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1.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 379, 2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36303189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Feline calicivirus (FCV), Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), and Feline herpesvirus type I (FHV-1) are the three most common pathogens in cats, and also are the main pathogens leading to the death of kittens. Here, by a combination of gold nanoparticles and conventional PCR, we established a novel triple NanoPCR molecular detection method for clinical detection. RESULTS: The triple NanoPCR molecular detection is able to detect 2.97 × 101copies/µL FCV recombinant copies plasmid per reaction, 2.64 × 104copies/µL FPV recombinant copies plasmid per reaction, and 2.85copies/µL FHV-1 recombinant copies plasmid per reaction at the same time. The sensitivity of each plasmid is 100 times, 10 times, and 100 times higher than conventional PCR, respectively. The clinical results showed that among the 38 samples, the positive rates of FCV, FPV, and FHV-1 in a NanoPCR test were 63.16, 31.58, and 60.53%, while in a conventional PCR were 39.47, 18.42, and 34.21%. CONCLUSIONS: In this report, it is the first time that NanoPCR assays are applied in the detection of FCV, FPV, and FHV-1 as well. This sensitive and specific NanoPCR assay can be widely used in clinical diagnosis and field monitoring of FCV, FPV, and FHV-1 infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Calicivirus Felino , Doenças do Gato , Panleucopenia Felina , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Herpesviridae , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Varicellovirus , Animais , Gatos , Feminino , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/genética , Calicivirus Felino/genética , Herpesviridae/genética , Ouro , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Caliciviridae/veterinária , Anticorpos Antivirais , Varicellovirus/genética , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico
2.
Am J Vet Res ; 83(7)2022 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930783

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether hyperinoculation of cats with a feline herpesvirus-1, calicivirus, and panleukopenia virus (FVRCP) vaccine could be used as a model to study interstitial nephritis and to assess humoral and cell-mediated immune responses toward vaccinal α-enolase. ANIMALS: 6 healthy young adult purpose-bred research cats. PROCEDURES: Baseline renal cortical biopsies, whole blood, serum, and urine were collected prior to administration of a commercial FVRCP parenteral vaccine. Vaccine hyperinoculation was defined as a total of 8 vaccinations given at 2-week intervals over a 14-week period. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to each vaccination, and a second renal biopsy was performed 2 weeks after hyperinoculation (week 16). Renal histopathology, renal α-enolase immunohistochemistry, and assays to detect humoral and cell-mediated immune reactions against Crandell-Rees feline kidney (CRFK) cell lysates and α-enolase were performed. An α-enolase immunoreactivity score for renal tubules and glomeruli based on signal intensity was determined by a blinded pathologist. RESULTS: Hyperinoculation with the vaccine was not associated with clinicopathologic evidence of renal dysfunction, and interstitial nephritis was not recognized by light microscopy in the time studied. The mean serum absorbance values for antibodies against CRFK antigen and α-enolase were significantly (P < 0.001) higher at weeks 4, 8, and 16 versus week 0. Renal tubular and glomerular α-enolase immunoreactivity scores were higher at week 16 compared to baseline. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Findings suggested that systemic immunological reactions occurred and renal tissues were affected by vaccine hyperinoculation; however, short-term FVRCP vaccine hyperinoculation cannot be used to study interstitial nephritis in cats.


Assuntos
Calicivirus Felino , Doenças do Gato , Herpesviridae , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina , Rim , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase , Varicellovirus
3.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36016308

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have excellent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory capabilities and therapeutic effects in some viral diseases. The therapeutic impact of MSCs mainly relies on the paracrine effects of various secreted substances. Feline calicivirus (FCV) and feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV1) are common and highly prevalent pathogens causing upper respiratory diseases, and FCV is associated with gingivostomatitis in cats. Recently, feline MSC treatment has been reported to improve the clinical symptoms of feline chronic gingivostomatitis, but the antiviral effects of feline MSCs on FCV and FHV1 are not known. In this study, we evaluated the antiviral efficacy of using feline MSC secretome as a conditioned medium on FCV and FHV1 viral replication in Crandell-Reese feline kidney (CRFK) cells, and RNA sequencing was used to analyze how the CRFK cells were altered by the MSC secretomes. The feline MSC secretome did not inhibit FCV or FHV1 viral entry into the CRFK cells but had antiviral effects on the replication of both FCV and FHV1 in a dose-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Calicivirus Felino , Doenças do Gato , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Doenças do Gato/terapia , Gatos , Secretoma , Varicellovirus
4.
Vet Med Sci ; 8(6): 2532-2537, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herpesviruses are a class of double-stranded DNA viruses found in both vertebrates and invertebrates. They are usually highly host-specific and do not easily spread across species. Chinchillas have gradually entered the Chinese pet market in recent years, but references to viral infections in chinchillas are extremely scarce, and only two reports about the herpesvirus in chinchillas are available at present. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to present the first report of FHV-1 infection in chinchillas. METHODS: A total of 130 nasopharyngeal swab samples of chinchillas and three nasopharyngeal swabs of domestic cats collected from a chinchillas farm were investigated by nested PCR for FHV-1. RESULTS: Four chinchillas were infected with FHV-1, the positive rate was 3.08% (4/130), and two domestic cats were FHV-1 positive (2/3). The 253 bp fragments of FHV-1 gD gene from four chinchillas and two domestic cats were 100% identical, respectively, and the homology between chinchillas and domestic cat was 99.21%, but they all shared nearly 98.81% homology with the reference strain sequences. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that these four chinchillas strains were clustered together with FHV-1. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first time that FHV-1 was detected in chinchillas and suggested chinchillas are susceptible to FHV-1 and may play a role as a temporary reservoir for FHV-1.


Assuntos
Varicellovirus , Animais , Gatos , Chinchila , Filogenia , Fazendas
5.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 258, 2022 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35790990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bronchiolar disorders are rarely recognized in cats. Constrictive bronchiolitis obliterans is characterized by concentric peribronchiolar fibrosis and inflammation of the bronchioles, but the underlying causes remain poorly understood in current small animal medicine. CASE PRESENTATION: A 9-year-old cat presented with paroxysmal tachypnea, infrequent cough and persistent labor breathing. Thoracic radiography showed lung hyperinflation and bronchointerstitial pattern, and pulmonary function assessment revealed flow limitation in the late-expiratory phase and poor response to short-acting bronchodilator. Dorsally distributed subpleural ground glass opacities with distinct margin and tree-in-bud opacities were observed on lung high-resolution computed tomography. The cat underwent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and showed severe neutrophilic inflammation. Feline herpesvirus was the only pathogen detected in the BAL fluid. Multiple therapeutic attempts were unsuccessful and the cat died 8 weeks after the initial presentation. Necropsy revealed the infiltration of inflammatory cells, obstruction of the bronchiolar lumen, and submucosal concentric fibrosis suggesting constrictive bronchiolitis obliterans. Combining the pre- and post-mortem findings, as well as the time from symptom onset or BAL to necropsy, constrictive bronchiolitis obliterans was possibly triggered by a preceding feline herpesvirus infection in this case. CONCLUSIONS: The history of nonvaccinated status, lower airway neutrophilic inflammation, and presence of feline herpesvirus in the BAL fluid without coexistence of other pathogens led to the presumption that constrictive bronchiolitis obliterans was induced by a preceding feline herpesvirus infection in this cat. The pathological changes of bronchiolitis obliterans induced by a preceding feline herpesvirus infection could be different from that of cats with acute herpesvirus pneumonia, such as intranuclear inclusions would disappear over time and were no longer found 7-10 days after inoculation. The presence of patchy distribution of subpleural ground glass opacities on lung high-resolution computed tomography should raise the suspicion of peribronchiolar fibrosis. Clinical awareness of bronchiolar disorders as a differential diagnosis is important in cats with lung hyperinflation and labored breathing who show poor reversibility to bronchodilator.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite Obliterante , Doenças do Gato , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Animais , Bronquiolite Obliterante/diagnóstico por imagem , Bronquiolite Obliterante/etiologia , Bronquiolite Obliterante/veterinária , Broncodilatadores , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/etiologia , Gatos , Constrição Patológica/veterinária , Fibrose , Infecções por Herpesviridae/complicações , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Inflamação/veterinária , Varicellovirus
6.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35746639

RESUMO

Primary simian varicella virus (SVV) infection and reactivation in nonhuman primates is a valuable animal model in the study of varicella zoster virus disease [varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles)]. To understand SVV pathogenesis in skin, we inoculated 10 rhesus macaques with SVV, resulting in varicella rash. After the establishment of latency, eight of the monkeys were immunosuppressed using tacrolimus with or without irradiation and prednisone and two monkeys were not immunosuppressed. Zoster rash developed in all immunosuppressed monkeys and in one non-immunosuppressed monkey. Five monkeys had recurrent zoster. During varicella and zoster, SVV DNA in skin scrapings ranged from 50 to 107 copies/100 ng of total DNA and 2-127 copies/100 ng of total DNA, respectively. Detection of SVV DNA in blood during varicella was more frequent and abundant compared to that of zoster. During varicella and zoster, SVV antigens colocalized with neurons expressing ß-III tubulin in epidermis, hair follicles, and sweat glands, suggesting axonal transport of the virus. Together, we have demonstrated that both SVV DNA and antigens can be detected in skin lesions during varicella and zoster, providing the basis for further studies on SVV skin pathogenesis, including immune responses and mechanisms of peripheral spread.


Assuntos
Varicela , Exantema , Herpes Zoster , Varicellovirus , Animais , Herpesvirus Humano 3/fisiologia , Macaca mulatta , Varicellovirus/genética
7.
Vet Dermatol ; 33(4): 356-360, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644588

RESUMO

Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) lasers are used for a variety of soft tissue procedures. This report describes their use in dermatitis associated with feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV) in two cheetahs. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report describing CO2 laser use to adjunctively treat FHV-associated skin lesions.


Les lasers au dioxyde de carbone (CO2) sont utilisés pour une variété de procédures sur les tissus mous. Ce rapport décrit leur utilisation dans la dermatite associée à l'herpèsvirus félin-1 (FHV) chez deux guépards. À la connaissance des auteurs, il s'agit du premier article décrivant l'utilisation du laser CO2 pour traiter de manière complémentaire les lésions cutanées associées au FHV.


Los láseres de dióxido de carbono (CO2 ) se utilizan para una variedad de procedimientos de tejidos blandos. Este informe describe su uso en la dermatitis asociada con el herpesvirus felino-1 (FHV) en dos guepardos. A entender de los autores, este es el primer informe que describe el uso del láser de CO2 para tratar de forma complementaria las lesiones cutáneas asociadas con infección con FHV.


Lasers de dióxido de carbono (CO2 ) são utilizados em uma grande variedade de procedimentos de tecidos moles. Este relato descreve a sua utilização na dermatite associada ao herpesvírus felino (HVF)-1 em duas chitas. De acordo com o conhecimento dos autores, este é o primeiro relato descrevendo a utilização do laser de CO2 no tratamento adjunto de lesões cutâneas associadas o HVF.


Assuntos
Acinonyx , Doenças do Gato , Dermatite , Lasers de Gás , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Dióxido de Carbono , Doenças do Gato/cirurgia , Gatos , Dermatite/cirurgia , Dermatite/veterinária , Lasers de Gás/uso terapêutico , Varicellovirus
8.
J Ocul Pharmacol Ther ; 38(5): 339-347, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35613418

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine the comparative efficacy of ganciclovir ophthalmic gel and famciclovir oral tablets in cats with experimentally induced ocular feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) epithelial infection. Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed using 16 nonvaccinated, specific pathogen-free cats with experimental FHV-1 infection induced by topical ocular inoculation. Cats received topical ganciclovir 0.15% ophthalmic gel (1 drop 3 times daily, n = 6 cats), oral famciclovir (90 mg/kg twice daily, n = 6), or topical artificial tear gel (1 drop 3 times daily, n = 4) for 14 days. Cats were monitored after inoculation for 30 days. Ophthalmic examinations were performed every 2 days and ocular disease scores calculated. In vivo confocal microscopy was performed, and corneal leukocyte infiltrates quantified. Ocular samples for FHV-1 quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and virus isolation assays were collected every 3 days. Hemograms and serum biochemistry panels were performed at intervals. Results: Clinical ocular disease scores and corneal leukocyte infiltrates were significantly lower in the ganciclovir and famciclovir groups compared with placebo, but no significant differences were detected between the antiviral treatment groups. Ocular viral loads determined by qPCR were significantly lower in the ganciclovir group compared with the placebo group, but there were no significant differences between the other study groups. Hemograms and biochemistry panels were unremarkable. Conclusion: Topical application of ganciclovir gel 3 times daily was well-tolerated and displayed similar efficacy at reducing clinical ocular disease scores and corneal inflammation as twice daily oral famciclovir treatment in cats with experimental ocular FHV-1 infection.


Assuntos
Infecções Oculares , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Varicellovirus , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Gatos , Infecções Oculares/tratamento farmacológico , Famciclovir/uso terapêutico , Ganciclovir/farmacologia , Ganciclovir/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4989, 2022 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35484134

RESUMO

Feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) is a common causative agent of domestic cats' rhinotracheitis in domestic cats, and it increasingly threatens wild felids worldwide. The endangered snow leopard (Panthera uncia) belongs to the family Felidae, and it is the top predator on the Tibetan Plateau. Here we report the identification and isolation of FHV-1 from three dead captive snow leopards that presented with sneezing and rhinorrhea. To explore the relationship between FHV-1 and their deaths, organs and nasal swabs were collected for histopathology, viral isolation and sequence analysis. The results revealed that all three snow leopards were infected with FHV-1. The first animal died primarily of cerebral infarction and secondary non-suppurative meningoencephalitis that was probably caused by FHV-1. The second animal died mainly of renal failure accompanied by interstitial pneumonia caused by FHV-1. The cause of death for the third animal was likely related to the concurrent reactivation of a latent FHV-1 infection. The gD and gE gene sequence alignment of the isolated FHV-1 isolate strain revealed that the virus likely originated from a domestic cat. It was found that FHV-1 infection can cause different lesions in snow leopards than in domestic cats and is associated with high risk of disease in wild felids. This suggests that there should be increased focus on protecting wild felids against FHV-1 infections originating from domestic cats.


Assuntos
Felidae , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Panthera , Varicellovirus , Animais , Gatos , Felidae/fisiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Varicellovirus/genética
10.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e1434-e1444, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35152562

RESUMO

Our study investigated the prevalence of feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in captive Siberian tigers in Northeastern China. A total of 324 blood samples and 33 nasopharyngeal swab samples of Siberian tigers collected from 2019 to 2021 in three cities were investigated by nested PCR. The results showed that 28.1% (91/324) tigers were infected with at least one virus; the positive rates of FHV-1, FCV, and FIV were 17.3%, 13.6%, and 0.9%, respectively; and the coinfection prevalence was 13.2%. No FeLV-positive sample was detected. And we found that the blood is the best for FCV, FIV, and FeLV detection, but nasopharyngeal swabs for FHV-1. By comparing the gD genes, TK gene, and gI gene of FHV-1, the homology of the three FHV-1 positive strains in this study was found to be 91.5%-99.9% shared with tigers and domestic cats. Based on a comparison of the nucleic acid sequences of 13 FCV strains, we found that the homology of strain HB-1926 with the other strains in this study was only about 77.7%, but shared 99.3% and 98.6% homology with Urnaba strain in American cat and TG1 strain in Chinese tiger, respectively. However, the other 12 FCV strains shared 87.1%-87.5% homology compared with the Chinese domestic cats. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the HB-1926 strain was not in the same clade as other strains. The fragments gag-p26, pol-RT, and pol-RNAse of Siberian tiger FIV shared more than 99% homology than domestic cats FIV subtype A. This study demonstrated that captive Siberian tigers in Northeastern China were exposed to FHV-1, FCV, and FIV, and it is necessary to develop more effective vaccines and improve daily management measures.


Assuntos
Calicivirus Felino , Doenças do Gato , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina , Ácidos Nucleicos , Tigres , Animais , Gatos , Vírus da Leucemia Felina , Filogenia , Prevalência , Ribonucleases/genética , Varicellovirus
11.
Aust Vet J ; 100(5): 187-189, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35080011

RESUMO

The seroprevalence of feline alphaherpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) in feral cats in Victoria, Australia, was last assessed in 1981 when serum-virus-neutralising antibodies (VNAb) against FHV-1 were detected in 11% of the sampled population from two Victorian locations. In this current study, VNAb were assessed in serum from feral cats located in Phillip Island, Point Cook and Hattah in the Mallee region in Northern Victoria. In feral cats, the seroprevalence of VNAb to FHV-1 was highest in Point Cook at 24.6% (17/69), followed by Phillip Island at 16.7% (11/66) and Hattah where no feral cats had detectable VNAb to FHV-1 (0/12). In contrast, virus-neutralising antibodies were observed in 84.1% (37/44) of Victorian-owned cats. This higher seroprevalence in owned cats is likely due to the use of FHV-1 vaccines; however, the vaccination history of the cats was not known and the development of neutralising antibodies after infection or vaccination can vary. The results are useful for understanding FHV-1 exposure in feral and owned cats and are important background information in the context of any potential future use of FHV-1-vectored vaccines.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Varicellovirus , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Vitória/epidemiologia
12.
Virol J ; 19(1): 10, 2022 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Equine herpesvirus-8 (EHV-8) is one of the most economically significant viruses that infect mammals of the genus Equus worldwide, which cause severe respiratory diseases and abortion in horses. However, there is no report of abortion caused by EHV-8 in donkeys. CASE PRESENTATION: The present case report is about a 4-year-old donkey having an abortion and showing a serious respiratory issue on the 296th day of pregnancy. Bacteriological and molecular tests were used to screen possible bacterial/viral pathogens to detect the etiological agent. Salmonella abortus equi, EHV-1, EHV-4, and EAV were all negative in the current study. EHV-8, on the other hand, was the only agent that was isolated and identified. CONCLUSIONS: This was for the first time that EHV-8 had been isolated from a donkey in China. EHV-8 infection can cause abortion in donkeys; therefore, veterinarians and breeders should be aware of it.


Assuntos
Infecções por Herpesviridae , Herpesvirus Equídeo 1 , Doenças dos Cavalos , Varicellovirus , Animais , China , Equidae , Feminino , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Gravidez
13.
J Med Primatol ; 51(1): 20-26, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Simian varicella virus (SVV) is a primate herpesvirus that causes a natural varicella-like disease in Old World monkeys and may cause epizootics in facilities housing nonhuman primates. SVV infection of nonhuman primates is used as an experimental model to investigate varicella pathogenesis and to develop antiviral strategies. METHODS: An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect SVV antibodies in infected rhesus macaque monkeys. RESULTS: An ELISA determined SVV antibody titers following experimental infection. SVV IgG was detected by day 14 post-infection and remained elevated for at least 84 days. CONCLUSIONS: The SVV ELISA is a safe and rapid approach to confirm SVV seropositivity and to determine SVV antibody titers in naturally and experimentally SVV-infected monkeys. In addition to being a useful diagnostic assay to rapidly confirm acute disease or past SVV infection, the SVV ELISA is a valuable epidemiological tool to determine the incidence of SVV in non-human primate facilities.


Assuntos
Varicela , Varicellovirus , Animais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Herpesvirus Humano 3 , Macaca mulatta
14.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960727

RESUMO

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive asbestos-related cancer, against which no curative modalities exist. Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach, for which MM is an ideal candidate; indeed, the pleural location provides direct access for the intra-tumoral injection of oncolytic viruses (OVs). Some non-human OVs offer advantages over human OVs, including the non-pathogenicity in humans and the absence of pre-existing immunity. We previously showed that caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1), a non-pathogenic virus for humans, can kill different human cancer cell lines. Here, we assessed CpHV-1 effects on MM (NCI-H28, MSTO, NCI-H2052) and non-tumor mesothelial (MET-5A) cells. We found that CpHV-1 reduced cell viability and clonogenic potential in all MM cell lines without affecting non-tumor cells, in which, indeed, we did not detect intracellular viral DNA after treatment. In particular, CpHV-1 induced MM cell apoptosis and accumulation in G0/G1 or S cell cycle phases. Moreover, CpHV-1 strongly synergized with cisplatin, the drug currently used in MM chemotherapy, and this agent combination did not affect normal mesothelial cells. Although further studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the selective CpHV-1 action on MM cells, our data suggest that the CpHV-1-cisplatin combination could be a feasible strategy against MM.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Mesotelioma Maligno/terapia , Terapia Viral Oncolítica , Vírus Oncolíticos/fisiologia , Varicellovirus/fisiologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Mesotelioma Maligno/tratamento farmacológico , Mesotelioma Maligno/fisiopatologia , Mesotelioma Maligno/virologia , Vírus Oncolíticos/genética , Varicellovirus/genética
15.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(11): e1010084, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807956

RESUMO

Primary infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella and the establishment of lifelong latency in sensory ganglion neurons. In one-third of infected individuals VZV reactivates from latency to cause herpes zoster, often complicated by difficult-to-treat chronic pain. Experimental infection of non-human primates with simian varicella virus (SVV) recapitulates most features of human VZV disease, thereby providing the opportunity to study the pathogenesis of varicella and herpes zoster in vivo. However, compared to VZV, the transcriptome and the full coding potential of SVV remains incompletely understood. Here, we performed nanopore direct RNA sequencing to annotate the SVV transcriptome in lytically SVV-infected African green monkey (AGM) and rhesus macaque (RM) kidney epithelial cells. We refined structures of canonical SVV transcripts and uncovered numerous RNA isoforms, splicing events, fusion transcripts and non-coding RNAs, mostly unique to SVV. We verified the expression of canonical and newly identified SVV transcripts in vivo, using lung samples from acutely SVV-infected cynomolgus macaques. Expression of selected transcript isoforms, including those located in the unique left-end of the SVV genome, was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR. Finally, we performed detailed characterization of the SVV homologue of the VZV latency-associated transcript (VLT), located antisense to ORF61. Analogous to VZV VLT, SVV VLT is multiply spliced and numerous isoforms are generated using alternative transcription start sites and extensive splicing. Conversely, low level expression of a single spliced SVV VLT isoform defines in vivo latency. Notably, the genomic location of VLT core exons is highly conserved between SVV and VZV. This work thus highlights the complexity of lytic SVV gene expression and provides new insights into the molecular biology underlying lytic and latent SVV infection. The identification of the SVV VLT homolog further underlines the value of the SVV non-human primate model to develop new strategies for prevention of herpes zoster.


Assuntos
Infecções por Herpesviridae/genética , Doenças dos Macacos/genética , Transcriptoma , Varicellovirus/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Latência Viral , Animais , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Macaca mulatta , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , Splicing de RNA
16.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34835113

RESUMO

Feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) is endemic in captive cheetahs and sporadically causes devastating disease. Modified live vaccines (MLV), intended for use in domestic cats, are used in some captive cheetah populations and have been anecdotally linked to disease in certain subpopulations. Ten FHV-1 isolates from ten captive cheetahs and one isolate from an MLV used to inoculate four of the host animals were analyzed. Viral DNA was extracted for full-genome sequencing by Illumina MiSeq with viral genomes then used for phylogenomic and recombinational analyses. The FHV-1 shed by vaccinated cheetahs were almost identical to the MLV, with few variants among viral genomes. Eight cheetah FHV-1 isolates and the MLV were grouped in a clade along with FHV-1 isolates from domestic cats in the USA. The remaining two cheetah FHV-1 isolates (unknown host vaccine status) were not associated with a clade. The likely ancestral origin of these two isolates involves recombination events between Australian domestic cat and cheetah FHV-1 isolates. Collectively, these data suggest that the MLV is capable of causing clinical disease and viral shedding in some cheetahs and represents evidence of interspecies transmission of virus between domestic and wild cats.


Assuntos
Acinonyx/virologia , Doenças do Gato , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Varicellovirus , Animais , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Linhagem Celular , Genoma Viral , Infecções por Herpesviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Varicellovirus/genética , Varicellovirus/imunologia
17.
Cell Microbiol ; 23(12): e13398, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697890

RESUMO

Canid herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1) is a Varicellovirus that causes self-limiting infections in adult dogs but morbidity and mortality in puppies. Using a multipronged approach, we discovered the CHV-1 entry pathway into Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells. We found that CHV-1 triggered extensive host cell membrane lamellipodial ruffling and rapid internalisation of virions in large, uncoated vacuoles, suggestive of macropinocytosis. Treatment with inhibitors targeting key macropinocytosis factors, including inhibitors of Na+ /H+ exchangers, F-actin, myosin light-chain kinase, protein kinase C, p21-activated kinase, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and focal adhesion kinase, significantly reduced viral replication. Moreover, the effect was restricted to exposure to the inhibitors early in infection, confirming a role for the macropinocytic machinery during entry. The profile of inhibitors also suggested a role for signalling via integrins and receptor tyrosine kinases in viral entry. In contrast, inhibitors of clathrin, caveolin, microtubules and endosomal acidification did not affect CHV-1 entry into MDCK cells. We found that the virus colocalised with the fluid-phase uptake marker dextran; however, surprisingly, CHV-1 infection did not enhance the uptake of dextran. Thus, our results indicate that CHV-1 uses a macropinocytosis-like, pH-independent entry pathway into MDCK cells, which nevertheless is not based on stimulation of fluid uptake. TAKE AWAYS: CHV-1 enters epithelial cells via a macropinocytosis-like mechanism. CHV-1 induces extensive lamellipodial ruffling. CHV-1 entry into MDCK cells is pH-independent.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Canídeo 1 , Varicellovirus , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cães , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Rim , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino
18.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372499

RESUMO

Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) is a member of the alpha subfamily of herpesviruses, which is responsible for genital lesions and latent infections in goat populations worldwide. In this study, for the first time, the transcriptome and proteomics of CpHV-1 infected Madin Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells were explored using RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (iTRAQ-LC-MS/MS) technology, respectively. RNA-Seq analysis revealed 81 up-regulated and 19 down-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between infected and mock-infected MDBK cells. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that most of these DEGs were mainly involved in the innate immune response, especially the interferon stimulated genes (ISGs). Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis results indicated that the identified DEGs were significantly mainly enriched for response to virus, defense response to virus, response to biotic stimulus and regulation of innate immune response. Viral carcinogenesis, the RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, the cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway and pathways associated with several viral infections were found to be significantly enriched in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database. Eleven selected DEGs (Mx1, RSAD2, IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT5, IFIH1, IFITM3, IRF7, IRF9, OAS1X and OAS1Y) associated with immune responses were selected, and they exhibited a concordant direction both in RNA-Seq and quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. Proteomic analysis also showed significant up-regulation of innate immunity-related proteins. GO analysis showed that the differentially expressed proteins were mostly enriched in defense response and response to virus, and the pathways associated with viral infection were enriched under KEGG analysis. Protein-protein interaction network analysis indicated most of the DEGs related to innate immune responses, as DDX58(RIG-I), IFIH1(MDA5), IRF7, Mx1, RSAD2, OAS1 and IFIT1, were located in the core of the network and highly connected with other DGEs. Our findings support the notion that CpHV-1 infection induced the transcription and protein expression alterations of a series of genes related to host innate immune response, which helps to elucidate the resistance of host cells to viral infection and to clarify the pathogenesis of CpHV-1.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hepatócitos/virologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Proteômica , Regulação para Cima , Varicellovirus/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Líquida , Biologia Computacional , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Rim/citologia , Rim/virologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Transcriptoma , Varicellovirus/fisiologia , Replicação Viral/genética
19.
Vet Microbiol ; 261: 109210, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416538

RESUMO

Herpesviruses are attractive vaccine vector candidates due to their large double stranded DNA genome and latency characteristics. Within the scope of veterinary vaccines, herpesvirus-vectored vaccines have been well studied and commercially available vectored vaccines are used to help prevent diseases in different animal species. Felid alphaherpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) has been characterised as a vector candidate to protect against a range of feline pathogens. In this review we highlight the methods used to construct FHV-1 based vaccines and their outcomes, while also proposing alternative uses for FHV-1 as a viral vector.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Vetores Genéticos/normas , Imunização/veterinária , Varicellovirus/imunologia , Animais , Doenças do Gato/imunologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Varicellovirus/genética
20.
Vet Ophthalmol ; 24(5): 455-459, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402572

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to determine the conjunctival microbiota of Persian cats with and without nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO). ANIMALS STUDIED: Twenty-five Persian cats: 15 with bilateral NLDO (Group A) and 10 with no NLDO (Group B). PROCEDURES: All fifty eyes were assessed. Sterile swab applicators were used for the collection of specimens, which were cultured. PCR was performed on conjunctival swab and blood samples for the detection of Mycoplasma spp. and feline herpesvirus 1(FHV-1), respectively. RESULTS: FHV-1 was detected in two cats in Group A. Twelve eyes from Group A and four from Group B were Mycoplasma spp. positive based on the PCR results. Moreover, fungal culture was positive in six eyes from Group A and three eyes from Group B. The dominant fungus isolated was Aspergillus spp. (6 out of 11 fungal isolates). Other isolated fungi were Alternaria spp. and Cladosporidium spp. Twenty-three eyes had positive bacterial culture in Group A, while twelve eyes were positive in Group B. The most commonly isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus epidermidis (15 out of 38 bacterial isolates). ß-hemolytic Streptococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp., and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated in similar proportions in both groups. Escherichia coli was also present in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study revealed same isolated fungal and bacterial spp. and in similar proportions in Persian cats with and without NLDO.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos/microbiologia , Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Obstrução dos Ductos Lacrimais/veterinária , Microbiota , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Obstrução dos Ductos Lacrimais/microbiologia , Masculino , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Varicellovirus/isolamento & purificação
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