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1.
Virology ; 566: 114-121, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902730

RESUMO

This communication summarizes the presentations given at the 1st international conference of the World Society for Virology (WSV) held virtually during 16-18 June 2021, under the theme of tackling global viral epidemics. The purpose of this biennial meeting is to foster international collaborations and address important viral epidemics in different hosts. The first day included two sessions exclusively on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. The other two days included one plenary and three parallel sessions each. Last not least, 16 sessions covered 140 on-demand submitted talks. In total, 270 scientists from 49 countries attended the meeting, including 40 invited keynote speakers.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Congressos como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Sociedades Científicas , Virologia
2.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960661

RESUMO

Nestled within the Rocky Mountain National Forest, 114 scientists and students gathered at Colorado State University's Mountain Campus for this year's 21st annual Rocky Mountain National Virology Association meeting. This 3-day retreat consisted of 31 talks and 30 poster presentations discussing advances in research pertaining to viral and prion diseases. The keynote address provided a timely discussion on zoonotic coronaviruses, lessons learned, and the path forward towards predicting, preparing, and preventing future viral disease outbreaks. Other invited speakers discussed advances in SARS-CoV-2 surveillance, molecular interactions involved in flavivirus genome assembly, evaluation of ethnomedicines for their efficacy against infectious diseases, multi-omic analyses to define risk factors associated with long COVID, the role that interferon lambda plays in control of viral pathogenesis, cell-fusion-dependent pathogenesis of varicella zoster virus, and advances in the development of a vaccine platform against prion diseases. On behalf of the Rocky Mountain Virology Association, this report summarizes select presentations.


Assuntos
Virologia , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Doenças Priônicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Priônicas/prevenção & controle , Príons/imunologia , Príons/isolamento & purificação , Príons/patogenicidade , Vacinas , Virologia/organização & administração , Viroses/diagnóstico , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/imunologia , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus/patogenicidade
4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257204, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Virological failure is under-recognized issue among children living with human immunodeficiency virus in developing countries. This partly may lead to failure to achieve the global goal of 90-90-90 targets in most developing countries including Ethiopia. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the virological failure and its predictors among children receiving antiretroviral therapy at the University of Gondar comprehensive specialized hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted among 253 study cohorts from January 2020-April 2021. Socio-demographic characteristics were collected using a structured questionnaire via a face-to-face interview, while detailed clinical data of the children were collected by reviewing the medical record. About 5 ml of blood were collected for the analysis of complete blood count and viral load quantification. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 and variables at p-value < 0.05 in the multivariable analysis were considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: In this study, the viral load suppression rate among antiretroviral therapy experienced children was 68.8%. Meanwhile, the overall virological failure among study participants was 19.4%. Children living without family (AOR = 3.63; 95%CI: 1.27-10.24), children with unemployed family (AOR = 4.95; 95%CI: 1.74-14.12), being wasted (AOR = 3.02; 95%CI: 1.19-7.67) being stunted (AOR = 2.38;95%CI:1.03-5.46), anemia (AOR = 5.50:95%CI;1.37-22.04) and being lymphopenic (AOR = 2.69:95%CI;1.04-7.75) were significantly associated with virological failure among children under treatment. CONCLUSION: Higher virological failure among children was noteworthy in the present study. Caretakers other than immediate family, unemployed family, wasted, stunted, anemia, and lymphopenia were significant independent predictors of virological failure. Hence, standard, and optimal management of children under treatment should be warranted.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Virologia/métodos , Adolescente , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada
5.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(9)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499027

RESUMO

Introduction. Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged as a public health concern on the American continent during late 2015. As the number of infected grew so did the concerns about its capability to cause long-term damage especially with the appearance of the congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). Proteins from the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) were proposed as the cellular receptors, however, due to the ability of the virus to infect a variety of cell lines different strategies to elucidate the tropism of the virus should be investigated.Hypothesis. Pseudotyping is a powerful tool to interrogate the ability of the glycoprotein (GP) to permit entry of viruses.Aim. We aimed to establish a highly tractable pseudotype model using lenti- and retro-viral backbones to investigate the entry pathway of ZIKV.Methodology. We used different glycoprotein constructs and different lenti- or retro-viral backbones, in a matrix of ratios to investigate production of proteins and functional pseudotypes.Results. Varying the ratio of backbone and glycoprotein plasmids did not yield infectious pseudotypes. Moreover, the supplementation of the ZIKV protease or the substitution of the backbone had no positive impact on the infectivity. We showed production of the proteins in producer cells implying the lack of infectious pseudotypes is due to a lack of successful glycoprotein incorporation, rather than lack of protein production.Conclusion. In line with other reports, we were unable to successfully produce infectious pseudotypes using the variety of methods described. Other strategies may be more suitable in the development of an efficient pseudotype model for ZIKV and other flaviviruses.


Assuntos
Glicoproteínas/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Virologia/métodos , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus , Zika virus/classificação , Zika virus/genética , Zika virus/fisiologia
6.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9177

RESUMO

Os pesquisadores Aripuanã Watanabe e Sandra Tibiriçá (especialistas em Virologia e em Saúde Pública, respectivamente) conversam sobre questões acerca da vacinação contra a Covid-19. Ouça o episódio e entenda porque vacina boa é vacina no braço. Links citados: • Gerente da Anvisa aborda o futuro próximo da pandemia frente à vacinação • Qual máscara usar? • Máscaras seguem essenciais para evitar transmissão e contaminação pelo Sars-CoV-2


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Virologia , Saúde Pública
8.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 15(3): 90-104, 20210830.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1337969

RESUMO

Hasta diciembre del 2019, seis tipos de coronavirus ya estaban identificados como generadores de enfermedad en humanos, destacándose dos brotes epidemiológicos anteriores: SARS-CoV en 2002 y MERS-CoV en 2012. El nuevo agente infeccioso que causó la pandemia de 2019 se denominó SARS-CoV-2, el que se manifiesta como un síndrome respiratorio agudo severo (CO-VID-19). Al respecto, el 30 de enero del 2020, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) decretó la emergencia sanitaria. El propósito de esta revisión fue analizar el contexto epidemio-lógico alrededor del SARS-CoV-2, mediante una búsqueda bibliográfica en las bases de datos científicas como: PubMed Central, LILACS y Google académico. Se concluyó que el SARS-CoV-2 es altamente transmisible, con una tasa de letalidad en Ecuador del 8,59%.


Six types of coronaviruses were already identified as generators of disease in humans as of 2019, with two previous epidemiological outbreaks standing out: SARS-CoV in 2002 and MERS-CoV in 2012. The new infectious agent that caused the 2019 pandemic was called SARS -CoV-2, which manifests as a severe acute respiratory syndrome (COVID-19). In this regard, on January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization decreed the health emergency. The purpose of this review was to analyze the epidemiological context around SARS-CoV-2 through a bibliographic review in scientific databases such as: PubMed Central, LILACS and Google Scholar. It was concluded that SARS-CoV-2 is highly transmissible, with a fatality rate in Ecuador of 8.59%.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Virologia , Epidemiologia , COVID-19 , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Annu Rev Virol ; 8(1): 537-558, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242063

RESUMO

The pervasive effects of the current coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic are but one reason for educators to refocus their efforts on virology teaching. Additionally, it is critical to understand how viruses function and to elucidate the relationship between virus and host. An understanding of current virology education may improve pedagogical approaches for educating our students and trainees. Faculty who teach undergraduate microbiology indicate that approximately 10% of the course content features viruses; stand-alone virology courses are infrequently offered to undergraduates. Fortunately, virology taught to undergraduates includes foundational material; several approaches for delivery of lecture- and lab-based content exist. At the graduate education level, there is growing appreciation that an emphasis on logic, reasoning, inference, and statistics must be reintroduced into the curriculum to create a generation of scientists who have a greater capacity for creativity and innovation. Educators also need to remove barriers to student success, at all levels of education.


Assuntos
Currículo , Virologia/educação , COVID-19 , Educação de Pós-Graduação , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Estudantes , Ensino , Universidades
10.
J Chromatogr A ; 1652: 462365, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246960

RESUMO

An ordered 3D printed chromatography stationary phase was used to purify M13 bacteriophage (M13) directly from crude cell culture. This new approach, which offers the same advantages as expanded bed adsorption (EBA) with regard to tolerating solids-laden feed streams but without the corresponding issues associated with fluidized bed stability that affect the latter, can be described as "printed monolith adsorption (PMA)". PMA columns (5, 10 and 15 cm length by 1 cm diameter) were made via a wax templating method from cross-linked cellulose hydrogel and functionalized with a quaternary amine ligand. The recovery of M13 was found to be strongly linked to load flow rate, with the highest recovery 89.7% ± 6% for 1.4 × 1011 pfu/mL of resin occurring at 76 cm/h with a 10 cm column length. A recovery of 87.7% ± 5% for 1.49 × 1011 pfu/mL of media was achieved with a 15 cm column length under conditions comparable to a reported EBA process. The PMA process was completed three times faster than EBA because PMA flow rates can readily be adjusted during operation, with high flow rates and low back pressure, which is unique to the ordered monolithic media geometry used. Equilibration, wash, and cleaning steps were carried out at high flow rates (611 cm/h), minimizing process time and were limited only by the volumetric flow rate capacity of the pumps used, rather than column back pressure (<0.1 MPa at 611 cm/hr). Initial capture of M13 appears to occur on the surface of the monolith solid phase (i.e. the mobile phase channel walls) and subsequently, at a slower rate, within the internal pores of the solid phase media. The difference in binding rate between these two sites is likely caused by slow pore diffusion of the large M13 particles into the pores, with similar slow diffusion out of the pores resulting in tailing of the elution peak. The results indicate that PMA is a promising technology for the efficient purification of viruses directly from crude cell culture.


Assuntos
Bacteriófago M13 , Virologia , Adsorção , Bacteriófago M13/isolamento & purificação , Meios de Cultura , Virologia/instrumentação , Virologia/métodos
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13592, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193912

RESUMO

With global demand for SARS-CoV-2 testing ever rising, shortages in commercially available viral transport media pose a serious problem for laboratories and health care providers. For reliable diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses, executed by Real-time PCR, the quality of respiratory specimens, predominantly determined by transport and storage conditions, is crucial. Therefore, our aim was to explore the reliability of minimal transport media, comprising saline or the CDC recommended Viral Transport Media (HBSS VTM), for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses (influenza A, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, rhinovirus and human metapneumovirus) compared to commercial products, such as the Universal Transport Media (UTM). We question the assumptions, that the choice of medium and temperature for storage and transport affect the accuracy of viral detection by RT-PCR. Both alternatives to the commercial transport medium (UTM), HBSS VTM or saline, allow adequate detection of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses, regardless of storage temperatures up to 28 °C and storage times up to 28 days. Our study revealed the high resilience of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses, enabling proper detection in clinical specimens even after long-time storage at high temperatures, independent of the transport medium's composition.


Assuntos
Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Meios de Cultura/química , Preservação Biológica/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Virologia/métodos , Temperatura Baixa , Humanos , Reagentes de Laboratório/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo
13.
J Virol ; 95(18): e0111221, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319158

RESUMO

Starting work in a virology research laboratory as a new technician, graduate student, or postdoc can be complex, intimidating, confusing, and stressful. From laboratory logistics to elemental expectations to scientific specifics, there is much to learn. To help new laboratory members adjust and excel, a series of guidelines for working and thriving in a virology laboratory is presented. While guidelines may be most helpful for new laboratory members, everyone, including principal investigators, is encouraged to use a set of published guidelines as a resource to maximize the time and efforts of all laboratory members. The topics covered here are safety, wellness, balance, teamwork, integrity, reading, research, writing, speaking, and timelines.


Assuntos
Guias como Assunto/normas , Laboratórios/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Pesquisadores/normas , Virologia/normas , Humanos
14.
Acc Chem Res ; 54(14): 2991-3002, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180662

RESUMO

Recent research has highlighted the immense potential of the quantum dot (QD)-based single-virus tracking (SVT) technique in virology. In these experiments, the infection behaviors of single viruses or viral components, labeled with QDs, could be tracked on time scales of milliseconds to hours in host cells. The trajectories of individual viruses are reconstructed with nanometer accuracy, and the underlying dynamic information on virus infection can be extracted to uncover the infection mechanisms of viruses. Therefore, QD-based single-virus tracking (QSVT) is an exquisitely selective and powerful approach to investigating how viruses are internalized in host cells dynamically to release their genome for viral replication and assembly that ensure the completion of viral life cycles.QDs are better candidates than organic dyes and fluorescent proteins for virus labeling and subsequent SVT due to the following considerations: (i) the high brightness of QDs makes it possible to label a virus with sufficient brightness using very few QDs or even just one QD; (ii) the extraordinary photostability of QDs allows one to track the infection process long term and quantify low probability events; (iii) the color-tunable emission property of QDs ensures multicolor labeling of various components of a virus simultaneously; and (iv) the abundant surface ligands of QDs facilitate the conjugation of a virus with a variety of labeling strategies. Therefore, the photoproperties of QDs make it possible to perform multicolor long-term SVT experiments quantitatively. Nowadays, the QD-based SVT (QSVT) technique has made prodigious achievements in unraveling the entry, trafficking, and uncoating mechanisms of viruses. This fascinating technique can provide spatiotemporal dynamic information on the viral journey in unprecedented detail and has revolutionized our understanding of virus infection.In this Account, we first introduce the advantages and the limitations of conventional SVT in virological research and the unique features of QDs as labels in the SVT field. We subsequently focus on the principles and related methods of QSVT and the current state of QD chemistry and QD-based virus labeling that resolves many issues associated with the tracking of individual viruses in live cells. Then we emphasize some new findings by this technique in the study of infection mechanisms. Finally, we will provide our insights into future challenges on this topic. With this Account, we hope to further stimulate the development of QSVT with a combined effort from different disciplines and, more importantly, to accelerate the applications of QSVT in virological research.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Pontos Quânticos/química , Vírus/metabolismo , Animais , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Cães , Genoma Viral/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Virologia/métodos , Internalização do Vírus , Desenvelopamento do Vírus/fisiologia , Vírus/química
16.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(6): e1008994, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138845

RESUMO

Effectively designing and evaluating public health responses to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic requires accurate estimation of the prevalence of COVID-19 across the United States (US). Equipment shortages and varying testing capabilities have however hindered the usefulness of the official reported positive COVID-19 case counts. We introduce four complementary approaches to estimate the cumulative incidence of symptomatic COVID-19 in each state in the US as well as Puerto Rico and the District of Columbia, using a combination of excess influenza-like illness reports, COVID-19 test statistics, COVID-19 mortality reports, and a spatially structured epidemic model. Instead of relying on the estimate from a single data source or method that may be biased, we provide multiple estimates, each relying on different assumptions and data sources. Across our four approaches emerges the consistent conclusion that on April 4, 2020, the estimated case count was 5 to 50 times higher than the official positive test counts across the different states. Nationally, our estimates of COVID-19 symptomatic cases as of April 4 have a likely range of 2.3 to 4.8 million, with possibly as many as 7.6 million cases, up to 25 times greater than the cumulative confirmed cases of about 311,000. Extending our methods to May 16, 2020, we estimate that cumulative symptomatic incidence ranges from 4.9 to 10.1 million, as opposed to 1.5 million positive test counts. The proposed combination of approaches may prove useful in assessing the burden of COVID-19 during resurgences in the US and other countries with comparable surveillance systems.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana , Modelos Estatísticos , Vigilância da População , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Incidência , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Pandemias , Estados Unidos , Virologia
17.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 43(5): 377-383, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182582

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic viral disease, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The impact of the disease among the obstetric population remains unclear, and the study of the placenta can provide valuable information. Adequate sampling of the placental tissue can help characterize the pathways of viral infections. METHODS: A protocol of placental sampling is proposed, aiming at guaranteeing representativity of the placenta and describing the adequate conservation of samples and their integrity for future analysis. The protocol is presented in its complete and simplified versions, allowing its implementation in different complexity settings. RESULTS: Sampling with the minimum possible interval from childbirth is the key for adequate sampling and storage. This protocol has already been implemented during the Zika virus outbreak. CONCLUSION: A protocol for adequate sampling and storage of placental tissue is fundamental for adequate evaluation of viral infections on the placenta. During the COVID-19 pandemic, implementation of this protocol may help to elucidate critical aspects of the SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Placenta/virologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Manejo de Espécimes/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Virologia/métodos , Virologia/normas , Viroses/virologia
18.
Curr Opin Virol ; 49: 117-126, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126465

RESUMO

Bacterial communities play critical roles across all of Earth's biomes, affecting human health and global ecosystem functioning. They do so under strong constraints exerted by viruses, that is, bacteriophages or 'phages'. Phages can reshape bacterial communities' structure, influence long-term evolution of bacterial populations, and alter host cell metabolism during infection. Metagenomics approaches, that is, shotgun sequencing of environmental DNA or RNA, recently enabled large-scale exploration of phage genomic diversity, yielding several millions of phage genomes now to be further analyzed and characterized. One major challenge however is the lack of direct host information for these phages. Several methods and tools have been proposed to bioinformatically predict the potential host(s) of uncultivated phages based only on genome sequence information. Here we review these different approaches and highlight their distinct strengths and limitations. We also outline complementary experimental assays which are being proposed to validate and refine these bioinformatic predictions.


Assuntos
Bactérias/virologia , Bacteriófagos/genética , Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , Virologia/métodos , Bactérias/genética , Sequência de Bases , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Genes Virais , Genoma Bacteriano , Genoma Viral , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Aprendizado de Máquina , Metagenômica , Filogenia , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/genética
19.
mSphere ; 6(3)2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952663

RESUMO

Ebola virus (EBOV) is a highly pathogenic negative-stranded RNA virus that has caused several deadly endemics in the past decades. EBOV reverse genetics systems are available for studying live viruses under biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) or subviral particles under BSL-2 conditions. However, these systems all require cotransfection of multiple plasmids expressing viral genome and viral proteins essential for EBOV replication, which is technically challenging and unable to naturally mimic virus propagation using the subviral particle. Here, we established a new EBOV reverse genetics system only requiring transfection of a single viral RNA genome into an engineered cell line that stably expresses viral nucleoprotein (NP), viral protein 35 (VP35), VP30, and large (L) proteins and has been fine-tuned for its superior permissiveness for EBOV replication. Using this system, subviral particles expressing viral VP40, glycoprotein (GP), and VP24 could be produced and continuously propagated and eventually infect the entire cell population. We demonstrated the authentic response of the subviral system to antivirals and uncovered that the VP35 amount is critical for optimal virus replication. Furthermore, we showed that fully infectious virions can be efficiently rescued by delivering the full-length EBOV genome into the same supporting cell, and the efficiency is not affected by genome polarity or virus variant specificity. In summary, our work provides a new tool for studying EBOV under different biosafety levels.IMPORTANCE Ebola virus is among the most dangerous viral pathogens, with a case fatality rate of up to 90%. Since 2013, the two largest and most complex Ebola outbreaks in Africa have revealed the lack of investigation on this notorious virus. A reverse genetics system is an important tool for studying viruses by producing mutant viruses or generating safer and convenient model systems. Here, we developed an EBOV life cycle modeling system in which subviral particles can spontaneously propagate in cell culture. In addition, this system can be employed to rescue infectious virions of homologous or heterologous EBOV isolates using either sense or antisense viral RNA genomes. In summary, we developed a new tool for EBOV research.


Assuntos
Ebolavirus/genética , Genoma Viral , RNA Viral/genética , Genética Reversa/métodos , Linhagem Celular , Virologia/métodos
20.
J Virol ; 95(16): e0017721, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011545

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals that causes a significant economic burden globally. Vaccination is the most effective FMD control strategy. However, FMD virus (FMDV) particles are prone to dissociate when appropriate physical or chemical conditions are unavailable, such as an incomplete cold chain. Such degraded vaccines result in compromised herd vaccination. Therefore, thermostable FMD particles are needed for use in vaccines. This study generated thermostable FMDV mutants (M3 and M10) by serial passages at high temperature, subsequent amplification, and purification. Both mutants contained an alanine-to-threonine mutation at position 13 in VP1 (A1013T), although M3 contained 3 additional mutations. The selected mutants showed improved stability and immunogenicity in neutralizing antibody titers, compared with the wild-type (wt) virus. The sequencing analysis and cryo-electron microscopy showed that the mutation of alanine to threonine at the 13th amino acid in the VP1 protein (A1013T) is critical for the capsid stability of FMDV. Virus-like particles containing A1013T (VLPA1013T) also showed significantly improved stability to heat treatment. This study demonstrated that Thr at the 13th amino acid of VP1 could stabilize the capsid of FMDV. Our findings will facilitate the development of a stable vaccine against FMDV serotype O. IMPORTANCE Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype O is one of the global epidemic serotypes and causes significant economic loss. Vaccination plays a key role in the prevention and control of FMD. However, the success of vaccination mainly depends on the quality of the vaccine. Here, the thermostable FMD virus (FMDV) mutants (M3 and M10) were selected through thermal screening at high temperatures with improved stability and immunogenicity compared with the wild-type virus. The results of multisequence alignment and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) analysis showed that the Thr substitution at the 13th amino acid in the VP1 protein is critical for the capsid stability of FMDV. For thermolabile type O FMDV, this major discovery will aid the development of its thermostable vaccine.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Capsídeo/imunologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Capsídeo/química , Proteínas do Capsídeo/química , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/metabolismo , Cobaias , Temperatura Alta , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Mutação , Estabilidade Proteica , Sorogrupo , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/genética , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/genética , Virologia
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