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1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(14): 18070-18080, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405125

RESUMO

In this research, the Cu phytoremediation capacity of common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L.) was evaluated concerning plant growth, antioxidant enzymes, and photosynthetic activities. Plants were subjected to five Cu concentrations (0, 125, 250, 375, and 500 mg/L) under the hydroponic conditions for 2 weeks. The results showed that at 125 mg/L, root and shoot biomass and chlorophylls remained the same as that of the control and then declined with increasing concentrations of Cu, when compared with control. The carotenoid contents remained unchanged up to 250 mg/L compared with control and then dropped with raising Cu dose. The raising of antioxidant enzymes activity reflected the occurrence of stress due to Cu exposure as manifested by increased MDA and ion leakage level. However, increased antioxidant enzymes may be associated with the tolerance capacity of V. thapsus to protect the plant from oxidative damage. Except for the highest concentration (500 mg/L), Cu accumulation in the roots and shoots all increased significantly with increasing Cu concentration, and the Cu accumulation in shoots was greater than roots. The Cu accumulation reached its maximum level at 375 mg/L Cu concentration, with 492.8 and 447.3 mg/kg DW in shoots and roots, respectively, which is highly greater than the threshold value for a Cu (hyper)accumulator plant. The extraction coefficient (EC) close to 1, and translocation factor (TF) > 1 from 125 to 375 mg/L Cu, suggested that V. thapsus could be used as a viable plant species for Cu phytoextraction.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Verbascum , Antioxidantes , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cobre/análise , Mecanismos de Defesa , Raízes de Plantas/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
2.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(3)2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620972

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) results in significant morbidity and mortality among children worldwide. Associated neurocognitive complications are common but not well characterized. The Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), a well-established measure for assessment of neurodevelopment, has not yet been adapted for use in India. This study's goal was to adapt the MSEL for local language and culture to assess neurocognition among children in India, and apply the adapted measure for assessment of children with TBM. METHODS: Administration of MSEL domains was culturally adapted. Robust translation procedures for instructions took place for three local languages: Marathi, Hindi and Tamil. Multilingual staff compared instructions against the original version for accuracy. The MSEL stimuli and instructions were reviewed by psychologists and pediatricians in India to identify items concerning for cultural bias. RESULTS: MSEL stimuli unfamiliar to children in this setting were identified and modified within Visual Reception, Fine-Motor, Receptive Language and Expressive Language Scales. Item category was maintained for adaptations of items visually or linguistically different from those observed in daily life. Adjusted items were administered to six typically developing children to determine modification utility. Two children diagnosed with confirmed TBM (ages 11 and 29 months) were evaluated with the adapted MSEL before receiving study medications. Skills were below age-expectation across visual reception, fine motor and expressive language domains. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to assess children with TBM using the MSEL adapted for use in India. Future studies in larger groups of Indian children are warranted to validate the adapted measure.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Meníngea , Verbascum , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Aprendizagem , Tuberculose Meníngea/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Meníngea/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Chem Biodivers ; 17(12): e2000644, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119147

RESUMO

The crude methanolic extract obtained from Verbascum nigrum aerial parts (VNE) and its six fractions (VNF1-VNF6) were initially screened regarding their effects on the viability of immortalized HaCaT keratinocytes and A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells (MTT assay, 24 h). None of the tested samples affected the viability of HaCaT cells in a concentration range of 25-150 µg/mL. VNE and VNF4 exhibited significant cytotoxic effects in A431 cells, with IC50 values of 81.92 and 12.27 µg/mL, respectively; the selectivity index was higher than 10 for VNF4. The untargeted LC/HR-MS/MS metabolite profiling led to the tentative annotation of a total number of 23 compounds. Of these, VNE comprised mainly iridoid glycosides (harpagoside, laterioside, acylated aucubin derivatives), whereas VNF4 showed a high abundance of triterpene saponin glycosides (ilwensisaponins A and C, songarosaponins A and B), constituents known for their selective cytotoxic potential.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Verbascum/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos
4.
Microsc Res Tech ; 83(6): 636-646, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027460

RESUMO

The present study was conducted on characterization of morpho-anatomical, phytochemical, and bio-elemental analysis of root, stem, and leaf of Verbascum thapsus. Morphologically Verbascum is a biennial plant that flowers for a month and a half in mid- to late summer. Various organoleptic features of root, leaf, and stem were recorded. Anatomically the T. S of the root, stem, and leaf showed a typical dicot histological differentiation. Leaf possessed anomocytic stomata, crescent shape vascular bundles, and covered with long and stellate type trichomes while, stem contained collateral type of vascular bundles and a well-developed pith to store phytochemicals responsible for various pharmacological activities. The powder drug study through scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of various types of tissues. Branched, tree like and stellate trichomes in root and leaf help in absorption and reduce loss of water. These anatomical features are responsible for the survival of the plant as biennial. Four macro elements (Na, K, Ca, and Mg) and seven microelements (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn, and Cd) and their concentrations in ppm were also studied using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Phytochemical screening of methanolic extract showed existence of various secondary metabolites, while mucilage and anthraquinones was not detected. The present study helps to understand the taxonomic identification of the plant based on morpho-anatomical features and throws the attention of the researchers to carry out the work for developing its various formulations, which can ultimately be beneficial for the human beings as well as animals.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais/anatomia & histologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Verbascum/anatomia & histologia , Verbascum/química , Flores/química , Farmacognosia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química
5.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 34(3): e22443, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909879

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact that 6-O-(3″, 4″-di-O-trans-cinnamoyl)-α- l-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol (Dicinn) and verbascoside (Verb), two compounds simultaneously reported in Verbascum ovalifolium, have on tumor cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle kinetics, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. At 100 µg/mL and 48 hours incubation time, Dicinn and Verb produced good cytotoxic effects in A549, HT-29, and MCF-7 cells. Dicinn induced cell-cycle arrest at the G0 /G1 phase and apoptosis, whereas Verb increased the population of subG1 cells and cell apoptosis rates. Furthermore, the two compounds exhibited time-dependent ROS generating effects in tumor cells (1-24 hours). Importantly, no cytotoxic effects were induced in nontumor MCF-10A cells by the two compounds up to 100 µg/mL. Overall, the effects exhibited by Verb in tumor cells were more potent, which can be correlated with its structural features, such as the presence of phenolic hydroxyl groups.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Verbascum/química , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Citotoxinas/química , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Células HT29 , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia
6.
Med Chem ; 16(7): 991-995, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, and antimicrobial activities of Verbascum Thapsus L., known as great mullein, (an important medicinal plant containing different biochemical compounds including sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, saponins and lignins) were determined. There is not much data, to our knowledge, in this respect. METHODS: The antioxidant activities of V. Thapsus were investigated by the DPPH (2, 2- diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl) method. Using GC-MS, the presence of different anticarcinogenic products including 1-hexzanol (2.11%), 2-hexene (1.95%), etc. was determined in the ethanolic extract of V. Thapsus. The antimicrobial activities of V. Thapsus were determined by the minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) methods using the Grampositive and -negative bacterial strains. RESULTS: The least concentration of V. Thapsus L. ethanolic extract (50 mg/l) resulted in only 21.26% inhibition of DPPH free radicals, however, the concentrations of 300 mg/l resulted in almost the highest inhibition (91.31%) of DPPH free radicals. The antioxidant activities of synthesized antioxidant BHT at the concentration of 300 mg/l or higher were similar to the antioxidant activities of V. Thapsus L. ethanolic extract. Both the isolated and the standard Gram-negative bacterial strains were more tolerant to the V. Thapsus ethanolic extract, compared with the Grampositive bacterial strains. Bacillus cereus was the most sensitive bacterial strain among the tested bacterial strains. CONCLUSION: The medicinal plant V. Thapsus L. can be used for the treatment of different diseases, such as cancer and infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Verbascum/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais/química
7.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(20): 3008-3012, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009247

RESUMO

This is the first report on the phytochemistry and antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate and n- butanol extracts from an Algerian endemic plant Verbascum atlanticum Batt. (Scrophulariaceae). Both extracts were subjected to a phytochemical study by semi-preparative HPLC, which led to the isolation and identification of nine compounds: methyl linolenate (1), methyl linoleate (2), Phytol-1(3), Martynoside (4), Isomartynoside (5), Cis-martynoside (6), Ilwensisaponin C (7), Ilwensisaponin B (8), Ilwensisaponin A (9). In addition, the fractions from both extracts were analysed by LC-UV-MS and HRESI-MS. This later revealed the presence of eight other metabolites by using a comparison with known microbial metabolites data. Finally, both extracts were estimated for their phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as the evaluation of their antioxidant activity using five different assays DPPH, CUPRAC, reducing power, ß-carotene bleaching and superoxide DMSO alkaline. The results showed that the ethyl acetate extract had the most antioxidant effect.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Verbascum/química , Acetatos/química , Argélia , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/química , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
8.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(16): 2407-2411, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580595

RESUMO

Detailed analysis of phenolic composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Verbascum glabratum subsp. bosnense (K. Malý) Murb., an endemic species of southeastern Dinaric Alps was performed for the first time. The phenolic composition measured via UHPLC-MS/MS of four extract with different polarity suggested this plant species is very rich in both phenolic acids and flavonoids. Ethanol extract was chemically the most versatile containing 12 compounds with quercitrin and rosmarinic acid as the majors, while water extracts were rich in 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, salicylic acid, morin, and apigenin. All extracts showed high antioxidant potential measured spectrophotometrically with IC50 values ranging 0.139 - 0.021 mg/mL. Antimicrobial testing using agar diffusion test showed that ethanol extract was the most potent against all tested organisms. Also, these activities are correlated with the content of phenolic compounds, which suggest they are active ingredients of the extracts.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Verbascum/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Apigenina/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 21(8): 681-701, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of Fe+2, Cu+2 and Zn+2 in facilitating aggregation of Amyloid ß (Aß) and consequently, the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is well established. OBJECTIVE: Development of non-toxic metal chelators is an emerging era in the treatment of AD, in which complete success has not been fully achieved. The purpose of this study was to determine plant extracts with high metal chelator and to encapsulate them in nano-micellar systems with the ability to pass through the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB). METHODS: Extracts of 36 different Anatolian plants were prepared, total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined, and the extracts with high content were examined for their Fe+2, Cu+2 and Zn+2 chelating activities. Apolipoprotein E4 (Apo E) decorated nano-formulations of active extracts were prepared using Poly (Lactide-co-Glycolide) (PLGA) (final product ApoEPLGA) to provide BBB penetrating property. RESULTS: Verbascum flavidum aqueous extract was found as the most active sample, incubation of which, with Aß before and after metal-induced aggregation, resulted in successful inhibition of aggregate formation, while re-solubilization of pre-formed aggregates was not effectively achieved. The same results were obtained using ApoEPLGA. CONCLUSION: An optimized metal chelator nano-formulation with BBB penetrating ability was prepared and presented for further in-vivo studies.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Quelantes/farmacologia , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Agregados Proteicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Apolipoproteína E4/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Quelantes/administração & dosagem , Quelantes/isolamento & purificação , Quelantes/toxicidade , Composição de Medicamentos , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Cultura Primária de Células , Verbascum/química
10.
Pharm Biol ; 57(1): 485-497, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401911

RESUMO

Context: Genus Verbascum (Scrophulariaceae) comprises about 360 species of flowering plants. Verbascum has been used in traditional medicine as an astringent, antitussive, analgesic and anti-inflammatory. Objective: Nothing was found in the available literature concerning Verbascum nubicum Murb; therefore, the study evaluates the biological activities, isolated compounds and HPLC profile. Materials and methods: Methanol extract (VME) and butanol fraction (VBF) of air-dried powdered V. nubicum were obtained. Four compounds were isolated from VBE and identified by 1H- and 13C-NMR. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profile was determined for (VME). LD50, in vitro antioxidant, in vivo antiulcerogenic and anti-inflammatory activities as well as hepatoprotective activity were assessed. Anti-ulcerogenic and hepatoprotective activities were supported by histopathological examinations. Results: HPLC analysis of VME revealed the presence of luteolin 7-glucoside (2215.43 mg/100 g), hesperidin (954.51 mg/100 g) and apigenin (233.15 mg/100 g) as major compounds. Four compounds were isolated and confirmed by NMR data, were identified as gentiopicroside, luteolin, aucubin and gallic acid. The LD50 of VME and VBF extracts were calculated to be 8200 and 4225 mg/kg b.w., respectively. IC50 values of VBE and VMF as measured by DPPH·method were 43.6 and 50 µg/mL, respectively. Also, anti-inflammatory effect of VME (400 mg/kg b.w.) and VBF (200 mg/kg b.w.) induced edema model after 120 min were 61.93 and 56.13%, respectively. Antiulcerogenic activity of VME (400 mg/kg b.w.) and VBF (200 mg/kg b.w.) in albino rats were 65.14 and 84.57%, respectively. Conclusions: The V. nubicum extracts displayed safe and promising antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective properties. It can be also applied in the pharmacy industry, food industry and healthcare.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Verbascum/química , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apigenina/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/análise , Hesperidina/análise , Dose Letal Mediana , Luteolina/análise , Medicina Tradicional , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ratos , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia
11.
Phytomedicine ; 55: 105-118, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neutrophils have a short live in circulation and accelerate greatly local immune responses via increased granulopoiesis and migration at high numbers to infected or inflamed tissue. HYPOTHESIS: Since neutrophils produce a variety of factors with destructive and pro-inflammatory potential the regulation of their homeostasis and functions might be eventually beneficial in inflammation-related pathological conditions. Herein we investigated the effect of natural-derived verbascoside (Verb) and its positional isomer isoverbascoside (IsoVerb) on neutrophil functions. METHODS: We used purified murine bone marrow (BM) neutrophils to study cell responsiveness to priming or activation via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4. The expression of CD11b, chemokine (CXC motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2), the intracellular level of phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in neutrophils were determined by flow cytometry while the release of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 in culture supernatant was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: We found that Verb appeared less powerful inhibitor of TLR2 and TLR4-mediated apoptosis than IsoVerb. However at concentrations below 16 µM and in LPS priming conditions Verb was more selective inhibitor of CD11b and CXCR2 expression than IsoVerb. Both compounds showed similar activity on integrin/chemokine receptor expression when neutrophils were stimulated with ZY or were activated with LPS. Verb sustained CXCR2 expression and turnover via regulation of the cell responsiveness to its ligand KC (CXCL1) and via the release of MIP-2 (CXCL2). Both Verb and IsoVerb increased TNF-α production and inhibited p38 phosphorylation in TNF-α+ cells. We fail to discriminate sharply between Verb's and IsoVerb's efficacy when studying p38 phosphorylation in LPS stimulated neutrophils. The multi-parametric analysis provides critical insight on the range of on-target effects of Verb and IsoVerb. CONCLUSION: The strength and selectivity of Verb and IsoVerb depended on the degree of activation and functional state of neutrophils, and both compounds are with potential to affect neutrophil-related pathologies/conditions in heterogenic populations.


Assuntos
Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Antígeno CD11b/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL2/metabolismo , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Ativação de Neutrófilo/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/fisiologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantaginaceae/química , Receptores de Interleucina-8B/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Verbascum/química
12.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 166: 295-303, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684931

RESUMO

In traditional folk medicine, Verbascum species have been used since ancient times to treat respiratory disorders, hemorrhoids, diarrhea, wounds, eczema and other types of inflammatory skin conditions. Despite the fact that more than 200 bioactive constituents (phenylethanoids, flavonoids, neolignan glycosides, phenolic acids, iridoids, saponins and polysaccharides) have been previously isolated from various Verbascum species, to date preparative high-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC) has never been employed for this purpose. Therefore, in this study, simple HPCCC methods were successfully developed with the aim to primarily isolate acylated iridoid diglycosides from Verbascum ovalifolium Donn ex Sims (oval-leaved mullein). By the use of several biphasic solvent systems containing n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol/methanol and water, premnacorymboside B (3, 4 mg, 95.4% purity), saccatoside (4, 6 mg, 95.7% purity), premnacorymboside A (7, 6 mg, 98.3%), scorodioside (8, 11 mg, 96.0%) and 6-O-(3'',4''-di-O-trans-cinnamoyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol (9, 8 mg, 95.3%) were afforded; compounds 7, 8 and 9 have not been previously reported in Verbascum genus. Additionally, two phenolic acids (1, 2), two flavonoids (6, 10) and verbascoside (5) were secondarily isolated. Evaluation of interleukin 8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) inhibitory properties of the acylated iridoid diglycosides proved that these compounds down-regulated TNF-α release more efficiently than IL-8 secretion. The activity might be dependent on the degree of esterification, as diacyl derivatives showed more potent effects than monoesters. The HPCCC methods herein developed could serve to large scale isolation of constituents from Verbascum genus for extensive biological investigations.


Assuntos
Interleucina-8/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicosídeos Iridoides/farmacologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Verbascum/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Distribuição Contracorrente , Humanos , Glicosídeos Iridoides/isolamento & purificação , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/imunologia
13.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(9): 1310-1316, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29757004

RESUMO

In this work the HPLC and NMR analysis of the phenyl-ethanoid glycosides (PhGs) pattern of a cultivated exemplar of Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae) from the Etnean area (Sicily, Italy) was performed in order to verify their possible presence. Wild V. thapsus is well-known in ethnopharmacology due to the several beneficial effects that it is able to exert and which are primarily due to these compounds. So, it's extremely important that also cultivated exemplars of this species biosynthesize them in order to maintain their pharmacological properties. This study revealed the presence of seven PhGs in an unusual novel pattern. Thus, this exemplar is a very good potential source of this class of natural products and may be employed for several beneficial ethnopharmacological purposes.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Glicosídeos/análise , Glicosídeos/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Verbascum/química , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Sicília , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Verbascum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Phytochem Anal ; 30(1): 34-45, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30155925

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Plant species of Verbascum genus have been intensively investigated in the last decades but most studies focused on evaluation of their biological activities; there are only few studies dealing with their chemical characterisation. OBJECTIVE: Detailed investigation of the qualitative and quantitative chemical composition, antioxidant and cytogenotoxic activities of a previously non-studied Verbascum species (V. ovalifolium Donn ex Sims). METHODS: Qualitative analysis of secondary metabolites was performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS, whereas quantitative data were obtained through HPLC-DAD. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using in vitro assays; cytotoxic and genotoxic effects were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium (MTT) and comet assays, respectively. RESULTS: More than 50 secondary bioactive metabolites belonging to various classes (iridoids, phenylethanoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids) were detected in the methanolic extract of V. ovalifolium and its fractions. The fragmentation pathways of acylated catalpol-type iridoid diglycosides are thoughtfully described herein. The extracts showed good free radical scavenging and ferric ion reducing properties correlated with phenolic, flavonoid, chlorogenic acid and verbascoside contents. Moreover, 24 h treatment of SK-MEL-2 cells with V. ovalifolium extracts produced significant changes in terms of tumour cell viability. The crude extract and the ethyl acetate fraction showed no important signs of cytogenotoxicity in non-tumour cells. CONCLUSION: The performed phytochemical and biological analyses contribute to the preclinical knowledge about V. ovalifolium and they could help exploiting it in novel herbal medicinal products.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Verbascum/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ensaio Cometa , Cricetulus , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Metanol/química , Extratos Vegetais/química
15.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 28(20): 3342-3345, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217416

RESUMO

We found out 2',3'-dihydroxypuberulin from South American medicinal plant, V. thapsus L., as a candidate of an anti-allergic lead which inhibits the expression of high-affinity receptor of IgE (FcεRI) on the surface of mast cells. Furthermore, the analysis of structure-activity relationship by using synthesized 2',3'-dihydroxypuberulin analogs revealed that both hydroxy groups in the side chain and both of methyl moieties on phenolic hydroxy groups were crucial for potent activity, but absolute configuration of C-3' position wasn't. The active principle, 2',3'-dihydroxypuberulin, was disclosed to down-regulate the mRNA level of ß-chain of FcεRI, different from previous reported active natural product reducing γ-chain level.


Assuntos
Antialérgicos/química , Cumarínicos/química , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de IgE/antagonistas & inibidores , Verbascum/química , Antialérgicos/isolamento & purificação , Cumarínicos/isolamento & purificação , Regulação para Baixo , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Receptores de IgE/genética , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(29): 29129-29143, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30112644

RESUMO

A multielemental determination methodology in conjunction with an organic acid analysis that were supplemented with other stress parameters and an ultrastructural analysis used herein to study Verbascum olympicum Boiss. (Scrophulariaceae) under Mn stress. Uptake and accumulation characteristics of B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, and Zn were evaluated in 8-week-old seedlings grown in Hoagland's nutrient solution and exposed to 5 (CK), 50, and 200 µM MnSO4 for 7 days. Hydrogen peroxide levels were determined to evaluate oxidative stress, and changes in compatible substance levels (total phenolic contents, glutathione and glutathione disulfide levels) were determined to assess antioxidant defense mechanisms. The distribution of manganese on the root surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy images and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. The levels of nicotinic acid, which is involved in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthesis, were determined in roots and leaves to assess tolerance mechanisms. V. olympicum exhibited the ability to cope with oxidative stress originating from excessive Mn, while increased Mn concentrations were observed in both roots and leaves. The translocation factor of B was the most affected among other studied elements under the experimental conditions. Total nicotinic acid levels exhibited a trend of reduction in the roots and leaves, which could be attributed to the appropriate metabolic progress associated with oxidative stress based on the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide cycle that may reach glutathione in response to manganese stress during plant growth.


Assuntos
Manganês/toxicidade , Verbascum/efeitos dos fármacos , Verbascum/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Boro/farmacocinética , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Manganês/farmacocinética , Metais/farmacocinética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Ácidos Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/ultraestrutura , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/metabolismo , Espectrometria por Raios X , Distribuição Tecidual , Verbascum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 20(3): 610-618, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29450953

RESUMO

Successful germination and seedling emergence in new environments are crucial first steps in the life history of global plant invaders and thus play a key role in processes of range expansion. We examined the germination and seedling emergence success of three global plant invaders - Lupinus polyphyllus, Senecio inaequidens and Verbascum thapsus - in greenhouses and climate chambers under climate regimes corresponding to seven eco-regions. Seed materials were collected from one non-native population for L. polyphyllus and S. inaequidens, and from 12 populations for V. thapsus (six natives and six non-natives). Experimental climates had significant effects on species responses. No species germinated in the dry (humidity ≤ 50%) and cool (≤ 5 °C) experimental climates. But all species germinated and emerged in two moderately cool (12-19 °C) and in three warm (24-27 °C) experimental climates. In general, V. thapsus showed higher fitness than S. inaequidens and L. polyphyllus. The climate of the seed source region influenced responses of native and non-native populations of V. thapsus. Non-native populations of V. thapsus, originating from the warmer seed source, showed higher performance in warm experimental climates and lower performance in moderately cool experimental climates compared to native populations. Responses of V. thapsus populations were also related to precipitation of the seed source region in moderately dry experimental climates. The warm, semi-arid and humid experimental climates are suitable for the crucial first steps of invasion success for L. polyphyllus, S. inaequidens and V. thapsus. The species adaptation to its source region modified the responses of our studied plants under different experimental climates representing major eco-regions of the world.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Lupinus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Senécio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Verbascum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Umidade , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura
18.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 111: 605-615, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29208506

RESUMO

The Verbascum species are widely used traditional herb remedies against respiratory, inflammatory conditions and disorders. In the present study methanol extract of the aerial parts of the endemic Verbascum nobile Velen, was investigated and two novel iridoid glycosides 1 and 2, together with nine known constituents: iridoids, phenylethanoids, and saponins characteristic of Verbascum genus were identified. Further, the biological activity of the extract and selected isolated compounds on concanavalin (Con A)-induced T cell proliferation and activation of human Jurkat T cell line and splenic murine CD3 T cells was evaluated. T cell growth was studied by colorimetric-based WST proliferation assay while DNA content, cell cycling, dynamic of cell proliferation, expression of activation markers, intracellular expression of cytokine IFN-γ, and phosphorylation of ERK were analyzed by flow cytometry. Caspase-mediated apoptosis resulting in a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage was assessed by colorimetric in-cell kit. It was found that the extract, and all tested compounds (1, 2, 3 and 9) inhibited lectin-induced cell growth of Jurkat T cell line. The novel compounds decreased the frequencies of cells in S phase without causing a significant cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, caspases-mediated apoptosis and/or a profound change in the dynamic of splenic murine CD3+ T cell proliferation. Both compounds showed stronger inhibitory effect on Con A-induced ERK phosphorylation than the known bioactive compounds 3 and 9, and suppressed the expression of early activation marker CD69, the intracellular level of IFN-γ, and the generation of CD3+IFN-γ+ effectors. Our data suggest that the novel iridoid glycosides might have a potential to modulate T cell-related pathologies.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Iridoides/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Verbascum/química , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Lectinas/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Linfócitos T/citologia
20.
Nat Prod Commun ; 12(2): 189-192, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30428208

RESUMO

Verbascum (Mullein) flowers are highly valued as natural remedy for various respiratory diseases. Verbascum anisophyllum Murb. is a Balkan endemic, protected by law and included in the Bulgarian Red Data Book as "Critically Endangered". Thus, a strict conservation policy and a reliable evaluation of its genetic resources are required, considering its narrow distribution range and the increasing risk from destruction of its habitats. Here, we used Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers to characterize the genetic diversity and to assess the genetic differentiation between the existing populations of VerbascUM anisophyllum in Bulgaria. The level of genetic diversity found herein clearly indicates a long-term potential for adaptability of this endangered plant. Our findings provide important knowledge of population genetic structure of this species, thus representing a strategy for its efficient conservation and utilization.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Verbascum/genética , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
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