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1.
Rev Med Suisse ; 19(N° 809-10): 35-37, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36660834

RESUMO

While recent epidemics have generated particular interest in viral infections, it should be noted that diagnostic, prophylactic or therapeutic innovations concerning other pathogens are not lacking. New vaccines (malaria, shingles) but new viruses (Lengya, child hepatitis), new therapeutic options against disabling parasitic diseases and bacteria becoming more and more resistant, including tuberculosis, shortening of treatment durations (tuberculosis, endocarditis), new diagnostic tests (borreliosis) are, among others, some notable recent innovations.


Si les récentes épidémies ont généré un intérêt particulier pour les infections virales, il faut constater que les innovations diagnostiques, prophylactiques ou thérapeutiques, concernant d'autres pathogènes, ne manquent pas. Nouveaux vaccins (malaria, zona), nouveaux virus (Lengya, hépatite infantile), nouvelles options thérapeutiques contre des parasitoses invalidantes et des bactéries devenant de plus en plus résistantes, y compris la tuberculose, raccourcissement des durées de traitement (tuberculose, endocardite), nouveaux tests diagnostiques (borréliose) constituent, parmi d'autres, quelques-unes des innovations récentes notables.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Tuberculose , Vacinas , Viroses , Vírus , Criança , Humanos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle
2.
Viruses ; 15(1)2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36680191

RESUMO

(1) Background: Largemouth bass virus (LMBV) is a major viral pathogen in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) aquaculture that often causes high mortality and heavy economic losses, thus developing treatments to combat this pathogen is of great commercial importance. Green tea is a well-known medicinal plant that contains active ingredients with antiviral, antibacterial, and other biological activities. The goals of this study were to explore the effect and mechanism of green tea source compounds on LMBV and provide data to serve as the basis for the screening of targeted drugs in the future. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the main component of green tea, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), against LMBV infection. (2) Methods: The safe working concentration of EGCG was identified by cell viability detection and light microscopy. The antiviral activity and mechanism of action of EGCG against LMBV infection were evaluated with light microscopy, an aptamer 6-carboxy-fluorescein-based fluorescent molecular probe, and reverse transcription quantitative PCR. (3) Results: The safe working concentration of EGCG was ≤10 µg/mL. EGCG showed significant anti-LMBV infection activity in a concentration-dependent manner, and it also destroyed the structure of virus particles. EGCG impacted the binding of virus particles to cell receptors and virus invasion into the host cells. Inhibitory effects of EGCG on LMBV particles, LMBV binding to the host-cell membrane, and LMBV invasion were 84.89%, 98.99%, and 95.23%, respectively. Meanwhile, the effects of EGCG subsequently were verified in vivo. The fatality rate of the LMBV + EGCG group was significantly lower than that of the LMBV group. (4) Conclusions: Our results suggest that EGCG has effective antiviral properties against LMBV and may be a candidate for the effective treatment and control of LMBV infections in largemouth bass aquaculture.


Assuntos
Bass , Infecções por Vírus de DNA , Doenças dos Peixes , Viroses , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Chá
3.
Viruses ; 15(1)2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36680299

RESUMO

Scientific progress in understanding, preventing, treating, and managing viral infections and associated diseases exemplifies the extent to which research on small DNA tumor viruses has impacted human health [...].


Assuntos
Vírus de DNA , Viroses , Humanos , Vírus de DNA/genética , Vírus de DNA Tumorais
4.
Cell Commun Signal ; 21(1): 19, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36691072

RESUMO

As a common belief, most viruses can egress from the host cells as single particles and transmit to uninfected cells. Emerging data have revealed en bloc viral transmission as lipid bilayer-cloaked particles via extracellular vesicles especially exosomes (Exo). The supporting membrane can be originated from multivesicular bodies during intra-luminal vesicle formation and autophagic response. Exo are nano-sized particles, ranging from 40-200 nm, with the ability to harbor several types of signaling molecules from donor to acceptor cells in a paracrine manner, resulting in the modulation of specific signaling reactions in target cells. The phenomenon of Exo biogenesis consists of multiple and complex biological steps with the participation of diverse constituents and molecular pathways. Due to similarities between Exo biogenesis and virus replication and the existence of shared pathways, it is thought that viruses can hijack the Exo biogenesis machinery to spread and evade immune cells. To this end, Exo can transmit complete virions (as single units or aggregates), separate viral components, and naked genetic materials. The current review article aims to scrutinize challenges and opportunities related to the exosomal delivery of viruses in terms of viral infections and public health. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Exossomos , Viroses , Vírus , Humanos , Exossomos/metabolismo , Viroses/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Vírion
6.
Mol Cell ; 83(2): 157-159, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36669475

RESUMO

We talk with Peiguo Yang about how his early work in P granules and liquid droplets led to the current focus of his lab: biomolecular condensates in neurodegeneration and viral infection. He tells us about the innovative research environment at Westlake University and gives advice for the challenges researchers face during career transitions.


Assuntos
Viroses , Humanos , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Pesquisa/tendências
7.
J Math Biol ; 86(3): 35, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36695912

RESUMO

In this study, a delayed HIV stochastic model with virus-to-cell infection, cell-to-cell transmission and B-cell immune response is proposed. We first transform the stochastic differential equation with distributed delay into a high-dimensional degenerate stochastic differential equation, and then theoretically analyze the dynamic behaviour of the degenerate model. The unique global solution of the model is given by rigorous analysis. By formulating suitable Lyapunov functions, the existence of the stationary Markov process is obtained if the stochastic B-cell-activated reproduction number is greater than one. We also use the law of large numbers theorem and the spectral radius analysis method to deduce that the virus can be cleared if the stochastic B-cell-inactivated reproduction number is less than one. Through uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, we obtain key parameters that determine the value of the stochastic B-cell-activated reproduction number. Numerically, we examine that low level noise can maintain the number of the virus and B-cell populations at a certain range, while high level noise is helpful for the elimination of the virus. Furthermore, the effect of the cell-to-cell infection on model behaviour, and the influence of the key parameters on the size of the stochastic B-cell-activated reproduction number are also investigated.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Viroses , Humanos , Processos Estocásticos , Cadeias de Markov , Imunidade
8.
J Math Biol ; 86(3): 37, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36695964

RESUMO

In this paper, we propose a general viral infection model to incorporate two infection modes (virus-to-cell mode and cell-to-cell mode), the CTL immune response, and the distributed intracellular delays during the processes of viral infection, viral production, and CTLs recruitment. We investigate the existence, the uniqueness, and the global stability of three equilibria: infection-free equilibrium [Formula: see text], immune-inactivated equilibrium [Formula: see text] and immune-activated equilibrium [Formula: see text], respectively. We prove that the viral dynamics are determined by two threshold parameters: the basic reproduction number for infection [Formula: see text] and the basic reproduction number for immune response [Formula: see text]. We also numerically explore the viral dynamics beyond stability. We use bifurcation diagrams to show that increasing the delay in CTL immune cell recruitment can induce a switch in viral load from a stable constant level to sustained oscillations, and then back to a stable equilibrium. We also compare the contributions of the two infection modes to the total infection level and identify the key parameters that would affect the percentages of virus-to-cell infection and cell-to-cell infection. Finally, we explore how Filippov control can be applied in antiretroviral therapy to reduce the viral loads.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Viroses , Humanos , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos , Número Básico de Reprodução , Imunidade , Modelos Biológicos
9.
Trials ; 24(1): 9, 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spatial repellents (SRs) have been widely used for prevention of mosquito bites, but their efficacy in reducing Aedes-borne viruses (ABV) has not been tested rigorously at large scale in Asia. To address this knowledge gap, a trial to evaluate the efficacy of Mosquito Shield™, a transfluthrin SR, was developed in Gampaha District of Sri Lanka across three Medical Officer of Health areas; i.e., Negombo, Wattala, and Kelaniya. METHODS: This trial is a cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. A total of ~14,430 subjects aged ≥ 6 months in 30 clusters (15 intervention, 15 placebo) from ~3900 households (HH) will be randomly selected for enrolment into a "febrile surveillance cohort." A subset of the surveillance cohort, ~3570 subjects aged ≥4-16 years that test seronegative (naïve) or are serologically positive for a previous single dengue virus (DENV) infection (monotypic) at baseline sampling, will be enrolled into a "longitudinal cohort" for measuring DENV infection based on laboratory-confirmed seroconversion during the trial. Persons identified positive for antibodies against multiple DENV serotypes (multitypic) at baseline will be monitored for secondary analyses. Active ABV disease will be assessed using an enhanced passive surveillance system with case ascertainment performed in designated healthcare facilities. Serum samples will be taken from longitudinal cohort subjects within 1-2 weeks of when intervention is first deployed (T0) with additional samples taken ~12 (T1) and ~24 months (T2) from baseline sampling. DENV seroconversion and ABV active disease rates from baseline (pre-intervention) and follow-up (post-intervention) samples will be compared between intervention and placebo clusters. Participating houses will be monitored entomologically (indoor adult Aedes aegypti population densities and adult female blood fed status) within 3 months before intervention deployment and monthly during the intervention phase. Entomological surveys will monitor indoor adult Ae. aegypti population densities and blood fed status. Dengue incidence in each cohort will be estimated and compared to determine the public health benefit of using an SR. Entomological parameters will be measured to determine if there are entomological correlates of SR efficacy that may be useful for the evaluation of new SR products. DISCUSSION: The trial will serve as an efficacy assessment of SR products in South Asia. Results will be submitted to the World Health Organization Vector Control Advisory Group for assessment of public health value towards an endorsement to recommend inclusion of SRs in ABV control programs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Sri Lanka Clinical Trial Registry SLCTR /2022/018. Registered on July 1, 2022. CLINICALTRIALS: gov NCT05452447 . Registered on July 11, 2022. The Universal Trial Number is U1111-1275-3055.


Assuntos
Aedes , Dengue , Viroses , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
10.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol ; 439: 167-196, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592246

RESUMO

Viruses are studied at each level of biological complexity: from within-cells to ecosystems. The same basic evolutionary forces and principles operate at each level: mutation and recombination, selection, genetic drift, migration, and adaptive trade-offs. Great efforts have been put into understanding each level in great detail, hoping to predict the dynamics of viral population, prevent virus emergence, and manage their spread and virulence. Unfortunately, we are still far from this. To achieve these ambitious goals, we advocate for an integrative perspective of virus evolution. Focusing in plant viruses, we illustrate the pervasiveness of the above-mentioned principles. Beginning at the within-cell level, we describe replication modes, infection bottlenecks, and cellular contagion rates. Next, we move up to the colonization of distal tissues, discussing the fundamental role of random events. Then, we jump beyond the individual host and discuss the link between transmission mode and virulence. Finally, at the community level, we discuss properties of virus-plant infection networks. To close this review we propose the multilayer network theory, in which elements at different layers are connected and submit to their own dynamics that feed across layers, resulting in new emerging properties, as a way to integrate information from the different levels.


Assuntos
Vírus de Plantas , Viroses , Humanos , Ecossistema , Vírus de Plantas/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica , Mutação
11.
Molecules ; 28(1)2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36615554

RESUMO

Propolis remains an interesting source of natural chemical compounds that show, among others, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Due to the growing incidence of respiratory tract infections caused by various pathogenic viruses, complementary methods of prevention and therapy supporting pharmacotherapy are constantly being sought out. The properties of propolis may be important in the prevention and treatment of respiratory tract diseases caused by viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, influenza viruses, the parainfluenza virus and rhinoviruses. One of the main challenges in recent years has been severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing COVID-19. Recently, an increasing number of studies are focusing on the activity of various propolis preparations against SARS-CoV-2 as an adjuvant treatment for this infection. Propolis has shown a few key mechanisms of anti-SARS-CoV-2 action such as: the inhibition of the interaction of the S1 spike protein and ACE-2 protein; decreasing the replication of viruses by diminishing the synthesis of RNA transcripts in cells; decreasing the particles of coronaviruses. The anti-viral effect is observed not only with extracts but also with the single biologically active compounds found in propolis (e.g., apigenin, caffeic acid, chrysin, kaempferol, quercetin). Moreover, propolis is effective in the treatment of hyperglycemia, which increases the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infections. The aim of the literature review was to summarize recent studies from the PubMed database evaluating the antiviral activity of propolis extracts in terms of prevention and the therapy of respiratory tract diseases (in vitro, in vivo, clinical trials). Based upon this review, it was found that in recent years studies have focused mainly on the assessment of the effectiveness of propolis and its chemical components against COVID-19. Propolis exerts wide-spectrum antimicrobial activities; thus, propolis extracts can be an effective option in the prevention and treatment of co-infections associated with diseases of the respiratory tract.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Própole , Infecções Respiratórias , Viroses , Vírus , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Própole/farmacologia , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Antivirais/química , Vírus/metabolismo , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Arch Virol ; 168(2): 35, 2023 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609628

RESUMO

Mosquitoes and EDTA-treated blood samples from febrile racehorses were investigated for Getah virus infection from 2016 to 2019 at the Miho Training Center, where several outbreaks of Getah virus have occurred. We collected 5557 mosquitoes and 331 blood samples from febrile horses in this study. The most frequently captured mosquito species was Culex tritaeniorhynchus (51.9%), followed by Aedes vexans nipponii (14.2%) and Anopheles sinensis (11.2%). Getah virus was detected in mosquitoes (Aedes vexans nipponii) in 2016 (strain 16-0810-26) but not in 2017-2019. Six of 74 febrile horses in 2016 and one of 69 in 2019 tested positive for Getah virus; none of the horses tested positive in 2017 or 2018. Phylogenetic and sequence analysis showed that strain 16-0810-26 was closely related to strains that had been isolated from horses and a pig around the training center in 2014-2016 but have not been detected in samples collected at the training center since 2017. In contrast, the strain isolated from the infected horse in 2019 (19-I-703) was genetically distinct from the strains isolated from horses and a pig in 2014-2016 and was more closely related to a strain isolated in 1978 at the training center. The source of strain 19-I-703 is unclear, but the virus was not detected in other horses sampled in 2019. In summary, we found that the distribution of mosquito species present at the training center had not changed significantly since 1979, and although a small outbreak of Getah virus infection occurred among horses at the training center in 2016, limited Getah virus activity was detected in mosquitoes and horses at the training center from 2017 to 2019.


Assuntos
Aedes , Alphavirus , Viroses , Cavalos , Animais , Suínos , Japão/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Viroses/epidemiologia
13.
J Biomed Sci ; 30(1): 5, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653801

RESUMO

Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic cellular process that exerts antiviral functions during a viral invasion. However, co-evolution and co-adaptation between viruses and autophagy have armed viruses with multiple strategies to subvert the autophagic machinery and counteract cellular antiviral responses. Specifically, the host cell quickly initiates the autophagy to degrade virus particles or virus components upon a viral infection, while cooperating with anti-viral interferon response to inhibit the virus replication. Degraded virus-derived antigens can be presented to T lymphocytes to orchestrate the adaptive immune response. Nevertheless, some viruses have evolved the ability to inhibit autophagy in order to evade degradation and immune responses. Others induce autophagy, but then hijack autophagosomes as a replication site, or hijack the secretion autophagy pathway to promote maturation and egress of virus particles, thereby increasing replication and transmission efficiency. Interestingly, different viruses have unique strategies to counteract different types of selective autophagy, such as exploiting autophagy to regulate organelle degradation, metabolic processes, and immune responses. In short, this review focuses on the interaction between autophagy and viruses, explaining how autophagy serves multiple roles in viral infection, with either proviral or antiviral functions.


Assuntos
Viroses , Vírus , Humanos , Replicação Viral , Autofagia/fisiologia , Antivirais
14.
J Transl Med ; 21(1): 33, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a multifactorial disease with an unexplained aetiology in which viral infections are possible trigger factors. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of human herpesvirus (HHV)-6A/B, HHV-7, and parvovirus B19 (B19V) in the etiopathogenesis of ME/CFS. METHODS: 200 patients with clinically diagnosed ME/CFS and 150 apparently healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. Single-round, nested, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were used to detect the presence and load of HHV-6A/B, HHV-7, and B19V. HHV-6A and HHV-6B were distinguished by PCR and restriction analysis. Immunoenzymatic assays were applied to estimate the presence of virus-specific antibodies and the level of cytokines. RESULTS: HHV-6A/B, HHV-7, and B19V specific antibodies were detected among patients and healthy individuals in 92.1% and 76.7%, 84.6% and 93.8%, and 78% and 67.4% of cases. HHV-6B had 99% of HHV-6 positive patients. Latent HHV-6A/B, HHV-7, and B19V infection/co-infection was observed in 51.5% of the patients and 76.7% of the healthy individuals, whereas active-45% of the ME/CFS patients and 8.7% of healthy individuals. HHV-6A/B load in patients with a persistent infection/co-infection in a latent and active phase was 262 and 653.2 copies/106 cells, whereas HHV-7 load was 166.5 and 248.5 copies/106 cells, and B19V-96.8 and 250.8 copies/106 cells, respectively. ME/CFS patients with persistent infection in an active phase had a higher level of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin(IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α) and IL-12) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) than with a persistent infection in a latent phase. A significant difference was revealed in the levels of TNF-α, IL-12, and IL-10 among the patient groups without infection, with latent infection/co-infection, active single, double and triple co-infection. The levels of TNF-α, IL-12, and IL-10 are significantly higher in patients with severe compared with a moderate course of ME/CFS. CONCLUSIONS: Significantly more persistent HHV-6A/B, HHV-7, and B19V infection/co-infection in an active phase with a higher viral load and elevated levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines among patients with ME/CFS than healthy individuals indicate the importance of these infections/co-infections in ME/CFS development. The presence of these infections/co-infections influences the ME/CFS clinical course severity.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica , Viroses , Humanos , Interleucina-10 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Infecção Persistente , Citocinas , Interleucina-12
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(1): e32586, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607861

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features and risk factors of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) and its effect on pregnancy outcomes. The data from 300 pregnant women with ICP and 300 pregnant women without ICP admitted from July 2015 to December 2016 at Changsha Maternal and Child Health Hospital were collected. The factors associated with ICP were examined. The family history of ICP, twin pregnancies, number of births, hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP), gestational diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hepatitis virus infection, and in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, differed significantly between the 2 groups (all P < .05). The multivariable analysis showed that body mass index at delivery, number of births, HDP, gestational diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hepatitis virus infection were associated with ICP (all P < .05). The incidence of abnormal amniotic fluid and premature births in the ICP group were significantly higher than in the control group (all P < .05). ICP is associated with BMI at delivery, number of births, HDP, gestational diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hepatitis virus infection. ICP greatly influences pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Colestase Intra-Hepática , Diabetes Gestacional , Hepatite , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Complicações na Gravidez , Viroses , Criança , Gravidez , Feminino , Lactente , Humanos , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Colestase Intra-Hepática/complicações , Colestase Intra-Hepática/epidemiologia , Viroses/complicações , Hepatite/complicações
16.
Sci Adv ; 9(3): eadc8728, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662866

RESUMO

Marine coccolithophores are globally distributed, unicellular phytoplankton that produce nanopatterned, calcite biominerals (coccoliths). These biominerals are synthesized internally, deposited into an extracellular coccosphere, and routinely released into the external medium, where they profoundly affect the global carbon cycle. The cellular costs and benefits of calcification remain unresolved. Here, we show observational and experimental evidence, supported by biophysical modeling, that free coccoliths are highly adsorptive biominerals that readily interact with cells to form chimeric coccospheres and with viruses to form "viroliths," which facilitate infection. Adsorption to cells is mediated by organic matter associated with the coccolith base plate and varies with biomineral morphology. Biomineral hitchhiking increases host-virus encounters by nearly an order of magnitude and can be the dominant mode of infection under stormy conditions, fundamentally altering how we view biomineral-cell-virus interactions in the environment.


Assuntos
Haptófitas , Viroses , Humanos , Adsorção , Carbonato de Cálcio , Calcificação Fisiológica
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674550

RESUMO

Viruses share many attributes in common with extracellular vesicles (EVs). The cellular machinery that is used for EV production, packaging of substrates and secretion is also commonly manipulated by viruses for replication, assembly and egress. Viruses can increase EV production or manipulate EVs to spread their own genetic material or proteins, while EVs can play a key role in regulating viral infections by transporting immunomodulatory molecules and viral antigens to initiate antiviral immune responses. Ultimately, the interactions between EVs and viruses are highly interconnected, which has led to interesting discoveries in their associated roles in the progression of different diseases, as well as the new promise of combinational therapeutics. In this review, we summarize the relationships between viruses and EVs and discuss major developments from the past five years in the engineering of virus-EV therapies.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Viroses , Vírus , Humanos , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Viroses/metabolismo , Antivirais/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674671

RESUMO

Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is a common autoimmune disease, and its prevalence is rapidly increasing. Both genetic and environmental risk factors contribute to the development of HT. Recently, viral infection has been suggested to act as a trigger of HT by eliciting the host immune response and subsequent autoreactivity. We analyzed the features of HT through bioinformatics analysis so as to identify the markers of HT development. We accessed public microarray data of HT patients from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and obtained differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under HT. Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG-pathway-enrichment analyses were performed for functional clustering of our protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Utilizing ranked gene lists, we performed a Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) by using the clusterprofiler R package. By comparing the expression signatures of the huge perturbation database with the queried rank-ordered gene list, a connectivity map (CMap) analysis was performed to screen potential therapeutic targets and agents. The gene expression profile of the HT group was in line with the general characteristics of HT. Biological processes related to the immune response and viral infection pathways were obtained for the upregulated DEGs. The GSEA results revealed activation of autoimmune-disease-related pathways and several viral-infection pathways. Autoimmune-disease and viral-infection pathways were highly interconnected by common genes, while the HLA genes, which are shared by both, were significantly upregulated. The CMap analysis suggested that perturbagens, including SRRM1, NLK, and CCDC92, have the potential to reverse the HT expression profile. Several lines of evidence suggested that viral infection and the host immune response are activated during HT. Viral infection is suspected to act as a key trigger of HT by causing autoimmunity. SRRM1, an alternative splicing factor which responds to viral activity, might serve as potential marker of HT.


Assuntos
Doença de Hashimoto , Viroses , Humanos , Doença de Hashimoto/genética , Transcriptoma , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Viroses/complicações , Viroses/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA , Proteínas Associadas à Matriz Nuclear , Antígenos Nucleares
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674775

RESUMO

The intestinal microflora is extremely important, not only in the processes of absorption, digestion and biosynthesis of vitamins, but also in shaping the immune and cognitive functions of the human body. Several studies demonstrate a correlation between microbiota composition and such events as graft rejection, kidney interstitial fibrosis, urinary tract infections, and diarrhoea or graft tolerance. Some of those changes might be directly linked with pathologies such as colonization with pathogenic bacterial strains. Gut microbiota composition also plays an important role in metabolic complications and viral infections after transplantation. From the other side, gut microbiota might induce graft tolerance by promotion of T and B regulatory cells. Graft tolerance induction is still an extremely important issue regarding transplantology and might allow the reduction or even avoidance of immunosuppressive treatment. Although there is a rising evidence of the pivotal role of gut microbiota in aspects of kidney transplantation there is still a lack of knowledge on the direct mechanisms of microbiota action. Furthermore, some of those negative effects could be reversed by probiotics of faecal microbiota trapoinsplantation. While diabetes and hypertension as well as BKV and CMV viremia are common and important complications of transplantation, both worsening the graft function and causing systemic injuries, it opens up potential clinical treatment options. As has been also suggested in the current review, some bacterial subsets exhibit protective properties. However, currently, there is a lack of evidence on pro- and prebiotic supplementation in kidney transplant patients. In the current review, we describe the effect of the microbiota on the transplanted kidney in renal transplant recipients.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Transplante de Rim , Viroses , Humanos , Rim , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores , Bactérias
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36675197

RESUMO

The tripartite motif protein 21 (TRIM21) belongs to the TRIM family, possessing an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Similar to other TRIMs, TRIM21 also contains three domains (named RBCC), including the Really Interesting New Gene (RING) domain, one or two B-Box domains (B-Box), and one PRY/SPRY domain. Notably, we found that the RING and B-Box domains are relatively more conservative than the PRY/SPRY domain, suggesting that TRIM21 of different species had similar functions. Recent results showed that TRIM21 participates in virus infection by directly interacting with viral proteins or modulating immune and inflammatory responses. TRIM21 also acts as a cytosol high-affinity antibody Fc receptor, binding to the antibody-virus complex and triggering an indirect antiviral antibody-dependent intracellular neutralization (ADIN). This paper focuses on the recent progress in the mechanism of TRIM21 during virus infection and the application prospects of TRIM21 on virus infection.


Assuntos
Viroses , Humanos , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/genética , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/metabolismo , Viroses/genética , Viroses/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
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