between the protection of the patients' right to life in Article 2 of the Convention and that of the right to respect for his or her private life and personal autonomy in Article 8 of the Convention. The Court confirmed the States must be afforded a margin of appreciation in finding this balance. However, it does not concern an unlimited margin as the Court reserved its power to review the States fulfilment of its obligations under Article 2. After deciding that there had been no breach of article 8 in the performing of euthanasia as such, the Court examined the positive obligation of Belgium to foresee in sufficient safeguards to protect the right to life.


Assuntos
Eutanásia , Valor da Vida , Humanos , Feminino , Bélgica , Autonomia Pessoal
14.
Exp Dermatol ; 32(10): 1815-1822, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37564000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals (HCPs) should strive to create the maximum value for their patients in which value is defined as the patient-relevant health outcomes achieved per costs made. However, currently it remains difficult to determine which outcomes matter to an individual psoriasis patient. OBJECTIVE: To define outcome profiles, or so called 'patient value profiles', within a cohort of psoriasis patients that can be translated to daily practice to increase value for the individual patient. METHODS: Hierarchical clustering on principal components (HCPC) was used to identify groups of patients sharing the same profile within an outcome ranking exercise. Once the clusters were defined, their characterization was provided based on a V-test. In a final step, a multi-class decision tree (MDT) based on relevant socio-demographic and clinical variables was built to allocate patients to a cluster. RESULTS: In the ranking exercise 120 patients participated. The median age was 50.0 (IQR 25.0) years and 36.7% were female. Median PASI score was 2.4 (IQR 5.2) and median duration of psoriasis was 17.0 (IQR 20.0) years. Primary treatment varied from topicals to biologicals. We found three distinct patient value profiles in this cohort (QoL, cost and treatment). A MDT was built which had an accuracy of 64%. CONCLUSION: We found three distinct patient value profiles in a cohort of psoriasis patients and patients can be easily assigned to one of these profiles based on a MDT. HCPs can use these profiles to steer psoriasis management accordingly allowing for a more goal-orientated approach.


Assuntos
Psoríase , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Psoríase/psicologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto , Idoso , Masculino , Feminino , Valor da Vida
15.
J Med Philos ; 48(6): 541-550, 2023 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37379827

RESUMO

Hendricks' The Impairment Argument (TIA) claims that it is immoral to impair a fetus by causing it to have fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Since aborting a fetus impairs it to a greater degree than causing it to have FAS, then abortion is also immoral. In this article, I argue that TIA ought to be rejected. This is because TIA can only succeed if it explains why causing an organism to have FAS impairs it to a morally objectionable degree, entails that abortion impairs an organism to a morally objectionable and greater degree than causing FAS, and satisfies The Impairment Principle's ceteris paribus clause. In order to do all three things, TIA must presuppose some theory of well-being. Even then, no theory of well-being accomplishes all three tasks that TIA must in order to succeed. However, even if this is false and TIA can meet all three objectives by presupposing some theory of well-being, it would not do very much to advance the debate about the morality of abortion. As I argue, TIA would essentially restate well-established arguments against abortion based on whatever theory of well-being it must presuppose in order to be successful.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Pessoalidade , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Valor da Vida , Feto , Princípios Morais
16.
J Bioeth Inq ; 20(3): 353-357, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37278912

RESUMO

In response to criticism of the impairment argument for the immorality of abortion, Bruce Blackshaw and Perry Hendricks appeal to Don Marquis's future-like-ours (FLO) account of the wrongness of killing to explain why knowingly causing fetal impairments is wrong. I argue that wedding the success of the impairment argument to FLO undermines all claims that the impairment argument for the immorality of abortion is novel. Moreover, I argue that relying on FLO when there are alternative explanations for the wrongness of causing FAS begs the question. I conclude, therefore, that the impairment argument remains unsuccessful.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Valor da Vida , Feto , Dissidências e Disputas , Pessoalidade , Homicídio
17.
Accid Anal Prev ; 190: 107176, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37354850

RESUMO

Investing in road safety enhancement programs highly depends on the economic valuation of road traffic accidents and their outcomes. Such evaluation underpins road safety interventions in cost-benefit analysis. To this end, understanding and modeling public willingness-to-pay for enhanced road safety have received significant attention in the past few decades. However, despite considerable modeling efforts, some issues still persist in earlier studies, namely, (i) using standard regression approaches that assume a homogeneous impact of explanatory variables on willingness-to-pay, not accounting for heterogeneity, and depends on a priori distribution of the dependent variable, and (ii) the absence of higher-order interactions from models, leading to omitted variable bias and erroneous model inferences. To overcome this critical research gap, our study proposes a new modeling framework, integrating a machine learning technique (decision tree) to identify a priori relationships for higher-order interactions and a quantile regression model to account for heterogeneity along the entire range of willingness-to-pay. The proposed framework examines the determinants of willingness-to-pay for enhanced road safety using a sample of car drivers from Peshawar, Pakistan. Modeling results indicate that variables not significant in a linear model become significant at specific quantiles of the willingness-to-pay distribution. Further, including higher-order interactions among the explanatory variables provides additional insights into the complex relationship between willingness-to-pay and its determinants. In addition, willingness-to-pay for fatal and severe injury risk reductions is estimated at different quartiles and used to calculate the values of corresponding risk reductions. Overall, the proposed framework provides a better understanding of public sensitivities to willingness-to-pay for enhanced road safety.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Humanos , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Aprendizado de Máquina , Valor da Vida
18.
J Med Ethics ; 50(1): 12-19, 2023 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37253555

RESUMO

In this paper, I suggest that, if we are committed to accepting a threshold approach to personhood, according to which all beings above the threshold are persons with equal moral status, there are strong reasons to also recognise a second threshold that would be reached through human pregnancy, and that would confer on pregnant women a temporary superior moral status. This proposal is not based on the moral status of the fetus, but on the moral status of the pregnant woman. It is not only the fetus which is an organism sui generis: the pregnant woman, also, is a unique being. Following almost any view on the moral status of the fetus, the pregnant woman should be regarded, herself, as more than a singular individual. She is, herself, 'more than one'. Pregnant women are also necessary for the continued survival of the human species, and there are important justice-based reasons to recognise the higher status. Furthermore, the recognition of a superior moral status for pregnant women does not imply that pregnancy should always be viewed as desirable, or imply any position on the permissibility of abortion. My proposal is not as radical as it might seem, as it does not require that pregnant women should always receive superior treatment, but only that they should to some extent. It could have a range of potential positive practical consequences. Finally, my approach does not threaten, but rather promotes, human equality.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Pessoalidade , Início da Vida Humana , Status Moral , Obrigações Morais , Gestantes , Feto , Valor da Vida
19.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1079593, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37077192

RESUMO

Background: The study explored sources of meaning in older adults and the action path among family care, meaning in life, quality of life, and depression. Materials and methods: We investigated 627 older adults using the Sources of Meaning in Life Scale for the Elderly (SMSE), the Family Care Index (APGAR), the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale-10 (CES-D-10), and the EuroqOL-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D). Results: Scores categorized 454 older adults with good family function, 99 with moderate, and 47 with severe family dysfunction; 110 older adults had depression. The structural equation model showed that family care affected the quality of life and depression by influencing meaning, and depression had a significant negative effect on the quality of life (P < 0.05). The model was a good fit for the data (χ2/df = 3.300, SRMR = 0.0291, GFI = 0.975, IFI = 0.971, TLI = 0.952, CFI = 0.971, RMSEA = 0.062). Conclusion: Meaning in life is an intermediary factor that affects depression and quality of life in older adults. Family care had a significant positive impact on SMSE and a negative influence on depression. The SMSE effectively clarifies the sources of meaning in life and can be used to improve meaning and promote mental health in older adults.


Assuntos
Depressão , População do Leste Asiático , Relações Familiares , Satisfação Pessoal , Qualidade de Vida , Valor da Vida , Idoso , Humanos , Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/psicologia , População do Leste Asiático/psicologia , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Relações Interpessoais , Cuidadores/psicologia , Relações Familiares/etnologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde
20.
J Med Philos ; 48(3): 243-251, 2023 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37078977

RESUMO

The frequency of death from miscarriage is very high, greater than the number of deaths from induced abortion or major diseases. Berg (2017 , Philosophical Studies 174:1217-26) argues that, given this, those who contend that personhood begins at conception (PAC) are obliged to reorient their resources accordingly-towards stopping miscarriage, in preference to stopping abortion or diseases. This argument depends on there being a basic moral similarity between these deaths. I argue that, for those that hold to PAC, there are good reasons to think that there is no such similarity. There is a morally relevant difference between preventing killing and letting die, giving PAC supporters reasons to prioritize reducing abortion over reducing miscarriage. And the time-relative interest account provides a morally relevant difference in the badness of death of miscarriages and deaths of born adults, justifying attempts to combat major diseases over attempts to combat miscarriage. I consider recent developments in the literature and contend that these new arguments are unsuccessful in establishing moral similarities between deaths from miscarriage and abortion, and deaths from miscarriage and disease.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Gravidez , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoalidade , Princípios Morais , Dissidências e Disputas , Valor da Vida , Obrigações Morais , Início da Vida Humana
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