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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130558, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284184

RESUMO

Leafy vegetables like lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) naturally have high nitrate content and the European Commission has set maximum level for nitrate in lettuce. Glycinebetaine is an organic osmolyte alleviating plant stress, but its role in leaf nitrate accumulation remains unknown. The uptake of glycinebetaine by lettuce roots, and its potential to regulate lettuce nitrate content and improve plant quality were investigated. Two hydroponic lettuce experiments were conducted with different glycinebetaine application rates (Exp1: 0, 1, 7.5, and 15 mM; Exp2: 0, 1 + 1 + 1, 1 + 10, and 4 mM). Plants were analyzed at varying time points. Root application resulted in glycinebetaine uptake and translocation to the leaves. Glycinebetaine concentrations > 7.5 mM reduced leaf nitrate up to 40% and increased leaf dry matter content. Glycinebetaine showed a positive effect on leaf mineral and amino acid composition. Thus, glycinebetaine could be a novel strategy to reduce the nitrate content in hydroponic lettuce.


Assuntos
Alface , Nitratos , Hidroponia , Nitratos/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Verduras
2.
Food Chem ; 366: 130494, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293544

RESUMO

Bioactive peptides have recently gained more research attention as potential therapies for the management of bodily disorders and metabolic syndromes of delicate health importance. On another note, there is a rising trend on a global scale for the consumption and adoption of fruit and vegetables for the fulfilment of dietary and health needs. Furthermore, fruits and vegetables are being more studied as base materials for the isolation of biologically functional components and accordingly, they have been investigated for their concomitant bioactive peptides. This review focuses on isolation and bio-functional properties of bioactive peptides from fruits and vegetables. This manuscript is potential in serving as a material collection for fundamental consultancy on peptides derived from fruits and vegetables, and further canvasses the necessitation for the use of these food materials as primal matter for such.


Assuntos
Frutas , Verduras , Dieta , Peptídeos
3.
Food Chem ; 367: 130668, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343814

RESUMO

A novel polynomial correction method, order-adaptive polynomial correction (OAPC), was proposed to correct reflectance spectra with operator differences, and convolutional neural network (CNN) was used to develop analysis model to predict behenic acid in edible oils. With application of OAPC, CNN performed well with coefficient of determination of correction (R2cor) of 0.8843 and root mean square error of correction (RMSEcor) of 0.1182, outperforming partial least squares regression, support vector regression and random forest with OAPC, as well as the cases without OAPC. Based on 16 effective wavelengths selected by combination of bootstrapping soft shrinkage, random frog and Pearson's correlation, CNN and OAPC exhibited excellent performance with R2cor of 0.9560 and RMSEcor of 0.0730. Meanwhile, only 5% correction samples were selected by Kennard-Stone for OAPC. Overall, the proposed method could alleviate the impact of operator differences on spectral analysis, thereby providing potential to correct differences from measurement instruments or environments.


Assuntos
Óleos Vegetais , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Ácidos Graxos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Análise Espectral , Verduras
4.
Food Chem ; 366: 130611, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388403

RESUMO

Anthocyanins are pigments abundant in fruits and vegetables, and commonly applied in foods due to attractive colour and health-promoting benefits. However, instability of anthocyanins leads to their easy degradation, reduced bioactivity, and colour fading in food processing, limiting their application and causing economic losses. Stability of anthocyanins depends on their own structures and environmental factors. For structural factors, modification including copigmentation, acylation and biosynthesis is a potential solution to increase anthocyanin stability due to forming stable structures. With regard to environmental factors, encapsulation such as microencapsulation, liposome and nanoparticles has been shown effectively to enhance the stability. We proposed the potential challenges and perspectives for the diversification of anthocyanin-rich products for food application, particularly, introduction of hazards, technical limitations, interaction with other ingredients in food system and exploration of pyranoanthocyanins. The integrated strategies are warranted for improving anthocyanin stabilization for promoting their further application in food industry.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Frutas , Pigmentação , Extratos Vegetais , Verduras
5.
Food Chem ; 367: 130714, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388632

RESUMO

The following qualitative screening and quantitative determination of 201 pesticides present a detailed optimization making use of design of experiments (DoE). The post-targeted screening took advantage of an upgradeable database to extend the survey further to perform a standard-free novel quantitation by liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The fine tuning of instrumental parameters allowed the best method selectivity, sensitivity and reproducibility for the compounds under study. Among the factors considered, the heated electrospray source (HESI), the sample composition and the MS/MS acquisition modes were assessed, including the all-ion fragmentation (AIF) mode and different versions of the variable data independent acquisition (vDIA). The results of the optimization showed that selected HESI conditions, a methanol/water (1:1) sample composition and a vDIA acquisition method increased the signal for most compounds with a remarkable benefit on signal shape and intensity. The method showed adequate analytical performance when assessed in local produce.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Frutas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Verduras
6.
Ann Parasitol ; 67(2): 275-279, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597500

RESUMO

Intestinal parasitic infections are one of the most important health problems. Although fresh vegetables are considered as a vital element of a healthy diet, they are a potential source of human intestinal parasitic infections during production, collection, transportation, preparation and consumption. The present study was carried out to determine and detecting the parasitological contaminations of fresh vegetables sold at different open-aired markets in Soran city, Iraq. A total of 225 raw vegetable samples were examined by sedimentation technique after washing the samples with normal saline. Of the 225 samples, 109 (48.4%) were microscopically positive for intestinal parasites. Particularly, a high rate of contamination was recorded in cress (Lepidium sativum) with 71.1%. However, the least contaminated sample was lettuce (Lactuca sativa) with 26.6%. The most encountered parasite was Taenia spp. egg (24%), whereas hookworms (4%) were the least detected ones and 34.6% of the samples harbored poly-parasitic contamination. Since, the results emphasize the fresh vegetables are potential sources of transmission for intestinal parasites in central markets of Soran city, strict hygienic measures should always be adopted to avoid parasitic contamination. Untreated sewage and the manure used by greengrocer as fertilizer can be implicated in vegetable contamination.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Verduras , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Prevalência
7.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(10): 4916-4924, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581135

RESUMO

The accumulation of some harmful elements in plants from intensive production systems pose a serious threat to human health. In this study, seven heavy metals(Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, As, and Hg) and their distribution characteristics in the crops, vegetables, and fruits were analyzed alongside single factor evaluation and Nemero index analysis. Combined with dietary recommended consumption data from the Chinese Nutrition Society, the dietary exposure of heavy metals were further analyzed, and a consequent safety risk assessment was conducted. A total of 673 crop, vegetable, and fruit samples were collected from typical intensive production systems in Hainan Province. The results showed that the content of Cu, As, and Hg in the 673 plant samples was below the value of the national food standard. The exceed rates of Pb, Zn, Cr, and Cd were 2.67%, 3.71%, 2.53%, and 3.71%, respectively. The heavy metal comprehensive pollution degree of six species of plants showed the trend of leafy vegetables > tuber crops > non-leafy vegetables > legume crops > fruits > cereals. In particular, Cr in leafy vegetables showed significantly higher hazard quotients(HQ) than that in other types, and exceeded 1, suggesting a high potential health risk via the ingestion of heavy metals through leafy vegetables. The relatively lower hazard index(HI) values of tuber crops, non-leafy vegetables, legume crops, fruits, and cereals suggest that these types of plants are more suitable for intensive production systems.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , China , Grão Comestível/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Frutas/química , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Verduras
8.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(10): 3770-3781, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487210

RESUMO

Enhanced biofuel production strategies from microalgae by employing affordable bio-waste usage are fetching significance, nowadays. This study examines the effect of VWE for enhanced biomass from new indigenous microalgal isolates, Asterarcys sp. SPC, Scenedesmus sp. KT-U, Scenedesmus sp. KTWL-A, Coelastrum sp. T-E, and Chlorella sp. TWL-B. The growth of microalgae in VWE-treated growth media showed considerable increase (1.14-2.3 folds) than control medium (without VWE). Further, two effective native microalgae were selected based on growth in VWE treatment, biomass productivity, and TAG accumulation through statistical clustering analysis. Mixotrophic batch cultivation of Scenedesmus sp. KT-U and Asterarcys sp. SPC cultivated using VWE treatment in the optimum concentration had produced significant average increase in BP (1.8 and 1.4 folds, respectively) than control (without VWE). Whereas in the lipid production phase, there was a noticeable increase in lipid yield in VWE-treated cells of lipid phase (231.8 ± 17.9 mg/L and 243.5 ± 25 mg/L) in Scenedesmus sp. KT-U and Asterarcys sp. SPC, respectively, than in control (140.5 ± 28 mg/L and 166.4 ± 23 mg/L) with considerable TAG accumulation. Thus, this study imparts strain selection process of native microalgae based on vegetable waste usage for improved yield of biomass and lipid amenable for cost-effective biodiesel production.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microalgas , Scenedesmus , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Lipídeos , Verduras , Águas Residuárias
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501763

RESUMO

The purpose of this communication is to describe the Brighter Bites produce voucher program, and its implementation and utilization across Brighter Bites families in four cities in the U.S., during the COVID-19 pandemic. The voucher program was implemented over nine weeks starting April 2020, with up to four USD 25 store-specific produce coupons sent bi-weekly to the homes of each participating Brighter Bites family (USD 100 total/family). Measures included type of produce purchased, amount of voucher that was used, number of vouchers distributed and redeemed by families, and a post-program participant satisfaction survey. Descriptive statistics, including count, frequency, and percent, were computed, both overall and stratified by city. During this time, Brighter Bites distributed a total of over 43,982 vouchers to 12,482 low-income families, with a redemption rate of 60% (at least one voucher redeemed) across all cities. During times of crisis, non-profit-for-profit partnerships, such as the one between Brighter Bites and the grocery retail industry, are feasible, and successful in providing produce to families in need.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Insegurança Alimentar , Frutas , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Verduras
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 642, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508274

RESUMO

The present research describes the successful preparation of melon peel biochar modified with CoFe2O4 (MPBC/CoFe2O4) followed by its usage as a new sorbent to separate, preconcentrate, and determine the toxic heavy metal ions by magnetic solid-phase extraction. The metal ion desorption was performed by 0.1 M HCl solution with a volume of 5.0 mL. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was utilized for detection of the analyte levels. SEM-EDX, TEM, XRD, and FTIR techniques were carried out to illuminate the structure of MPBC/CoFe2O4. The fundamental variables affecting the adsorption and elution efficiencies of the analyte ions including solution pH, MPBC/CoFe2O4 amount, type and concentration of eluent, adsorption and desorption equilibrium time, and sample volume were optimized. The detection limits were calculated as 0.41, 1.82, and 3.16 µg L-1 for Cu2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ ions, respectively, with the relative standard deviation of lower than 4.2%. There were no substantial interference effects on the analyte ion recovery due to the presence of foreign ions at high levels. Five minutes of contact time was adequate to attain the adsorption equilibrium. The adsorption capacity of MPBC/CoFe2O4 was obtained as 106.4, 65.4, and 188.7 mg g-1 for Cu2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ ions, respectively, by utilizing Langmuir isotherm model. The pseudo-second order model is favorable to identify the adsorption kinetics. The method was validated by spike/recovery test, and then, it was successfully implemented to determine the aforementioned analyte levels in sea and stream water, pepper, black cabbage, eggplant, and tomato samples.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Cádmio/análise , Carvão Vegetal , Monitoramento Ambiental , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Chumbo , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Verduras , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500624

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of natural antioxidants inherent to beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. Vulgaris) on the ageing of environmentally friendly plastics. Certain properties were examined in this context, comprising thermal, mechanical, and morphological properties. A visual evaluation of relevant changes in the given polymers (polylactide and polycaprolactone) was conducted during an ageing test in a UV chamber (45 °C, 70% humidity) for 720 h. The films were prepared by a casting process, in which samples with the extract of beetroot were additionally incorporated in a common filler (bentonite), this serving as a carrier for the extract. The results showed the effect of the incorporated antioxidant, which was added to stabilize the biodegradable films. Its efficiency during the ageing test in the polymers tended to exceed or be comparable to that of the reference sample.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Beta vulgaris/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Poliésteres/química , Bentonita/química , Plásticos/química , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Verduras/química
12.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500636

RESUMO

The African pumpkin (Momordica balsamina) contains bioactive phenolic compounds that may assist in reducing oxidative stress in the human body. The leaves are mainly consumed after boiling in water for a specific time; this hydrothermal process and conditions of the gastrointestinal tract may affect the presence and bioactivity of phenolics either positively or negatively. In this study, the effects of hydrothermal processing (boiling) and in vitro simulated human digestion on the phenolic composition, bioaccessibility and bioactivity in African pumpkin were investigated in comparison with those of spinach (Spinacia oleracea). A high-resolution ultra-performance liquid chromatography, coupled with diode array detection, quadrupole time-of-flight and mass spectrometer (UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS) was used to profile phenolic metabolites. Metabolites such as 3-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were highly concentrated in the boiled vegetable extracts compared to the raw undigested and all digested samples. The majority of African pumpkin and spinach extracts (non-digested and digested) protected Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), (mouse fibroblast) L929 and human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells from 2,2'-Azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative damage. From these results, the consumption of boiled African pumpkin leaves, as well as spinach, could be encouraged, as bioactive metabolites present may reduce oxidative stress in the body.


Assuntos
Cucurbita/química , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Momordica/química , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Ácido Quínico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Quínico/química , Spinacia oleracea/química , Verduras/química
13.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500648

RESUMO

Ethanol extracts of two types of pepper (sweet and hot) were separated into fractions with increasing lipophilicity. After drying the extracts and fractions, their chemical composition, anti-radical activity in the DPPH radical system, and cytotoxic activity against PC-3 and HTC-116 cells were determined. A detailed qualitative analysis of the fractions was performed with the LC-QTOF-MS method. It was found that the chemical composition of pepper fractions did not always reflect their biological activity. The highest antiradical activity was detected in the fraction eluted with 40% methanol from sweet pepper. The highest total content of phenolic compounds was found in an analogous fraction from hot pepper, and this fraction showed the strongest cytotoxic effect on the PC-3 tumour line. The LC-MS analysis identified 53 compounds, six of which were present only in sweet pepper and four only in hot pepper. The unique chemical composition of the extracts was found to modulate their biological activity, which can only be verified experimentally.


Assuntos
Capsicum/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Fenóis/química , Piper nigrum/química , Verduras/química
14.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500650

RESUMO

Recent increased interest in seaweed is motivated by attention generated in their bioactive components that have potential applications in the functional food and nutraceutical industries. In the present study, nutritional composition, metabolite profiles, phytochemical screening and physicochemical properties of freeze-dried brown seaweed, Sargassum polycystum were evaluated. Results showed that the S. polycystum had protein content of 8.65 ± 1.06%, lipid of 3.42 ± 0.01%, carbohydrate of 36.55 ± 1.09% and total dietary fibre content of 2.75 ± 0.58% on dry weight basis. The mineral content of S. polycystum including Na, K, Ca, Mg Fe, Se and Mn were 8876.45 ± 0.47, 1711.05 ± 0.07, 1079.75 ± 0.30, 213.85 ± 0.02, 277.6 ± 0.12, 4.70 ± 0.00 and 4.45 ± 0.00 mg 100/g DW, respectively. Total carotenoid, chlorophyll a and b content in S. polycystum were detected at 45.28 ± 1.77, 141.98 ± 1.18 and 111.29 µg/g respectively. The total amino acid content was 74.90 ± 1.45%. The study revealed various secondary metabolites and major constituents of S. polycystum fibre to include fucose, mannose, galactose, xylose and rhamnose. The metabolites extracted from the seaweeds comprised n-hexadecanoic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester, benzenepropanoic acid, 3,5-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-hydroxy- methyl ester, 1-dodecanol, 3,7,11-trimethyl-, which were the most abundant. The physicochemical properties of S. polycystum such as water-holding and swelling capacity were comparable to several commercial fibre-rich products. In conclusion, results of this study indicate that S. polycystum is a potential candidate as functional food sources for human consumption and its cultivation needs to be encouraged.


Assuntos
Nutrientes/química , Feófitas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Sargassum/química , Alga Marinha/química , Antioxidantes/química , Carotenoides/química , Clorofila A/química , Fibras na Dieta , Humanos , Malásia , Minerais/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Verduras/química
15.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500597

RESUMO

Breast cancer persists as a diffuse source of cancer despite persistent detection and treatment. Flavonoids, a type of polyphenol, appear to be a productive option in the treatment of breast cancer, because of their capacity to regulate the tumor related functions of class of compounds. Plant polyphenols are flavonoids that appear to exhibit properties which are beneficial for breast cancer therapy. Numerous epidemiologic studies have been performed on the dynamic effect of plant polyphenols in the prevention of breast cancer. There are also subclasses of flavonoids that have antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activity. These can regulate the scavenging activity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which help in cell cycle arrest and suppress the uncontrolled division of cancer cells. Numerous studies have also been performed at the population level, one of which reported a connection between cancer risk and intake of dietary flavonoids. Breast cancer appears to show intertumoral heterogeneity with estrogen receptor positive and negative cells. This review describes breast cancer, its various factors, and the function of flavonoids in the prevention and treatment of breast cancer, namely, how flavonoids and their subtypes are used in treatment. This review proposes that cancer risk can be reduced, and that cancer can be even cured by improving dietary intake. A large number of studies also suggested that the intake of fruit and vegetables is associated with reduced breast cancer and paper also includes the role and the use of nanodelivery of flavonoids in the healing of breast cancer. In addition, the therapeutic potential of orally administered phyto-bioactive compounds (PBCs) is narrowed because of poor stability and oral bioavailability of compounds in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and solubility also affects bioavailability. In recent years, creative nanotechnology-based approaches have been advised to enhance the activity of PBCs. Nanotechnology also offers the potential to become aware of disease at earlier stages, such as the detection of hidden or unconcealed metastasis colonies in patients diagnosed with lung, colon, prostate, ovarian, and breast cancer. However, nanoformulation-related effects and safety must not be overlooked. This review gives a brief discussion of nanoformulations and the effect of nanotechnology on herbal drugs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Disponibilidade Biológica , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Feminino , Frutas/química , Humanos , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Verduras/química
16.
Ageing Res Rev ; 71: 101460, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534684

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies was conducted to summarize available findings on the association between fruits and vegetables (FVs) consumption and risk of frailty. METHODS: Online databases including Medline, Scopus, and Embase were searched to detect related publications up to February 2021. Study selection and data extraction were performed by two investigators working in parallel. In most included studies, frailty was defined according to the Fried criteria. Overall, 14 articles with 18,616 subjects with frailty and 101,969 controls were included. To combined data, a random effect model was used. Dose-response associations were also evaluated. RESULTS: Fourteen studies (10 cohorts and four cross-sectional) were included. Pooled effect size for the highest versus lowest category of FVs consumption showed an inverse association with risk of frailty (RR cohort = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.50-0.84; I2 = 81%, n = 7). Every one serving (200 g) per day increment in FVs intake was associated with a 14% lower risk of frailty. The risk of frailty decreased linearly up to FVs consumption of 3.5 servings/d, with flattening the curve at higher intake. Pooled analysis regarding fruits and vegetables separately did not indicate a significant association with the risk of frailty. Indeed, the results of the meta-analysis correspond only to the cohort studies. Based on the NutriGrade score, the quality of evidence for a protective effect of FV on frailty was "moderate". CONCLUSIONS: FVs consumption was associated with a decreased risk of frailty. Further large-scale prospective cohort studies are needed to reach more confident conclusions.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Verduras , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Frutas , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(39): 11646-11655, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549579

RESUMO

Interactions between Brassica vegetables and human saliva can affect in-mouth odor development, which in turn may be linked to individual perception and liking. S-Methyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide is a unique substrate present in Brassicas that produces odor-active sulfur volatiles due to the activity of enzymes present in plant tissue and due to bacteria, which may be present to varying extents in an individual's oral microbiome. Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry was applied to measure individual differences in sulfur volatile production in real time when fresh human saliva was incubated ex vivo with raw cauliflower for a cohort of child-adult pairs. Large differences in the rate of sulfur volatile production were measured between individuals, but not between age groups. Significant positive relationships were found for volatile production between the adult-child pairs, suggesting a degree of commonality in saliva composition and oral microbiome activity. Furthermore, significant negative relationships were measured between the amount of in-mouth sulfur volatile production and liking for raw cauliflower in children.


Assuntos
Brassica , Verduras , Adulto , Humanos , Boca , Odorantes , Saliva
18.
Nutr J ; 20(1): 77, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diets low in fruit and vegetables and high in salt are among the top dietary risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Using a nationally representative sample of Australians, this study aimed to describe self-reported intake of fruit and vegetables, and knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to salt intake, and determine if there were socio-demographic differences between population subgroups. METHODS: A 2016 cross-sectional survey of Australian adults aged 18 years and over, which comprised 160 questions, including socio-demographic and health-related questions. Descriptive statistics (mean, 95% confidence interval, %) were calculated. Weighted-adjusted logistic regression models were used to determine if there were socio-demographic differences in salt behaviours and fruit and vegetable consumption. RESULTS: A total of 1217 participants completed the survey (51% female). Less than 8% of participants reported consuming the recommended 2 or more serves of fruit and 5 or more serves of vegetables. Almost 60% of participants frequently added salt during cooking/meal preparation and 42% of respondents frequently placed a salt-shaker on the table at mealtimes. There were no consistent patterns between socio-demographic factors and measures of fruit and vegetable consumption and salt behaviours. Differences in at least one measure were found for sex, age, location, education level and weight category. CONCLUSIONS: There were no consistent patterns between socio-demographic factors and salt behaviours and fruit and vegetable intake. Less than recommended intakes of fruit and vegetables and frequent discretionary salt use are placing Australians at risk of diet-related NCDs. Broad population-based policies and programs to improve fruit and vegetable intake and salt behaviours are needed to improve Australian's diets.


Assuntos
Frutas , Verduras , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 225: 112743, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481350

RESUMO

Fluralaner, a systemic pesticide, was originally registered with the US Food and Drug Administration in 2014 under the trade name Bravecto for flea treatment for pets. As a GABA antagonist, the footprint of fluralaner has expended beyond medical and veterinary pests in recent years. In this study, we examined the acute toxicity of fluralaner against three pests of Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata, Megalurothrips usitatus, and Phyllotreta striolata in the Solanaceae, Fabaceae, and Cruciferae families, respectively, and the sublethal impact of fluralaner on Propylaea japonica, a widely distributed predatory ladybeetle. Based on LC50, fluralaner was effective against H. vigintioctopunctata (0.098 mg a.i. L-1 for the second instar larvae), M. usitatus (0.134 mg a.i. L-1 for adult females), and P. striolata (0.595 mg a.i. L-1 for adults). For P. japonica, however, fluralaner was substantially less effective (1.177 mg a.i. L-1 for the third instar larvae). Furthermore, the LC10 and LC30 of P. japonica were also consistently higher than the LC50 of the three pests. In addition, we did not observe any significant impacts of fluralaner at LC10 and LC30 on the life history traits, including body weight, developmental time, pre-oviposition period, and fecundity of P. japonica. Based on our results from acute toxicities and sublethal impacts, fluralaner is effective against vegetable pests, while potentially friendly to P. japonica when employed as a biological control agent.


Assuntos
Besouros , Inseticidas , Animais , Humanos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Isoxazóis/toxicidade , Comportamento Predatório , Estados Unidos , Verduras
20.
Water Sci Technol ; 84(5): 1159-1169, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534113

RESUMO

Alternative sanitising agents are required in the fruit and vegetable processing industry, capable of effectively disinfecting both the product and the washing water to increase its reuse, while not producing harmful by-products like chlorine-based agents. In the present work, electro-oxidation (EO) and ozone are proposed for vegetable process water reuse, being optimised for their individual and combined application. The application of hybrid electro-oxidation and ozone achieved 7 log reduction after 15 min of treatment in batch using boron-doped diamond (BDD) as anode material, showing important synergistic effects when compared with the individual treatments. When the process was applied in continuous mode, up to 6 log reduction of total bacteria was achieved using EO alone with Ru as the anode and stainless steel as the cathode, under 11 mA/cm2 of current density, a cell retention time of 12 s and no addition of chemical reagents (electrolyte). Under these conditions, the absence of microorganisms in water was maintained for more than 24 h, no harmful by-products (chlorate, bromate) were detected and no damage to lettuce seeds were observed when evaluating water reuse potential.


Assuntos
Verduras , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Diamante , Eletrodos , Frutas/química , Oxirredução , Tecnologia , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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